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See detailDevelopmental profiles of GFAP-positive astrocytes in sheep cerebellum
Salouci, Moustafa ULg; Antoine, Nadine ULg; Shikh Al Sook, Mohamad Khir ULg et al

in Veterinary Research Communications (2014)

Astroglial account for the largest glial population in the brain and play a variety of vital functions in the development of the central nervous system (CNS). An immunohistochemical study was performed in ... [more ▼]

Astroglial account for the largest glial population in the brain and play a variety of vital functions in the development of the central nervous system (CNS). An immunohistochemical study was performed in 19 ovine foetuses ranging from two to five months of gestation, one newborn lamb and three adult sheep. Using the anit-glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) marker, several variations were found in the degree of GFAP positive (GFAP+) astrocyte distribution between the different zones in the cerebellum of sheep during brain development. Our study indicates that the first appearance of astrocytes from restricted zones in the cerebellum occurs around the eighth week of gestation. Bergmann cells were found to be present from around the 15th week of gestation onwards. Our findings suggest that the maturation of astrocytes begins in the caudal parts of the cerebellum, developing from their initial ventral regions to spread first to dorsal regions radially within the white matter, then followed by the more rostral parts of the cerebellum. Astrocytes were also found to proliferate in the vermis before appearing in the cerebellar hemispheres. [less ▲]

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See detailColl2-1, Coll2-1NO2 and myeloperoxidase concentrations in the synovial fluid of equine tarsocrural joints affected with osteochondrosis.
Verwilghen, Denis ULg; Martens, Ann; Busschers, Evita et al

in Veterinary Research Communications (2011), 35(7), 401-8

The measurement of biomarkers that reflect cartilage breakdown is a powerful tool for investigating joint damage caused by disease or injury. Particularly in cases of osteochondrosis, synovial ... [more ▼]

The measurement of biomarkers that reflect cartilage breakdown is a powerful tool for investigating joint damage caused by disease or injury. Particularly in cases of osteochondrosis, synovial concentrations of these biomarkers may reveal the presence of osteoarthritic changes. Coll2-1, Coll2-1 NO2 and myeloperoxidase have recently been introduced in equine osteoarticular research but comparison between the concentrations of these markers in OCD affected and healthy joints has not been made. Therefore, this study aimed at reporting the synovial concentrations of these biomarkers in joints affected with osteochondral fragments in the tarsocrural joint compared to unaffected joints. Myeloperoxidase and Coll2-1NO2 revealed to have similar levels between affected joints and controls. However, in contrast to previous studies using C2C the present study demonstrated that synovial levels of Coll2-1 were significantly elevated in tarsocrural joints affected with osteochondrosis. Thus, Coll2-1 may be an earlier marker of cartilage degeneration than other cartilage degradation markers that have been previously used in equine medicine. [less ▲]

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See detailEpizootic rabbit enteropathy inoculum (TEC4) antibiograms and antibiotic fractionation
Huybens, Nathalie ULg; Houeix, Julien ULg; Licois, Dominique et al

in Veterinary Research Communications (2011), 35

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See detailAge-dependent prevalence of equid herpesvirus 5 infection
Marenzoni, M. L.; Coppola, G.; Maranesi, M. et al

in Veterinary Research Communications (2010), 34

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See detailVariations of plasmatic concentrations of Insulin-like Growth Factor-I in post-pubescent horses affected with developmental osteochondral lesions.
Verwilghen, Denis ULg; Vander Heyden, Laurent ULg; Franck, Thierry ULg et al

in Veterinary Research Communications (2009)

Developmental osteochondral lesions are often encountered in the equine population and are a major cause of lameness. Different growth factors that act systemically as well as locally regulate the growth ... [more ▼]

Developmental osteochondral lesions are often encountered in the equine population and are a major cause of lameness. Different growth factors that act systemically as well as locally regulate the growth of cartilage. Among them is Insulin-like Growth Factor I that has been demonstrated to promote chondrocyte growth and differentiation and that has been shown to influence cartilage repair. The aims of this study were to investigate differences in circulating plasma levels of Insulin-like Growth Factor-I in post-pubescent horses affected with developmental osteochondral lesions compared to unaffected ones. Significantly higher values of circulating Insulin-like Growth Factor-I levels were found in the affected group (n = 82) compared to controls (n = 86). This result may still reflect an earlier imbalance in IGF-I levels from horses with developmental osteochondral lesions considering the aetiopathological link which has been made between IGF-I and the occurrence of osteochondrosis. However, other studies have shown increased expression of IGF-I after cartilage damage. The higher levels found in this study could be due to a healing response of the cartilage to the damage caused by the osteochondral lesions. [less ▲]

