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See detailContraintes Socio-économiques de Répartition des Terres et Impacts sur la Conservation des Sols dans les Hauts Plateaux de l’Ouest du Cameroun
Djoukeng, Henri Grisseur ULg; Dogot, Thomas ULg; Tankou, Christopher Mubeteneh et al

in Tropicultura (in press)

This article combines the social survey data on access to land and those of the adoption of tied ridging as soil conservation technique to help better understand the management of erosion and runoff by ... [more ▼]

This article combines the social survey data on access to land and those of the adoption of tied ridging as soil conservation technique to help better understand the management of erosion and runoff by farmers in the Western Highlands of Cameroon, specifically in the hills of Fongo-Tongo villages’ group. The study focused on 230 plots owned by 157 respondents on 158 people inventoried. Five main modes of access to land were listed as: inheritance, purchase, temporary transfers, donations and rental. The owners and operators of the hills of gentle slopes (between11% and 17%) and steepest slopes (between 22% and 29%) were inventoried. Two main social ranks were identified: the dignitaries (Chiefs, Notables, Elites and heirs) and other (non-heirs son and women). The study showed that the agronomic abilities of plots as recognized by farmers are a key factor in the implementation of soil conservation techniques. The peasant approach of soil fertility has been scientifically proven by the physicochemical analysis of soil samples taken under plant species used locally as indicator of soil fertility (Pennisetum spp on fertile soils and Imperata cylindrica and Melinis minutiflora on poor soils). The study showed that access to land, adoption of tied ridging and slope exploitation were significantly influenced by the socio-economic status of farmers (p <0.05). [less ▲]

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See detailLe Parc National Sahamalaza - Iles Radama serait-il l’ultime refuge pour certaines espèces de lémuriens du nord-ouest de Madagascar ?
Wilmet, Leslie ULg; Beudels-Jamar, Roseline C.; Schwitzer, Christoph et al

in Tropicultura (2015)

Depuis des millions d’années, la faune et la flore terrestre de Madagascar ont évolué dans un espace isolé. Suite à cette situation, le niveau d’endémisme y est très élevé et l’ensemble de l’île ... [more ▼]

Depuis des millions d’années, la faune et la flore terrestre de Madagascar ont évolué dans un espace isolé. Suite à cette situation, le niveau d’endémisme y est très élevé et l’ensemble de l’île représente un des plus importants hotspot de biodiversité. Madagascar fait aussi partie des pays les plus touchés en termes de destruction des habitats naturels ; 90 % de la végétation d’origine est aujourd’hui perdue. La déforestation et la fragmentation des habitats forestiers menace particulièrement les primates de l’île, les lémuriens. L’île est considérée par de nombreuses organisations internationales comme une priorité pour la conservation de la nature, autant dans le domaine zoologique que botanique. Les premières aires protégées de Madagascar ont été établies en 1927 et l’île en compte aujourd’hui 47. Cet article reprend l’historique et fait l’état des lieux du parc national Sahamalaza-Ile Radama, situé au nord-ouest de Madagascar. Nous nous intéressons spécifiquement à deux espèces de lémuriens emblématiques du parc ; Eulemur flavifrons et Lepilemur sahamalazensis ainsi qu’aux menaces qui pèsent sur leur écosystème. Différentes mesures ont été proposées dans le cadre d’un Plan d’Action de Conservation afin d’en améliorer la gestion et assurer la survie de ces espèces. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis of the technical / economic performance of four cropping systems involving Jatropha curcas L. in the Kinshasa Region (Democratic Republic of the Congo)
Minengu, J.D.; Mobambo, P.; Mergeai, Guy ULg

in Tropicultura (2015), 33(2),

In order to assess the sustainability of cultivating Jatropha curcas L. in rural areas in the Kinshasa region, four cropping systems were compared : cultivation of J. curcas as a sole crop with and ... [more ▼]

