References of "Trends in Cognitive Sciences"
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See detailLight as a modulator of cognitive brain function
Vandewalle, Gilles ULg; Maquet, Pierre ULg; Dijk, D. J.

in Trends in Cognitive Sciences (2009), 13(10), 429-38

Humans are a diurnal species usually exposed to light while engaged in cognitive tasks. Light not only guides performance on these tasks through vision but also exerts non-visual effects that are mediated ... [more ▼]

Humans are a diurnal species usually exposed to light while engaged in cognitive tasks. Light not only guides performance on these tasks through vision but also exerts non-visual effects that are mediated in part by recently discovered retinal ganglion cells maximally sensitive to blue light. We review recent neuroimaging studies which demonstrate that the wavelength, duration and intensity of light exposure modulate brain responses to (non-visual) cognitive tasks. These responses to light are initially observed in alertness-related subcortical structures (hypothalamus, brainstem, thalamus) and limbic areas (amygdala and hippocampus), followed by modulations of activity in cortical areas, which can ultimately affect behaviour. Light emerges as an important modulator of brain function and cognition. [less ▲]

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See detailThe neural correlate of (un)awareness: lessons from the vegetative state
Laureys, Steven ULg

in Trends in Cognitive Sciences (2005), 9(12), 556-559

Consciousness has two main components: wakefulness and awareness. The vegetative state is characterized by wakefulness without awareness. Recent functional neuroimaging results have shown that some parts ... [more ▼]

Consciousness has two main components: wakefulness and awareness. The vegetative state is characterized by wakefulness without awareness. Recent functional neuroimaging results have shown that some parts of the cortex are still functioning in 'vegetative' patients. External stimulation, such as a painful stimulus, still activates 'primary' sensory cortices in these patients but these areas are functionally disconnected from 'higher order' associative areas needed for awareness. Such studies are disentangling the neural correlates of the vegetative state from the minimally conscious state, and have major clinical consequences in addition to empirical importance for the understanding of consciousness. [less ▲]

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See detailAll cases of word production are not created equal: Reply to Costa and Santesteban
French, R.; Jacquet, Maud ULg

in Trends in Cognitive Sciences (2004), 8(6), 254-254

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See detailUnderstanding bilingual memory: models and data
French, R.; Jacquet, Maud ULg

in Trends in Cognitive Sciences (2004), 8(2), 87-93

Bilingual memory research in the past decade and, particularly, in the past five years, has developed a range of sophisticated experimental, neuropsychological and computational techniques that have ... [more ▼]

Bilingual memory research in the past decade and, particularly, in the past five years, has developed a range of sophisticated experimental, neuropsychological and computational techniques that have allowed researchers to begin to answer some of the major long-standing questions of the field. We explore bilingual memory along the lines of the conceptual division of language knowledge and organization, on the one hand, and the mechanisms that operate on that knowledge and organization, on the other. Various interactive-activation and connectionist models of bilingual memory that attempt to incorporate both organizational and operational considerations will serve to bridge these two divisions. Much progress has been made in recent years in bilingual memory research, which also serves to illuminate general (language-independent) memory processes. [less ▲]

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See detailConnectionism and the problem of multiple instantiation
Sougné, Jacques ULg

in Trends in Cognitive Sciences (1998), 2(5), 183-189

Multiple instantiation is the ability to handle different instances of the same concept simultaneously. For example, from the following two facts: 'Pepin the Short was the son of Charles Martel' and ... [more ▼]

Multiple instantiation is the ability to handle different instances of the same concept simultaneously. For example, from the following two facts: 'Pepin the Short was the son of Charles Martel' and 'Charlemagne was the son of Pepin the Short', one can infer that Charles Martel was the grandfather of Charlemagne. This inference requires two instantiations of 'Pepin the Short', the first in the role of son, the second in the role of father. For a connectionist model that does not use a working area receiving copies of items from a long-term knowledge base, the problem of multiple instantiation is a particularly thorny one. People are able to deal with multiple instances, unlike most connectionist models, but nonetheless their performance when doing so is reduced. On the other hand, there is no decrease in performance for symbolic models doing multiple instantiation. A good cognitive model should reflect both human competence and human limitations. This review proposes several connectionist solutions to the problem of multiple instantiation and examines their merits. [less ▲]

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