References of "Veterinary Anaesthesia & Analgesia"
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See detailComparison of clinical effects of epidural levobupivacaine morphine versus bupivacaine morphine in dogs undergoing elective pelvic limb surgery
Cerasoli, Ilaria; Tutunaru, Alexandru-Cosmin ULg; Cenani, Alessia et al

in Veterinary Anaesthesia & Analgesia (2017)

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See detailVentilation distribution assessed with electrical impedance tomography and the influence of tidal volume, recruitment and positive end-expiratory pressure in isoflurane-anesthetized dogs.
Ambrosio, Aline M.; Carvalho-Kamakura, Tatiana P. A.; Ida, Keila ULg et al

in Veterinary Anaesthesia & Analgesia (2017), 44(2), 254-263

OBJECTIVE: To examine the intrapulmonary gas distribution of low and high tidal volumes (VT) and to investigate whether this is altered by an alveolar recruitment maneuver (ARM) and 5 cmH2O positive end ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: To examine the intrapulmonary gas distribution of low and high tidal volumes (VT) and to investigate whether this is altered by an alveolar recruitment maneuver (ARM) and 5 cmH2O positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) during anesthesia. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective randomized clinical study. ANIMALS: Fourteen client-owned bitches weighing 26 +/- 7 kg undergoing elective ovariohysterectomy. METHODS: Isoflurane-anesthetized dogs in dorsal recumbency were ventilated with 0 cmH2O PEEP and pressure-controlled ventilation by adjusting the peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) to achieve a low (7 mL kg-1; n = 7) or a high (12 mL kg-1; n = 7) VT. Ninety minutes after induction (T90), an ARM (PIP 20 cmH2O for 10 seconds, twice with a 10 second interval) was performed followed by the application of 5 cmH2O PEEP for 35 minutes (RM35). The vertical (ventral=0%; dorsal=100%) and horizontal (right=0%; left=100%) center of ventilation (CoV), four regions of interest (ROI) (ventral, central-ventral, central-dorsal, dorsal) identified in electrical impedance tomography images, and cardiopulmonary data were analyzed using two-way repeated measures anova. RESULTS: The low VT was centered in more ventral (nondependent) areas compared with high VT at T90 (CoV: 38.8 +/- 2.5% versus 44.6 +/- 7.2%; p = 0.0325). The ARM and PEEP shifted the CoV towards dorsal (dependent) areas only during high VT (50.5 +/- 7.9% versus 41.1 +/- 2.8% during low VT, p = 0.0108), which was more distributed to the central-dorsal ROI compared with low VT (p = 0.0046). The horizontal CoV was centrally distributed and cardiovascular variables remained unchanged throughout regardless of the VT, ARM, and PEEP. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Both low and high VT were poorly distributed to dorsal dependent regions, where ventilation was improved following the current ARM and PEEP only during high VT. Studies on the role of high VT on pulmonary complications are required. [less ▲]

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See detailSevoflurane inhibits equine myeloperoxidase release and activity in vitro.
MINGUET, Grégory ULg; de la Rebière de Pouyade, Geoffroy ULg; Franck, Thierry ULg et al

in Veterinary Anaesthesia & Analgesia (2013), 40

Objective To investigate the effects of the volatile anaesthetic sevoflurane on the release of total and active myeloperoxidase (MPO) by non-stimulated and stimulated polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs ... [more ▼]

Objective To investigate the effects of the volatile anaesthetic sevoflurane on the release of total and active myeloperoxidase (MPO) by non-stimulated and stimulated polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) in whole blood from healthy horses. Study design In vitro experimental study. Animals Adult healthy horses. Methods Samples of whole venous blood were collected and incubated in air or in air plus 2.3% or 4.6% sevoflurane for 1 hour. PMNs were stimulated with N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP), with a combination of cytochalasin B (CB) and fMLP or with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). Total and active MPO contents released by PMNs in blood were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and specific immunological extraction followed by enzymatic detection (SIEFED) respectively. Additional experiments were performed to assess the effect of sevoflurane on the peroxidase and chlorination cycles of purified equine MPO using Amplex Red and 3'-(p-aminophenyl) fluorescein as fluorogenic substrates respectively. Results As compared with air alone, 1 hour exposure of whole blood to 4.6% sevoflurane in air significantly inhibited the release of total and active MPO by unstimulated and both fMLP- and CB + fMLP-stimulated PMNs but not by PMA-stimulated PMNs. Although 2.3% sevoflurane had no effect on total MPO release by unstimulated and stimulated PMNs, it significantly reduced the release of active MPO by unstimulated and fMLP-stimulated PMNs. Additionally, sevoflurane reversibly inhibited the activity of MPO, especially the peroxidase cycle of the enzyme. Conclusions and clinical relevance Although our experimental study was not designed to assess the effects of sevoflurane in vivo, this inhibition of MPO release and activity may have relevance for anaesthetized horses and deserves further studies to examine the clinical importance of these findings. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of ephedrine and phenylephrine on cardiopulmonary parameters in horses undergoing elective surgery.
Fantoni, Denise T.; Marchioni, Gabriela G.; Ida, Keila ULg et al