In order to assess the sustainability of cultivating Jatropha curcas L. in rural areas in the Kinshasa region, four cropping systems were compared : cultivation of J. curcas as a sole crop with and without fertilisers, a combination of J. curcas with subsistence crops (maize - Zea mays L., the common bean - Phaseolus vulgaris L.) with and without fertilisers. The major attacks by pests (mainly Aphthona sp.) suffered by J. curcas plants in the region make it vital to conduct at least two insecticide treatments per year. Dry seed yields of J. curcas obtained in the 4th year of cultivation amounted to 753 kg ha-1 when J. curcas was cultivated as a sole crop without fertilisers, 797 kg ha-1 for intercropping without fertilisers, 1158 kg ha-1 when J. curcas was cultivated as a sole crop with fertilisers and 1173 kg ha-1 for intercropping with fertilisers. Yields from the two annual crops were not improved by the application of mineral fertilisers on the J. curcas plants. They amounted to an average of 815 kg ha-1 for maize and 676 kg ha-1 for the beans. It is more profitable to cultivate J. curcas with maize and beans than to cultivate it as a sole crop. By combining crops in this way, a one-hectare farm can earn 1102 USD ha-1 without fertilisers and 1049 USD ha-1 with fertilisers. Sustainable cultivation of J. curcas under the test conditions requires the development of efficient weed / pest control methods and improved soil fertility management, in order to minimise the use of mineral fertilisers. [less ▲]

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See detailScaling up the Benefits of Smallholder Forestry beyond Timber: Success story of Teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) Leaves Marketing in Southern Benin
Aoudji, A.K.N.; Burny, Philippe ULg; Adégbidi, A. et al

in Tropicultura (2015), 33(4), 322-332

The marketing of teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) leaves was studied in southern Benin, in order to seek out opportunities for increased financial returns in smallholder tree growing. A survey was carried out ... [more ▼]

The marketing of teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) leaves was studied in southern Benin, in order to seek out opportunities for increased financial returns in smallholder tree growing. A survey was carried out across the commercialization system. Seventy-six traders were interviewed in nine markets purposely selected, based on their functions in the commercialization system. Respondents provided information on their marketing functions, the costs borne, and their revenues. The marketing system was led by women who controlled the main functions. Three categories of traders were identified, namely collectors-wholesalers-retailers, collectors-retailers, and retailers. The commercialization of teak leaves increases the return from tree growing. Traders' monthly revenue was XOF 4,659-15,927 (USD 9.3-31.9) during the rainy season and XOF 6,621-21,655 (USD 13.2-43.3) during the dry season. As substitute for polyethylene bags in food packaging, teak leaves offer a potential to tackle environmental pollution in southern Benin. The study shows the necessity to consult beneficiaries to ensure the proper selection of tree species in farm forestry programmes. [less ▲]

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See detailAgriculture and climate change : challenges and solutions
Mergeai, Guy ULg

in Tropicultura (2015), 33(3), 161-162

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See detailSoil - the Key to our Future
Mergeai, Guy ULg

in Tropicultura (2015), 33(2), 65-66

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See detailDynamic and impact of major insect pests on Jatropha curcas L. in two cropping systems with contrasting characteristics in the province of Kinshasa (DRC)
Minengu, Jean de Dieu; Verheggen, François ULg; Mergeai, Guy ULg

in Tropicultura (2015), 3

The dynamic and impact of the major insect pests on Jatropha curcas L. were studied on two plantations located in the province of Kinshasa, the first in pure stand without irrigation (Mbankana site), the ... [more ▼]

