References of "Travail Humain (Le)"
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See detailDeveloping a multiple-level, multiple-perspective and multi-temporal approach to psychological harassment at work: model and case study.
Faulx, Daniel ULg; Blavier, Adelaïde ULg

in Travail Humain (Le) (2013), 2(76), 155-179

Over the past fifteen years, numerous studies have been conducted on the problem of psychological harassment in the workplace. Nevertheless, many challenges remain in this field, both on the scientific ... [more ▼]

Over the past fifteen years, numerous studies have been conducted on the problem of psychological harassment in the workplace. Nevertheless, many challenges remain in this field, both on the scientific level and in terms of intervention and diagnosis. One challenge in particular that remains is that of better observation of the complexity and evolution of situations, taking into account more than one perspective and allowing for several levels of understanding. In this article, we present a case study in which we question all the protagonists in an alleged harassment situation. The data are analysed according to the Liège model. The article presents new findings on the subject of the psycho-socio-managerial dynamics of harassment, particularly the existence of different sources of legitimacy for feeling harassed and the labyrinth of conflictual relationships and victim relationships. The implications of this model in terms of diagnosis and intervention are discussed at the end of the article. [less ▲]

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See detailEtude de l’impact des nouvelles technologies sur les stratégies opératoires des chirurgiens par l’analyse des communications sur le terrain
Blavier, Adelaïde ULg; Nyssen, Anne-Sophie ULg

in Travail Humain (Le) (2010), 73(2), 123-140

This study aimed to analyse the impact of the introduction of new technologies in the complex and dynamic field of surgery according to the expertise. The medical sector is one of the most investigated in ... [more ▼]

This study aimed to analyse the impact of the introduction of new technologies in the complex and dynamic field of surgery according to the expertise. The medical sector is one of the most investigated in ergonomics and work psychology studies. Although the study of this phenomenon is not new, our purpose is relevant because of the rapid introduction of new technology in surgery (with very few studies on its organisational impact), its implication for surgeon’s training and the risks for the patient. Furthermore, our conclusions might be extended to other complex work situations. Surgery has considerably evolved and a lot of interventions are now performed by laparoscopy: in this procedure, a camera and the instruments are introduced into very small incisions in the skin and surgeons guide their movements by watching a 2D screen. This technique involves some disadvantages (principally, a 2D view and instruments with low dexterity) that are now removed by a new robotic system (Da Vinci Robotic System). Nevertheless, if this new system offers some essential advantages, it provokes many changes and new constraints in the way to operate and in the role and status of all actors: with this system, the surgeon is isolated and operates with a 3D view and high dexterity instruments while the rest of the team has to manage with a 2D view and instruments with very low dexterity. By all these aspects, the new system may generate different situational references for each actor and might be at the origin of new human errors. In this context, we evaluated the adaptation processes and the changes produced by this system using the communication analysis. In a first field study, we evaluated the impact of its introduction on short-term adaptation processes by a comparison of the communications in classical laparoscopy with the communications with the robotic system. In a second study, we analysed the difference between novices and experts using this system in order to emphasize the long-term adaptation evolution and the steps in the training with this system. Our results showed that the robotic system was more complex and necessitates a long adaptation time when subjects were novices. This complexity led to an increase in the communications between the team members in order to construct common action references despite of diverse quality images. Our data from the second study showed that all categories of communication do not have the same role in the adaptation process and that their occurrence varied according to the expertise level. Indeed, the novice-expert comparison allowed us to emphasize which communications were necessary in the learning phase and which communications were permanent and thus useful for experts too. We showed that the communications might be distinguished in two main types: (1) some were necessary for the learning and disappeared with expertise, these communications concerned the spatial orientation and manipulation categories, (2) while communications about order and confirmation did not decrease and seemed to be indispensable for an accurate cooperative work and common situation awareness. These communications show an accommodation process that transforms the activity by a work division. This last finding is relevant because robotic surgery is similar to the remote control situations in which communications constitute the only way to construct and keep a same situational reference for all involved actors. [less ▲]