in Veterinary Anaesthesia & Analgesia (2013), 40(4), 367-74

OBJECTIVE: To assess the cardiopulmonary effects of ephedrine and phenylephrine for management of isoflurane-induced hypotension in horses. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective randomized clinical study. ANIMALS ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: To assess the cardiopulmonary effects of ephedrine and phenylephrine for management of isoflurane-induced hypotension in horses. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective randomized clinical study. ANIMALS: Fourteen isoflurane-anesthetized horses undergoing digital palmar neurectomy. METHODS: Ephedrine (EPH group; 0.02 mg kg(-1) minute(-1); n = 7) or phenylephrine (PHE group; 0.002 mg kg(-1) minute(-1); n = 7) was administered to all horses when mean arterial pressure (MAP) was <60 mmHg. The infusions were ended when the target MAP was achieved, corresponding to a 50% increase over the pre-infusion MAP (baseline). The horses were instrumented with an arterial catheter to measure blood pressure and allow the collection of blood for pH and blood-gas analysis and a Swan-Ganz catheter for measurement of cardiac output using thermodilution. Cardiopulmonary parameters were recorded at baseline and at 5, 30, 60 and 90 minutes after achieving the target MAP. RESULTS: In both groups, the MAP and systemic vascular resistance (SVR) increased significantly at 5, 30, 60 and 90 minutes post infusion compared to baseline (p < 0.05). The EPH group had a significant increase in cardiac index (CI) and systemic oxygen delivery index at 5, 30, 60 and 90 minutes post infusion compared to baseline (p < 0.05) and compared to the PHE group (p < 0.05). The PHE group had significantly higher SVR and no decrease in oxygen extraction compared with the EPH group at 30, 60 and 90 minutes post infusion (p < 0.05). No significant differences in ventilatory parameters were observed between groups after the infusion. CONCLUSIONS: Ephedrine increased the MAP by increasing CI and SVR. Phenylephrine increased MAP by increasing SVR but cardiac index decreased. Ephedrine resulted in better tissue oxygenation than phenylephrine. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Ephedrine would be preferable to phenylephrine to treat isoflurane-induced hypotension in horses since it increases blood flow and pressure. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of pressure support ventilation during weaning on ventilation and oxygenation indices in healthy horses recovering from general anesthesia.
Ida, Keila ULg; Fantoni, Denise T.; Souto, Maria T. M. R. et al