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See detailPlasma concentrations of a type II collagen-derived peptide and its nitrated form in growing ardenner sound horses and in horses suffering from juvenile digital degenerative osteoarthropathy
Lejeune, Jean-Philippe ULg; Serteyn, Didier ULg; Gangl, Monika et al

in Veterinary Research Communications (2007), 31(5), 591-601

Several breeds of draft horses suffer from degenerative digital osteoarthropathy, resulting in a reduced active lifespan. A group of 30 Ardenner horses was followed, in standardized conditions, from 15 to ... [more ▼]

Several breeds of draft horses suffer from degenerative digital osteoarthropathy, resulting in a reduced active lifespan. A group of 30 Ardenner horses was followed, in standardized conditions, from 15 to 28 months of age to detect the early manifestations of the disease. The severity of the disease was assessed according to a personal grading system including clinical and radiographic items. Coll 2-1, a peptide of the helical region of type II collagen, and its nitrated form (Coll 2-1 NO2) were assayed in blood plasma collected at 452 +/- 18 days, 504 +/- 20 days, 558 +/- 18 days, 613 +/- 19 days, 675 +/- 19 days, 752 +/- 21 days and 852 +/- 19 days of age. At the end of the follow-up period, 53.3% of Ardenner horses were affected by a degenerative digital osteoarthropathy. A significant effect (p < 0.05) of time, sex and pathology was observed for Coll 2-1 NO2. Variations of Coll 2-1 were not significant except for the time effect. The elevation of Coll 2-1 NO2 in the pathological group could indicate an inflammatory process during the growth of the affected horses, as nitration of tyrosine is mediated through reactive oxygen/nitrogen species and/or myeloperoxidase activity. Coll 2-1 NO2 appears to be an interesting early marker of cartilage degradation and oxidation in degenerative osteoarthropathy. [less ▲]

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See detailPlasma concentration of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in growing Ardenner horses suffering from juvenile digital degenerative osteoarthropathy
Lejeune, Jean-Philippe ULg; Franck, Thierry ULg; Gangl, Monika et al

in Veterinary Research Communications (2007), 31(2), 185-195

Degenerative osteoarthropathy resulting in a reduced active lifespan was observed in Ardenner horses. In the context of joint biology, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is a potential candidate to ... [more ▼]

Degenerative osteoarthropathy resulting in a reduced active lifespan was observed in Ardenner horses. In the context of joint biology, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is a potential candidate to affect the anabolism of cartilage matrix molecules. A group of 30 Ardenner horses reared under standardized conditions from weaning were evaluated periodically from 15 to 28 months of age to detect the early manifestations of the disease. At the end of this period, horses were classified in two pathological groups related to the degree of interphalangeal degenerative osteoarthropathy based on clinical and radiographic evaluations: healthy (46.7%) and pathological (53.3%) horses. Seven sequential blood samples were taken from each horse (during the evaluation period) to study the variation of IGF-I plasma concentration. We tested the variations of the IGF-I plasma concentration during growth, and the effect of sex and of pathological classes. Significant variations were observed during the research period, with a maximum value corresponding to spring and a minimum in autumn. A significant reduction of the IGF-I plasma concentration was also observed in the pathological horses (433.5 +/- 19.5 ng/ml) compared to the healthy horses (493.9 +/- 18.2 ng/ml). An alteration in the level of this growth factor could induce a disregulation of the mechanisms involved in the local control of joint and bone tissue development. [less ▲]

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See detailSurvey of gastric lesions and blood pepsinogen levels in pigs in Burkina Faso
Banga-Mboko, H.; Tamboura, H.; Maes, D. et al

in Veterinary Research Communications (2003), 27(8), 595-602

The purpose of the study was to investigate the prevalence of gastric lesions and to provide diagnostic values for serum pepsinogen in non-infected pigs and in pigs with gastric disease. In an abattoir ... [more ▼]