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See detailFacteurs d'insatisfaction incitant au départ et intention de quitter le travail : analyse comparative des groupes d'âge.
Bertrand, Françoise ULg; Peters, Stéphanie ULg; Pérée, Francis ULg et al

in Travail Humain (Le) (2010), 73(1), 215-239

The aim of this paper is to identify reasons why workers would resign from their jobs early and to what extent the reasons for retirement are really encountered. A number of non satisfaction factors ... [more ▼]

The aim of this paper is to identify reasons why workers would resign from their jobs early and to what extent the reasons for retirement are really encountered. A number of non satisfaction factors either personal or job-related were considered in an age comparison dimension. A questionnaire has been elaborated for the purpose of this study and includes items related to job intention to quit and (potential vs encountered) non satisfaction factors. These factors consider both personal leaving factors and job related leaving factors. The latter include three theoretical sub-dimensions: working conditions, organizational and structural changes and job recognition. Exploratory factor analysis of the 58 items produced eight usable leaving factors: (1) lack of resources and autonomy; (2) work pressure; (3) lack of personal development; (4) job insecurity; (5) personal reasons; (6) organizational changes; (7) a hostile work environment and (8) a poor image of the company. The sample includes 1772 workers from 11 Belgian companies. The response rate is 50.23 per cent. All sectors of activity are included in the survey. We consider five categories of age (under 25 years old, between 25 and 35, between 36 and 45, between 45 and 55, and over 55 years). As far as the results are concerned, first of all, organizational changes encountered by a large majority of workers appear to be an important leaving factor, especially for older workers. Second the lack of personal development, though experienced by the oldest workers in a larger extent, is the main reason for leaving in all age groups. Third personal factors are also important for the younger and the oldest workers. Moreover work pressure is a phenomenon encountered by all workers, particularly the youngest, but it is less of a reason for leaving. Another result is that job insecurity factor is experienced by youngest workers. Finally, the differences between the young and the not so young are not very clear-cut, supporting the idea of the age management perspective. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation des pratiques de diagnostic de stress au sein d'entreprises belges: facteurs bloquants et facteurs stimulants
Hansez, Isabelle ULg; Bertrand, Françoise ULg; Barbier, Marie ULg

in Travail Humain (Le) (2009), 72(2), 127-153

Stress at work has become a major problematic in Europe this last decade. The European and national legal framework has been developed, and several methods for stress diagnosis and stress management ... [more ▼]

Stress at work has become a major problematic in Europe this last decade. The European and national legal framework has been developed, and several methods for stress diagnosis and stress management intervention can be listed. In this context, a systematic examination of diagnosis and interventions taking place in companies is necessary. The objectives of the study were 1) the evaluation of work stress diagnosis practices among Belgian companies, and 2) the identification of factors stimulating or blocking the implementation of stress management interventions. A survey was used to collect data about work stress diagnosis practices. The first objective was explored trough qualitative open questions about stress diagnosis and intervention. The second objective was achieved using a specific questionnaire elaborated for the purpose of the study. On the basis of a review of the scientific literature, this questionnaire assessed stimulating and blocking factors for implementing stress management interventions. The sample includes 180 Belgian companies from different sectors of activity and with different size (from 20 to more than 10000 workers). Only one out of six companies had implemented a diagnosis of stress. Among companies with a stress diagnosis, only one out of two had implemented actions, and only one out of four entered in an evaluation stage. Stimulating factors related to the methodology implemented and the communication process were identified, as well as blocking factors concerned with financial/temporal constraints and the context of change in the company, a factor which is rather new regarding the existing literature. The discussion includes four points of analysis. The interventions which are implemented are clearly concerned with the primary approach focusing on the work environment. Second, the results give support to the necessity for a systematic evaluation process of stress management interventions. Moreover the results give evidence for a need of sensitization and publication of best practices about the necessary stages in the stress prevention process as well as about stimulating and blocking factors. This holds especially true for small size companies which realize less diagnosis than bigger ones. It is also important for companies which are not yet involved in a stress diagnosis, that are less aware of the impact of financial and temporal constraints. [less ▲]