in Veterinary Anaesthesia & Analgesia (2013), 40(4), 339-50

OBJECTIVE: To determine if pressure support ventilation (PSV) weaning from general anesthesia affects ventilation or oxygenation in horses. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective randomized clinical study. ANIMALS ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: To determine if pressure support ventilation (PSV) weaning from general anesthesia affects ventilation or oxygenation in horses. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective randomized clinical study. ANIMALS: Twenty client-owned healthy horses aged 5 +/- 2 years, weighing 456 +/- 90 kg. METHODS: In the control group (CG; n = 10) weaning was performed by a gradual decrease in respiratory rate (fR ) and in the PSV group (PSVG; n = 10) by a gradual decrease in fR with PSV. The effect of weaning was considered suboptimal if PaCO2 > 50 mmHg, arterial pH < 7.35 plus PaCO2 > 50 mmHg or PaO2 < 60 mmHg were observed at any time after disconnection from the ventilator until 30 minutes after the horse stood. Threshold values for each index were established and the predictive power of these values was tested. RESULTS: Pressure support ventilation group (PSVG) had (mean +/- SD) pH 7.36 +/- 0.02 and PaCO2 41 +/- 3 mmHg at weaning and the average lowest PaO2 69 +/- 6 mmHg was observed 15 minutes post weaning. The CG had pH 7.32 +/- 0.02 and PaCO2 57 +/- 6 mmHg at weaning and the average lowest PaO2 48 +/- 5 mmHg at 15 minutes post weaning. No accuracy in predicting weaning effect was observed for fR (p = 0.3474), minute volume (p = 0.1153), SaO2 (p = 0.1737) and PaO2 /PAO2 (p = 0.1529). A high accuracy in predicting an optimal effect of weaning was observed for VT > 10 L (p = 0.0001), fR /VT ratio </= 0.60 breaths minute(-1) L(-1) (p = 0.0001), VT /bodyweight > 18.5 mL kg(-1) (p = 0.0001) and PaO2 /FiO2 > 298 (p = 0.0002) at weaning. A high accuracy in predicting a suboptimal effect of weaning was observed for VT < 10 L (p = 0.0001), fR /VT ratio >/= 0.60 breaths minute(-1) L(-1) (p = 0.0001) and Pe'CO2 >/= 38 mmHg (p = 0.0001) at weaning. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Pressure support ventilation (PSV) weaning had a better respiratory outcome. A higher VT , VT /body weight, PaO2 /FiO2 ratio and a lower fR /VT ratio and Pe'CO2 were accurate in predicting the effect of weaning in healthy horses recovering from general anesthesia. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of positive end-expiratory pressure titration on gas exchange, respiratory mechanics and hemodynamics in anesthetized horses.
Ambrosio, Aline M.; Ida, Keila ULg; Souto, Maria Tmr et al

in Veterinary Anaesthesia & Analgesia (2013), 40(6), 564-72

OBJECTIVE: To assess if positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) titration improves gas exchange and respiratory mechanics, without hemodynamic impairment in horses during anesthesia. DESIGN: Prospective ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: To assess if positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) titration improves gas exchange and respiratory mechanics, without hemodynamic impairment in horses during anesthesia. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized study. ANIMALS: Thirteen isoflurane-anesthetized healthy horses. METHODS: After 60 minutes of anesthesia with spontaneous breathing, mechanical ventilation was initiated with an inspiratory-expiratory ratio of 1:2, PEEP of 5 cmH2O, tidal volume of 10-20 mL kg(-1) and respiratory rate adjusted to maintain normocapnia. Constant PEEP of 5 cmH2O was continued (control group; n = 6) or titrated (PEEP group; n = 7) by increasing and decreasing PEEP from 5 to 20 cmH2O at 15-minute intervals. The horses were instrumented with an arterial catheter to measure blood pressure and allow collection of blood for pH and blood gas analysis and a Swan-Ganz catheter for measurement of cardiac output (CO) using thermodilution. Cardiopulmonary assessment was recorded before PEEP titration and after 15 minutes at each PEEP value. RESULTS: In the PEEP group, static compliance (range) (Cst 278-463 mL cmH2O(-1)) was significantly higher and the shunt fraction (Q.s/Q.t 7-20%) and the alveolar-arterial oxygen difference [P(A-a)O2 95-325 mmHg] were significantly lower than in the control group [Cst of 246-290 mL cmH2O(-1), Q.s/Q.t of 16-19%, P(A-a)O2 of 253-310 mmHg; p < 0.05]. CO (mean +/- SEM) was lower in the PEEP group (23 +/- 2 L minute(-1)) at 20 cmH2O PEEP than in the control group (26 +/- 4 L minute(-1), p < 0.05), with no significant changes in heart rate, blood pressure or central venous pressure. CONCLUSIONS: PEEP titration significantly improved gas exchange and lung compliance, with a small decrease in CO at the highest PEEP level. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Gas exchange and respiratory mechanics impairment during inhalation anesthesia can be treated using PEEP titration from 5 to 20 cmH2O, without clinically important hemodynamic effects in healthy horses. [less ▲]