The purpose of the study was to investigate the prevalence of gastric lesions and to provide diagnostic values for serum pepsinogen in non-infected pigs and in pigs with gastric disease. In an abattoir survey, the pepsinogen concentrations were measured in the serum from 62 non-infected pigs, 33 pigs with gastric lesions and 17 pigs infected with Hyostrongylus rubidus, using a specific radioimmunoassay (RIA). The mean (+/-SE) pepsinogen concentrations in the serum of non-infected pigs, in pigs with gastric ulcers, and in pigs with a heavy H. rubidus infection were 630.8 +/- 39.2 ng/ml, 1084.5 +/- 166.2 ng/ml and 1095.2 +/- 102.3 ng/ml, respectively (p < 0.05). Because of the higher concentrations of pepsinogen in the blood of pigs with gastric ulcers or parasitic infections, it is suggested that the measurement of serum pepsinogen by RIA may be an effective biochemical approach to the diagnosis of chronic gastric disorders in pigs. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of sampling procedures for isolating pulmonary mycoplasmas in cattle
Thomas, Anne; Dizier, Isabelle ULg; Trolin, A. et al

in Veterinary Research Communications (2002), 26(5), 333-339

Three sampling procedures were compared to determine the optimal technique for isolating mycoplasmas in cattle with respiratory diseases. The prevalence of mycoplasmas isolated from these animals is also ... [more ▼]

Three sampling procedures were compared to determine the optimal technique for isolating mycoplasmas in cattle with respiratory diseases. The prevalence of mycoplasmas isolated from these animals is also reported. In the first group, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and nasal swab cultures were compared with the corresponding lung cultures from cattle necropsied for fatal respiratory diseases (n = 20). In a second group, nasal swabs were compared with corresponding BAL cultures in living animals with recurrent respiratory pathologies (n = 49). There was complete agreement between the paired BAL and lung cultures. In contrast, nasal cultures were not representative of the mycoplasmas present in the lower respiratory airways. The relative sensitivity and specificity of the nasal swab technique compared to BAL in living animals confirmed that the nasal swab cultures were not predictive of lower respiratory airway pathogens, such as Mycoplasma bovis. BAL is considered to be the best method for isolating M. bovis in cattle with respiratory diseases as it combines reliability and feasibility under field sampling conditions. In the present study, Mycoplasma dispar (43%) and M. bovis (29%) were mainly isolated in mixed infections. This confirms the need to search for mycoplasmas in routine examinations and to take them into account in therapeutic strategies for respiratory diseases in cattle. [less ▲]

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See detailDemonstration of generalized infection with caprine herpesvirus 1 diagnosed in an aborted caprine fetus by PCR
Keuser, V.; Gogev, S.; Schynts, F. et al

in Veterinary Research Communications (2002), 26(3), 221-226

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See detailMorphometrical study of the equine navicular bone: age-related changes and influence of exercise
Gabriel, Annick ULg; Detilleux, Johann ULg; Jolly, Sandra ULg et al

in Veterinary Research Communications (1999), 23(1), 15-40

Navicular bones from the four limbs of 95 horses, classified in 9 categories, were studied. The effects of age on navicular bone morphometry and histomorphometry were estimated, after adjustment of the ... [more ▼]

Navicular bones from the four limbs of 95 horses, classified in 9 categories, were studied. The effects of age on navicular bone morphometry and histomorphometry were estimated, after adjustment of the data to even out the effects of front and rear limbs, morphometrical type, sex, weight, and size. All the external measurements of the navicular bone decreased significantly with increasing age. From the histomorphometrical data, cortical bone volume decreased with age in most horses, whereas cancellous bone volume and, in particular, the marrow spaces increased. The increase in the cancellous bone volume could have resulted from tunnelling of the internal part of the cortex, which converted it progressively into a porous trabecular-like structure. Trabecular bone volume also decreased with age and the trabecular lattice changed dramatically to become disconnected in aged horses. These observations corresponded closely to those reported for ageing of the skeletal system in humans. However, in sporting horses, the navicular cortical bone volume increased with age and the cancellous bone volume decreased. Exercise appeared to have decreased bone resorption and increased bone formation at the endocortical junction. The cancellous bone architecture was also improved. in that the trabecular lattice and trabecular bone volume remained unchanged in aged sporting horses. Our findings confirmed that exercise may be good practice to prevent age-related bone loss. [less ▲]