The dynamic and impact of the major insect pests on Jatropha curcas L. were studied on two plantations located in the province of Kinshasa, the first in pure stand without irrigation (Mbankana site), the second under irrigation in combination with other crops (N'sele site). In Mbankana, after being planted during the long rainy season (October - December), the plants suffer significant attacks by crickets Brachytrupes membranaceus Drury (Orthoptera, Gryllidae), which cause a mortality rate of 10 - 40%. The first half of October and second half of December are the best planting periods when it comes to limiting these losses. At N'sele, cricket attacks during planting are controlled by the farmers who eat these insects. After being planted at both sites, the plants are attacked by leaf miner caterpillars Stomphastis thraustica Meyrick (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae) and flea beetles Aphthona sp. (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae), which consume the leaf blades and buds. The size of these two pest populations and resulting damage reach a peak during the wettest time of year. On adult plants at N'sele, insect pests observed include flea beetles, leaf miners, and shield-backed bugs Calidea sp. (Heteroptera, Scutelleridae). These bugs cause damage to flowers and capsules. In the absence of insecticide treatments, yield losses reached 90% in Mbankana and 60% in N'sele. The discussion focuses on what causes the different pest impact levels recorded between the cropping systems and methods used to limit the main types of damage caused by insects on J. curcas in the Kinshasa region. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalyse quantitative de la consommation en viande de brousse en vue d’une gestion durable de la faune sauvage au Gabon
Ngama, Steeve ULg

in Tropicultura (2015), NS

In Gabon, like everywhere in the Central Africa region, hunting could lead to serious ecological damages in the near future. Yet, quantifying bush meat contribution to local people diet will help to ... [more ▼]

In Gabon, like everywhere in the Central Africa region, hunting could lead to serious ecological damages in the near future. Yet, quantifying bush meat contribution to local people diet will help to improve the efficiency when operating necessary hunting regulation. The purpose of this study was to provide more data on wildlife contribution to forest people’s diet and the influence of related factors. To do so, 36 households were surveyed during one year time in the Ipassa reserve buffer zone in Makokou, Gabon. This study reveals that 53.1% of meats consumed by surveyed people are from wildlife. Moreover, this consumption was influenced by (i) the fact that households’ chiefs are salaried, farmers or hunters, (ii) the distance from households’ residences to the reserve and (iii) meat prices on markets. In addition, poultry meat appears to be a potential alternative to bushmeat and even constituted 52.4% of consumptions in one of the survey areas where the greatest number of households’ chiefs were salaried. [less ▲]

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See detailEtude des possibilités de production de Jatropha curcas L. dans un couvert permanent de Stylosanthes guianensis (Aublet) Schwartz en association avec le maïs (Zea mays L.) et le soja (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) dans les conditions du Plateau des Batéké à Kinshasa
Minengu, J.D.; Mobambo, P.; Mergeai, Guy ULg

in Tropicultura (2015), 33(4), 309-321

An experiment was carried out between July 2009 and December 2012 on the Batéké Plateau near Kinshasa to assess the impact of the intercropping of Jatropha curcas L. with short-cycle food crops (maize Zea ... [more ▼]

An experiment was carried out between July 2009 and December 2012 on the Batéké Plateau near Kinshasa to assess the impact of the intercropping of Jatropha curcas L. with short-cycle food crops (maize Zea mays L. and soybeans Glycine max (L.) Merr.) in a permanent cover of Stylosanthes guianensis (Aublet) Schwartz. The thirteen compared treatments consisted in the rotation corn – corn – soybean in pure stand and twelve combinations involving the cultivation of J. curcas: (1) Jatropha curcas in sole crop or in association with S. guianensis, (2) three J. curcas planting densities (3 333, 2 500, or 1 667 shrubs ha-1) and (3) Jatropha curcas sole cropped or associated with a short-cycle annual crop (rotation corn - corn, soybean). Vegetative development and seed yield of food crops and J. curcas were higher in plots with permanent S. guianensis cover. The highest mean yield of J. curcas in the 3rd year of production (harvests of July and December 2012) was 409.4±13.2 kg ha-1 dry seeds in plots with S. guianensis cover and 289,6±8,1 kg ha-1 in plots without mulch. The gravity of the damage of insect pests on J. curcas was higher in sole cropping (>60%) than in intercropping (<45%). The cultivation of J. curcas in a permanent cover of S. guianensis in intercropping with maize and soybean ensures both a good development of J. curcas plants and attractive yields of annual food crops in the early years following the installation of the plantation. During this phase, the optimum planting density is 2 500 shrubs ha-1. [less ▲]