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See detailHarcèlement psychologique au travail : processus relationnels et profils de victimes. Approche processuelle, intégrative et dynamique d’un phénomène complexe.
Faulx, Daniel ULg; Detroz, Pascal ULg

in Travail Humain (Le) (2009), 72(2), 155-184

Dans le domaine de la recherche sur le harcèlement moral au travail, un nouvel enjeu majeur est apparu au cours des dernières années : mieux comprendre la complexité des processus apparaissant à ... [more ▼]

Dans le domaine de la recherche sur le harcèlement moral au travail, un nouvel enjeu majeur est apparu au cours des dernières années : mieux comprendre la complexité des processus apparaissant à différents niveaux (individuel, interpersonnel, groupal, organisationnel) dans ces situations. Dans cette optique, nous utilisons un modèle d’analyse processuel, intégrateur et dynamique pour analyser le contenu de 100 entretiens menés avec des victimes de harcèlement moral. Les résultats montrent que les situations de harcèlement relèvent plus souvent d’une action négative de l’environnement social autour de la relation interpersonnelle entre harceleur et harcelé que de l’existence d’un processus victimatoire entre ces deux acteurs, qui apparaissent plutôt en conflit. En effet, la relation entre harceleur et harcelé ne relève que dans 22 cas sur 50 d’une dynamique victimatoire, alors qu’il existe une victimisation de l’environnement social (collègues et/ou organisation) dans 48 cas sur 50. Cinq profils de victimes sont également dégagés, mettant en lumière la diversité des configurations sociales du harcèlement. [less ▲]

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See detailCareer end for teachers: Towards a better understanding of stress and early retirement
Hansez, Isabelle ULg; Bertrand, Françoise ULg; De Keyser, Véronique ULg et al

in Travail Humain (Le) (2005), 68(3), 193-223

An increasing number of teachers decide to resign before legal retirement age, leading to significant shortages within the profession. A survey was conducted among teachers working in the city of Liege ... [more ▼]

An increasing number of teachers decide to resign before legal retirement age, leading to significant shortages within the profession. A survey was conducted among teachers working in the city of Liege, Belgium. This aimed to determine what led them to withdraw from their jobs and the degree to which stress contributed to their decisions. Various adjustments were made in favour of elderly workers, such as working time and training. The question of whether these are sufficient to keep them motivated in their job was raised. A questionnaire was developed to try and identify the reasons why teachers resign, their motivations for staying in the job and their expectations in terms of career-end adjustments. The key concepts included in this tool were personal factors, job-related factors (i.e. working conditions, organizational and structural changes and job recognition) and employment-related factors. This questionnaire was combined with a subjective stress measure (MSP-A, Lemyre [less ▲]

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See detailAnalyse du discours de travailleurs confrontés à des changements organisationnels : une perspective transactionnelle .
De Zanet, Fabrice ULg; Hansez, Isabelle ULg; Bossut, Muriel ULg et al

in Travail Humain (Le) (2004), 67(3), 257-281

Downsizing, restructuring and lay-offs have become recurrent practices among companies today. Whilst the consequences of such major changes on individual well-being are well documented, little is known ... [more ▼]