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See detailProtective Effects of Web 2086 (Paf Antagonist) and Ketoprofen (Nsaid) on Paf-Induced Changes in the Morphological Ultrastructure of Blood Platelets in Calves
Bastos da Silva, Miriam; Doizé, Cécile ULg; Coghe, Joost et al

in Veterinary Research Communications (1998), 22(4), 273-291

The ultrastructure of bovine platelets was examined by transmission electron microscopy without any pretreatment (control), and after WEB 2086 (a triazolodiazepine) or ketoprofen (NSAID) pretreatment ... [more ▼]

The ultrastructure of bovine platelets was examined by transmission electron microscopy without any pretreatment (control), and after WEB 2086 (a triazolodiazepine) or ketoprofen (NSAID) pretreatment, followed by PAF infusion. The blood platelet count was also investigated. The group of calves that received WEB 2086 pretreatment before platelet-activating factor (PAF) infusion did not show a decreased number of platelets. However, in the other group, with ketoprofen pretreatment before PAF infusion, there was a rapid decrease from 1 to 3 min, while from 5 min the number of platelets recovered to the normal value. Electron microscopy revealed that pretreatment with WEB 2086 followed by PAF infusion did not alter the morphological ultrastructure of bovine platelets, except that the microtubules were briefly modified from 1 until 3 min after PAF challenge. After ketoprofen pretreatment, bovine platelets kept their regular shape, the number of dense bodies was not significantly altered, the number of mitochondria was maintained from 5 min after PAF infusion, giant platelets were not observed and the Golgi apparatus was rarely visible. Thus pretreatment with WEB 2086 and ketoprofen before PAF infusion had a protective activity on the ultrastructure of bovine platelets and, in cattle, pretreatment with WEB 2086 and ketoprofen before PAF challenge prevented the thrombocytopenia induced by PAF. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Effects of Hypertonic Saline in Healthy and Diseased Animals
Cambier, Carole ULg; Ratz, V.; Rollin, Frédéric ULg et al

in Veterinary Research Communications (1997), 21(5), 303-316

In this review, the pharmacological effects of administering hypertonic solutions to both healthy animals and during experimentally induced diseases are considered with a view to understanding the ... [more ▼]

In this review, the pharmacological effects of administering hypertonic solutions to both healthy animals and during experimentally induced diseases are considered with a view to understanding the mechanisms behind the possible clinical efficacy of such treatment. The review focuses successively on haemorrhagic shock, endotoxic shock and hypokalaemic metabolic alkalosis. How hypertonic saline solutions affect oxygen transport by haemoglobin is also considered. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Effect of Intravenous Administration of Web 2086 on Paf-Induced Platelet Aggregation in Healthy Friesian Calves
Bastos da Silva, Miriam; Gustin, Pascal ULg; Herion, Francine ULg et al

in Veterinary Research Communications (1997), 21(7), 521-531

The in vivo ability of the specific PAF-antagonist WEB 2086, a thienotriazolodiazepine, to inhibit platelet-activating factor (PAF) in cattle was investigated by in vitro determination of platelet ... [more ▼]

The in vivo ability of the specific PAF-antagonist WEB 2086, a thienotriazolodiazepine, to inhibit platelet-activating factor (PAF) in cattle was investigated by in vitro determination of platelet aggregation curves. WEB 2086 was infused intravenously into a group of 5 healthy male Friesian calves in a dose of 3 mg/kg over 1 min. The resultant inhibition peaked between 30 min and 1 h after administration of WEB 2086. The inhibition was significantly reduced after 3 h and became non-significant after 6 h, but maximal pre-treatment aggregation had not been restored by 24 h after the injection of WEB 2086. These results confirm previous results obtained in vitro and suggest that WEB 2086 is a potent antagonist of PAF activity in calves. They also suggest that further clinical studies with WEB 2086 in cattle are desirable. [less ▲]