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See detailIncidence de la Déforestation sur les catégories écologiques des vers de terre dans le domaine et Réserve de Chasse de Bombo-Lumene ( Kinshasa)
Empwal, F. Milau; Sudi, C. Kachaka; Komanda, J. Aloni et al

in Tropicultura (2014), 33(3), 209-217

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See detailConsommation de produits d'origine animale dans la concession forestière 039/11 de la SODEFOR à Oshwe (R.D. Congo)
Semeki Ngabinzeke, Jean; Belani Masamba, Justin; Ntoto M'Vubu et al

in Tropicultura (2014), 32(3), 147-155

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See detailObituary Ivan Impens (1935-2014). Poor is the disciple who does not surpass his master
Bogaert, Jan ULg; Nijs, I; Ceulemans, R

in Tropicultura (2014), 32(1), 110-111

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See detailSegregation distortions in an interspecific cotton population issued from the [(Gossypium hirsutum x G. raimondii)² x G. sturtianum] hybrid
Diouf, Fatimata Bintou Hassédine ULg; BENBOUZA, Halima; Nacoulima, Nafissatou Lalaïssa ULg et al

in Tropicultura (2014), 32(2), 73-79

The segregation ratio of 10 Gossypium sturtianum specific SSR markers belonging to linkage groups c2-c14, c3-c17, and c6-c25was analysed in the BC2S6 progeny of the [G.hirsutum x G. raimondii)² x G ... [more ▼]

The segregation ratio of 10 Gossypium sturtianum specific SSR markers belonging to linkage groups c2-c14, c3-c17, and c6-c25was analysed in the BC2S6 progeny of the [G.hirsutum x G. raimondii)² x G. sturtianum] (HRS) hybrid; based on chi-square test. All the marker loci tested were associated with skewed allele frequencies (P < 0.001) showing a strong SD with a zygotic selection. The possible causes and consequences of this massive segregation distortion are discussed [less ▲]

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See detailBiologie de la reproductiond'un poissonchat africain Euchiloichthys guentheri (Schilthuis, 1891)(Mochokidae, Siluriformes) au Pool Malebo, Fleuve Congo (République démocratique du CongoR
Tembeni, John; Micha, jean-Claude; Mbomba, B.N.S. et al

in Tropicultura (2014), 32

In the Malebo Pool of the Congo River in DRC, Euchilichthys guentheri (Schilthuis, 1891) a highly consumed fish during the dry season, undergoes a strong pressure of fishing whereas one does not have ... [more ▼]

In the Malebo Pool of the Congo River in DRC, Euchilichthys guentheri (Schilthuis, 1891) a highly consumed fish during the dry season, undergoes a strong pressure of fishing whereas one does not have knowledge on his reproductive biology. Reproductive parameters of E. guentheri were determined to ensure rational and sustainable management of the resource at Malebo Pool. Fish were collected monthly between January and December 2009, and subsequently from February to December 2011. The whole sample consisted of 248 specimens of which 35 immature, 118 females and 95 males were examined. The observed sex- ratio was balanced between males and females (1:0.99; χ2=12; p>0.05). The standard length at first sexual maturity was 54.20 cm for males, and 54.49 cm for females. The spawning period of E. guentheri was established by analyzing the temporal evolution in the monthly variations of the gonado-somatic index (GSI). E. guentheri in Malebo Pool spawns in the end of the dry season but the main breeding season was August and September. The ripe ovaries contained 1953 to 7256 eggs. The relative fecundity was 1745±582 eggs.kg-1 of females. The mean oocyte diameter was 2.12±0.39 mm at spawning. These reproduction characteristics of E. guentheri make it possible to classify this fish among the species with big eggs and low fecundity. [less ▲]

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See detailA screening procedure for evaluating cotton for Rotylenchulus reniformis resistance in controlled conditions
Konan, N.O.; De Proft, M.; Ruano, O. et al

in Tropicultura (2014), 32(1), 3-9

Rotylenchulus reniformis is one of the most important nematode pests of cotton. Currently, no cotton cultivar resistant cotton cultivar to this pest is available. In the Framework of a breeding program ... [more ▼]