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See detailTramadol plus metamizole combined or not with anti-inflammatory drugs is clinically effective for moderate to severe chronic pain treatment in cancer patients.
Flor, Patricia B.; Yazbek, Karina V. B.; Ida, Keila ULg et al

in Veterinary Anaesthesia & Analgesia (2013), 40(3), 316-27

OBJECTIVE: To test the effectiveness and safety of tramadol plus metamizole combined or not with a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) for treating moderate to severe chronic neoplastic pain in ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: To test the effectiveness and safety of tramadol plus metamizole combined or not with a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) for treating moderate to severe chronic neoplastic pain in dogs, and its impact on quality of life (QL). STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, uncontrolled, open-label, clinical study. ANIMALS: Sixty nine client-owned dogs with multiple forms of cancer and visual analog scale (VAS) pain score >/= 40 after receiving NSAIDs for at least 7 days. METHODS: The MN group received metamizole + NSAID, MNT group received metamizole + NSAID + tramadol and MT group received metamizole + tramadol. Pain was scored by the 0 to 100 mm VAS (0 = no pain, 100 = worst pain) and analgesic therapy was considered effective if 25 mm differences in VAS scores were observed between day 0 and the follow ups. The QL was evaluated according to a 0 to 36 scoring method for dogs (0 = worst, 36 = best) and side effects were recorded. Data were registered at day 0 (baseline) and at the first and second follow ups (7 and 14 days after day 0, respectively). RESULTS: The MN group had less analgesia at day 7 (25%) and day 14 (42%) than MNT (59%, p = 0.0274; 76%, p = 0.0251, respectively) and MT groups (69%, p = 0.0151; 81%, p = 0.0341, respectively). The QL scores were lower in the MN group at the first (score 23) and second follow up (score 26) than in MNT (27, p = 0.0847; 30, p = 0.0002) and MT (28, p = 0.0384; 31, p = 0.0001) groups. Side effects were more commonly observed in the MN group (87%) than in MNT (24%, p < 0.0001) and MT groups (25%, p = 0.0003) at the first follow up. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Tramadol plus metamizole combined or not with NSAID were well tolerated and clinically effective to treat moderate to severe pain in dogs with cancer and improved QL. [less ▲]

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See detailModulating effects of acepromazine on the reactive oxygen species production by stimulated equine neutrophils
Sandersen, Charlotte ULg; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange ULg; de la Rebière de Pouyade, Geoffroy ULg et al

in Veterinary Anaesthesia & Analgesia (2011), 38

To investigate the effect of acepromazine (ACP) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by stimulated equine neutrophils.

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See detailEffects of high and low inspired fractions of oxygen on horse erythrocyte membrane properties, blood viscosity and muscle oxygenation during anaesthesia
Portier, Karine; Crouzier, David; Guichardant, Michel et al

in Veterinary Anaesthesia & Analgesia (2009), 36(4), 287-298

To evaluate whether a period of hyperoxia or after a period of hypoxia produced changes attributable to reactive oxygen species in anaesthetized horses. Prospective randomized experimental study. Six ... [more ▼]

To evaluate whether a period of hyperoxia or after a period of hypoxia produced changes attributable to reactive oxygen species in anaesthetized horses. Prospective randomized experimental study. Six healthy (ASA I) geldings, aged 4.5-9.5 years and weighing 510-640 kg(-1). After 30 minutes breathing air as carrier gas for isoflurane, horses were assigned randomly to breathe air as carrier gas (CG0.21) or oxygen as carrier gas (CG1.00) for a further 90 minutes. After an interval of 1 month each horse was re-anaesthetized with the other carrier gas for the 90 minute test period. Ventilation was controlled throughout anaesthesia. Arterial blood was sampled to measure gas tensions, lactate, cholesterol, vitamin E, 4-hydroxy-alkenals, 8-epi-PGF(2 alpha), half haemolysis time, half erythrolysis time, and erythrocyte membrane fluidity. Muscle blood flow and oxygenation were evaluated by near infrared spectroscopy and coloured Doppler. After the first 30 minutes horses were hypoxemic. Subsequently the CG1.00 group became hyperoxaemic (PaO2 similar to 240 mmHg) whereas the CG0.21 group remained hypoxaemic (PaO2 similar to 60 mmHg) and had increased lactate concentration. No significant changes in vitamin E, 4-hydroxy-alkenals, or 8-epi-PGF(2 alpha) concentrations were detected. During the 90 minute test period the CG0.21 group had increased resistance to free-radical-mediated lysis in erythrocytes, whereas the CG1.00 group had slightly decreased resistance of whole blood to haemolysis. CG0.21 induced a progressive muscle deoxygenation whereas CG1.00 induced an increase in muscle oxygen saturation followed by progressive deoxygenation towards baseline. During isoflurane anaesthesia in horses, the hyperoxia induced by changing from air to oxygen induced minimal damage from reactive oxygen species. Using air as the carrier gas decreased skeletal muscle oxygenation compared with using oxygen [less ▲]

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