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See detailRuminal, cardiorespiratory and adrenocortical sequelae of Na2EDTA-induced hypocalcemia in calves
Desmecht, Daniel ULg; Linden, Annick ULg; Lekeux, Pierre ULg

in Veterinary Research Communications (1996), 20

A study was undertaken to provide further information on the ruminal, cardiorespiratory and hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPAC) physiological sequelae of hypocalcaemia in dairy calves. The ... [more ▼]

A study was undertaken to provide further information on the ruminal, cardiorespiratory and hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPAC) physiological sequelae of hypocalcaemia in dairy calves. The functional picture observed in standing calves experiencing Na2EDTA-induced progressive hypocalcaemia showed a biphasic pattern. During the first phase (Ca2+ varying between 1.20 +/- 0.09 and 0.64 +/- 0.15 mmol/L, mean +/- SD), the animals became dull and lethargic, shifting their weight from one hind limb to the other, with cool extremities and hypersalivation. Their ventilation was slightly increased but their heart rate, thoracoabdominal pressure, pulmonary mechanics, haemoglobin and temperature remained constant. Conversely, their systemic arterial pressure (SAP) and the amplitude of their ruminal contractions (RCA) were severely decreased. During the second phase (Ca2+ < 0.64 +/- 0.15 mmol/L), there was restlessness, tachycardia, hypertension, polycythaemia and, finally, inability to stay upright. It is suggested that the diminished Ca2+ availability caused smooth-muscle and myocardial dysfunctions which could explain the RCA and SAP changes recorded during the first phase, whereas neural and/or humoral sympathetic discharge probably accounted for the reversal in SAP and heart rate when Ca2+ was decreased further. Serum cortisol increased regularly and remained significantly correlated with Ca2+ in each animal. Moreover, regression of delta cortisol/delta Ca2+ on delta Ca2+/delta Na2EDTA was significant (p < or = 0.001). It was concluded that mild asymptomatic hypocalcaemia severely impairs ruminal function, which will progressively worsen the Ca2+ deficit; that the inability to maintain posture in hypocalcaemia is not due to hypotension; and that the higher the HPAC response to hypocalcaemia, the higher the resistance to its effects. An asymptomatic periparturient cow with barely detectable ruminal activity may merit preventive calcium borogluconate therapy. Also, the physiological role of hypotension in explaining the clinical picture may be less important than other processes, such as neuromuscular failure. Finally, the present results imply a possible HPAC exhaustion in cows with periparturient paretic hypocalcaemia [less ▲]

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See detailRelationship of Plasma Lactate Production to Cortisol Release Following Completion of Different Types of Sporting Events in Horses
Desmecht, Daniel ULg; Linden, Annick ULg; Amory, Hélène ULg et al

in Veterinary Research Communications (1996), 20(4), 371-379

Fifty-eight healthy horses were studied during five sporting events of various intensities and durations, namely show-jumping (n = 6), cross-country in a three-day event (n = 30), trotting races (n = 7 ... [more ▼]

Fifty-eight healthy horses were studied during five sporting events of various intensities and durations, namely show-jumping (n = 6), cross-country in a three-day event (n = 30), trotting races (n = 7), galloping races (n = 7) and endurance rides (n = 8). Venous blood samples were collected at rest and immediately after exercise and analysed for plasma cortisol (CORT) and lactate (LA) levels. The experimental procedure was the same throughout the investigation so as to permit a reliable comparison between the five types of exercise. The type of event significantly affected both the resting (p < or = 0.05) and the post-exercise (p < or = 0.01) plasma CORT. The degree of exercise-induced hypercortisolaemia was related to both the intensity and the duration of exercise for all five sporting events, but the endurance ride induced the most and show-jumping the least serious post-exercise CORT changes. LA production was much more closely related to the intensity of the exercise than was CORT. It is concluded that simultaneous measurements of plasma CORT and LA levels may be useful to discriminate between different types of exercise, adjust training programmes, and improve our comprehension of the physiology of sport horses at exercise. [less ▲]