Rotylenchulus reniformis is one of the most important nematode pests of cotton. Currently, no cotton cultivar resistant cotton cultivar to this pest is available. In the Framework of a breeding program aiming at producing cotton genotype resistant to this nematode, a R. reniformis resistance evaluation protocol based on egg inoculation, extraction and counting, has been established. Two environment conditions (growth chamber and greenhouse), four sieves (75, 50, 20 and 10 µm), three doses of inoculum (1,500 ; 3,000 and 6,000 eggs), and five durations of infestation (20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 days after inoculation) have been tested. The growth chamber programmed to provide 12h of light, 55% - 60% relative humidity and 30 - 26°C day-night air températures revealed to be adequate. The NaOCI (sodium hypochloride) - blender - sieving - centrifugation - flotation method, using 75-µm and 20-µm sieves, kaolin powder and MgSO4 (magnesium sulfate) solution (specific gravity 1.18) proved to be suitable for effective R. reniformis egg extraction (from roots) and counting. Inoculation of 6,000 eggs per seeding and 60 days duration of infestation seemed to be sufficient dose and period for a reliable resistance evaluation. The protocol developed has been tested on known susceptible and resistant cotton génotypes : G. hirsutum L (main cultivated species through the world, susceptible), G. thurberi Tod. (wild cotton species, moderately susceptible) G. longicalyx Hutch. and Lee (wild cotton species, very resistant). The results obtained were in accordance with the response expected from the génotypes tested, proving the reliability of the evaluation procedure developed. [less ▲]

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See detailImportance de Coula edulis Baill. pour les populations du Sud-Est du Gabon: niveaux de prélèvement et potentiel économique de l’espèce
Moupela, Christian; Vermeulen, Cédric ULg; Doucet, Jean-Louis ULg et al

in Tropicultura (2014), 32(1), 37-45

Coula edulis is a non-timber forest tree species that provides edible fruits for local people. However, its economical importance has never been quantified. The present study aimed to identify the fate of ... [more ▼]

Coula edulis is a non-timber forest tree species that provides edible fruits for local people. However, its economical importance has never been quantified. The present study aimed to identify the fate of stocks of harvested C. edulis fruits in Gabonese villages, emphasizing the social impact and economic income generated by this activity. Our investigations revealed that C. edulis fruits are predominantly utilized for own subsistence, since trading proportion concerned less than 20% of collected fruits. The average income from trade during the harvest period (two months) varied from € 1.7 to € 3.3 per household, depending on the proximity of the market (local or urban). The economical potential of C. edulis fruits could be improved if a sustainable production strategy through domestication processes and agroforestry practices was developed. Such a strategy may also contribute to the increase of the local demand of C. edulis fruits, assuming that a better diffusion was also carried out. [less ▲]

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See detailValorisation des résidus de bois issus de l'exploitation artisanale des forêts communautaires au Cameroun : cas de la forêt communautaire de Mambioko (Gic CRCV)
Malnoury, Gauthier; Zoyiem Ngouanet, Edmond; Julve Larrubia, Cecilia et al

in Tropicultura (2014), 32(2), 90-94

L’exploitation artisanale du bois des forêts communautaires au Cameroun génère une quantité importante de résidus abandonnés au niveau des sites d’exploitation. Ces pièces de bois pourraient être ... [more ▼]

L’exploitation artisanale du bois des forêts communautaires au Cameroun génère une quantité importante de résidus abandonnés au niveau des sites d’exploitation. Ces pièces de bois pourraient être valorisées en produits commercialisables de manière à améliorer les revenus de la communauté. Cette étude a permis une première estimation de ce volume et présente différentes pistes de valorisation adaptées à la communauté de Mambioko. Cette étude de cas s’adresse à tous les acteurs de la foresterie communautaire au Cameroun et vise une valorisation rationnelle de la matière ligneuse dans un but de développement rural. [less ▲]

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