Downsizing, restructuring and lay-offs have become recurrent practices among companies today. Whilst the consequences of such major changes on individual well-being are well documented, little is known about the nature of work environment changes. confronting workers and how they appraise these events. The objective of the present study was to combine quantitative and qualitative data in order to get a better understanding of organizational changes from a transactional perspective. Fifty-seven workers-from seven companies were interviewed. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed along three axes (a) What were the changes confronting workers ? (b) How did they react to these changes (c) How did they perceive the way their company dealt with these changes ? Results indicate that workers were mainly confronted with changes among colleagues and supervisors, changes in terms of workload as weft as task content. Moreover, it appears that not all changes were appraised negatively. With regard to the. consequences. reported by, workers, the findings reported in existing literature were generally supported by the current data. Workers reported a. general deterioration of their quality of life, a degradation of working climate and an increase in job insecurity as a result of organizational changes. Finally, workers indicated that the way companies managed changes was not really efficient. Workers complained mainly about information. They reported that they were either poorly informed or not informed at all about future changes. In conclusion, this study stresses the need for a qualitative analysis of the experience of workers confronted with organisational changes. [less ▲]

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See detailImproving training in problem solving skills : Analysis of anesthesists' performance in simulated problem situations
Nyssen, Anne-Sophie ULg; De Keyser, Véronique ULg

in Travail Humain (Le) (1998), 61(4), 387-401

Using a full scale anesthesia simulator, we compare and analyze the responses of anesthesia trainees (second and third year trainees and fourth and fifth year trainees) to 4 simulated problem situations ... [more ▼]

Using a full scale anesthesia simulator, we compare and analyze the responses of anesthesia trainees (second and third year trainees and fourth and fifth year trainees) to 4 simulated problem situations that are very close to a real-world situation in order to establish relationship between these analyses and the contents of medical training cursus. Data were collected from systematic observations and videotaping of simulation sessions and self-confrontation. Several quantitative and qualitative variables were used to compare the performance of subjects: accuracy and speed of diagnosis, type of behaviors, identification and selectivity of diagnostic indices, hypotheses generated, type of reasoning. [less ▲]

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See detailLes erreurs humaines en anesthésie
De Keyser, Véronique ULg; Nyssen, Anne-Sophie ULg

in Travail Humain (Le) (1993), 56(2-3), 243-266

Human errors in anesthesia - with due respect to the French-speaking tradition, human error is studied in field work, here in anesthesia. The authors specify the social context, compare the process of ... [more ▼]

Human errors in anesthesia - with due respect to the French-speaking tradition, human error is studied in field work, here in anesthesia. The authors specify the social context, compare the process of anesthesia to a continuous process, present a cognitive analyse of the task, emphasizing temporal characteristics and cognitive demands regarding the cognitive aspects of human behavior. Referring to the dictinction made by Hollnagel (1991) between reliability, robustness and adaptiveness of the system (man and machine), they present and analyse some human errors which reveal the importance of variation elements and the dynamic dimension of the environment. Influenced by Time Psychology, they postulate the existence of different systems of temporal reference and of external synchronizers connected to these systems, which would allow an individual to adaptively respond to the demands for synchronization in the face of events and actions whose evolutions cannot be calibrated in clock time. Inadequate systems of temporal reference and the absence of synchronizers can make this adaptation to the evolution and the dynamicity of the environment fail. The prevention integrates different measures (technological, ergonomic, social, organizational, of expertise development, etc.) and relies on collection and in-depth analysis of human error. This paper is dedicated to J. Leplat. [less ▲]

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See detailPour une application des tests de lisibilite de Flesch a la langue francaise.
De Landsheere, Gilbert ULg

in Travail Humain (Le) (1963), 26

While Flesch's methods have been widely used in America in business, advertising, journalism, education, and literature, little has been done in French speaking countries. Samples were made from French ... [more ▼]

While Flesch's methods have been widely used in America in business, advertising, journalism, education, and literature, little has been done in French speaking countries. Samples were made from French texts, these same rewritten to raise readability, and English texts translated into French. The author concludes that standards are so different that new readability and interest scales must be designed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved) [less ▲]

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See detailL'opération « Talent » aux États-Unis
de Landsheere, Gilbert ULg

in Travail Humain (Le) (1961), (3-4), 193-200

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