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See detailA Morphometric and Functional Study of the Toxicity of Atmospheric Ammonia in the Extrathoracic Airways in Pigs
Urbain, B.; Gustin, Pascal ULg; Charlier, G. et al

in Veterinary Research Communications (1996), 20(4), 381-399

The effects of atmospheric ammonia (NH3) on the nasal and tracheal mucosa of pigs were investigated by morphometric and functional methods. Pigs were exposed to four concentrations of NH3 [5 (control), 25 ... [more ▼]

The effects of atmospheric ammonia (NH3) on the nasal and tracheal mucosa of pigs were investigated by morphometric and functional methods. Pigs were exposed to four concentrations of NH3 [5 (control), 25, 50 and 100 ppm] for 6 days in a specially designed air-pollutant exposure chamber. Samples were taken from the turbinates and the trachea, and the respiratory mucosa was examined by light and scanning electron microscopy. Dose-response curves to carbachol and isoproterenol were constructed using isolated strips of tracheal smooth muscle, with or without epithelium. In pigs exposed to ammonia, considerable mucosal injuries were observed in the turbinates but not in the trachea. The number of neutrophils in the epithelial layer and in the lamina propria, and epithelial hyperplasia were closely and significantly correlated with the concentrations of ammonia (r = 0.894, p < 0.001; r = 0.727, P < 0.001; and r = 0.818, p < 0.001, respectively). Except for the lamina propria, all these changes were significant (p < 0.05) at ammonia concentrations as low as 25 ppm. The percentage of the surface of the turbinate mucosa that was ciliated tended to decrease with increasing ammonia concentration (r = 0.439, p < 0.082). Ammonia induced smooth-muscle hyperresponsiveness to carbachol with a close linear correlation between individual values of the carbachol-induced maximal effect and the NH3 concentrations (r = 0.526, p < 0.003). While mechanical destruction of the epithelium induced an increase in Emax in the control group, no difference was observed between the intact and denuded strips from animals exposed to ammonia. The response to isoproterenol was not influenced by ammonia. It was concluded that quantitative histological analysis of the inflammatory infiltration and epithelial hyperplasia in the turbinates is a useful tool for quantifying the effects of atmospheric pollutants in pigs; a 6-day exposure to ammonia induces nasal irritation and functional disturbances of the tracheal smooth-muscle contractions at concentrations as low as 25 ppm [less ▲]

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See detailPlasma Hormones and Metabolites in Cattle in Relation to Breed (Belgian Blue Vs Holstein) and Conformation (Double-Muscled Vs Dual-Purpose Type)
Clinquart, Antoine ULg; Van Eenaeme, Christian ULg; Mayombo, A. P. et al

in Veterinary Research Communications (1995), 19(3), 185-94

Four Belgian Blue double-muscled type (BBDM) bulls, four Belgian Blue dual-purpose type (BBDP) bulls and four Holstein bulls were used in a fattening trial in order to relate differences in the extent of ... [more ▼]

Four Belgian Blue double-muscled type (BBDM) bulls, four Belgian Blue dual-purpose type (BBDP) bulls and four Holstein bulls were used in a fattening trial in order to relate differences in the extent of muscle development and adiposity to differences in digestibility, endocrine status, protein and lipid metabolism. The larger muscle development in BBDM animals was associated with a trend to higher nitrogen retention, higher food conversion efficiency (p < 0.05) and lower apparent digestibility (p < 0.05). No difference was found between the groups for plasma glucose concentration. Higher creatinine, lower alpha-amino nitrogen, lower triglycerides and higher non-esterified fatty acid plasma levels were observed in BBDM as compared to Holstein bulls (p < 0.05), the BBDP group being intermediate. A trend to a higher cholesterol plasma level was found in BBDM animals. There was no difference between the three groups in plasma fatty acid composition, except for the C14:0 content. Some of the differences in plasma metabolites were related to carcass composition and endocrine regulation, a decrease in muscle development and an increase in adiposity being associated with lower growth hormone production (p < 0.05) and higher insulin (p < 0.05) and IGF secretions. The insulin/growth hormone ratio at the end of the fattening period was 0.0011, 0.0018 and 0.0069 in BBDM, BBDP and Holstein bulls, respectively, and was directly associated with fat deposition. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasurement of Total Respiratory Impedance in Dogs by the Forced Oscillation Technique
Clercx, Cécile ULg; Gustin, Pascal ULg; Landser, F. J. et al

in Veterinary Research Communications (1993), 17(3), 227-239

The resistance (Rrs) and reactance (Xrs) of the total respiratory system were determined at various frequencies in 14 healthy conscious beagle dogs. A pseudorandom noise pressure wave was produced at the ... [more ▼]

The resistance (Rrs) and reactance (Xrs) of the total respiratory system were determined at various frequencies in 14 healthy conscious beagle dogs. A pseudorandom noise pressure wave was produced at the nostrils of the animals by means of a loudspeaker adapted to the nose by a tightly fitting mask. A Fourier analysis of the pressure and flow signals yielded mean Rrs and Xrs, over 16 s, at frequencies from 2 to 26 Hz. The influence of the posture of the dog, the position of its head, the linearity of the respiratory system, the reproducibility of the method and the effects of upper and lower airway obstructions were studied. In sitting and standing healthy dogs with the head in the extended position, Rrs values increased progressively with frequency from 5.4 +/- 0.4 (SEM) cmH2O L-1s at 6 Hz up to 8.8 +/- 0.7 cmH2O L-1s at 26 Hz, the mean resonant frequency being 6.1 +/- 0.5 Hz. No significant differences were observed between measurements performed with the head in the normal or the extended position. In a recumbent posture, all Rrs values were increased but Rrs was still dependent on the frequency in the same way (7.1 +/- 0.7 cmH2O L-1s at 6Hz up to 10.0 +/- 0.5 cmH2O L-1s at 26 Hz). Tracheal compression also induced higher Rrs values without changes in the frequency dependence or in the resonant frequency. In anaesthetized dogs, airway obstruction was induced by inhalation of histamine (4 mg/ml for 5 min; the Rrs values tended to decrease with increasing frequency, and the resonant frequency was markedly increased [less ▲]

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See detailPermeability of the Endothelium and Partitioning of the Pulmonary Blood Flow Resistance in Isolated Perfused Pig Lungs: Effects of Breed and Age
Gustin, Pascal ULg; Urbain, B.; Delaunois, Annie et al

in Veterinary Research Communications (1992), 16(1), 69-82

The right and left lungs of 5 healthy Minipigs and of 13 healthy Landrace piglets were isolated, perfused at constant pressure and maintained in an isogravimetric state under zone III conditions ... [more ▼]

The right and left lungs of 5 healthy Minipigs and of 13 healthy Landrace piglets were isolated, perfused at constant pressure and maintained in an isogravimetric state under zone III conditions (pulmonary venous pressure greater than alveolar pressure). By applying the double, arterial and venous, occlusion technique, the total blood flow resistance (R) was partitioned into four components: arterial (Ra), pre- (Ra') and post-capillary (Rv') and venous (Rv). The capillary filtration coefficient (Kf,c) was evaluated by measuring the weight gained by the lungs when the arterial and venous pressures were suddenly increased. In the youngest Landrace piglets (5 weeks old), there was an uncontrolled vasoconstriction which sometimes prevented perfusion of the lungs and induced a large increase in Rt. These high values of Rt were decreased by tolazoline administration. The values of Rt recorded in older pigs (12-13 weeks old) were lower in Minipigs (33.66 +/- 3.77 cmH2O min L-1 per 100 g of lungs; n = 5) than in Landrace piglets (55.20 +/- 6.18 cmH2O min L-1 per 100 g; n = 5). This breed difference was due to the differences in Ra' and Rv'. The mean values of Kf,c were 0.193 +/- 0.015 and 0.202 +/- 0.029 ml min (cmH2O)-1 per 100 g of the lungs in Minipigs and Landrace piglets respectively. All these parameters were stable for the 3 hours following the equilibrium period. It was concluded that: (1) There is an age-related maturation of the control of the vasomotor tone in porcine lungs. (2) Pulmonary microvascular haemodynamics are influenced by the breed of the pigs. (3) There was no difference in the Kf,c values between both the breeds. (4) A comparison of the values reported for dogs and rabbits with our data shows that the pre- and post-capillary resistances and, to a lesser extent, the arterial and venous resistances are relatively high in pigs [less ▲]

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