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See detailDecreasing cloud cover drives the recent mass loss on the Greenland Ice Sheet
Hofer, S.; Tedstone, A.; Fettweis, Xavier ULg et al

in Science (2017), 3(6),

The Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) has been losing mass at an accelerating rate since the mid-1990s. This has been due to both increased ice discharge into the ocean and melting at the surface, with the ... [more ▼]

The Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) has been losing mass at an accelerating rate since the mid-1990s. This has been due to both increased ice discharge into the ocean and melting at the surface, with the latter being the dominant contribution. This change in state has been attributed to rising temperatures and a decrease in surface albedo. We show, using satellite data and climate model output, that the abrupt reduction in surface mass balance since about 1995 can be attributed largely to a coincident trend of decreasing summer cloud cover enhancing the melt-albedo feedback. Satellite observations show that, from 1995 to 2009, summer cloud cover decreased by 0.9 ± 0.3% per year. Model output indicates that the GrIS summer melt increases by 27 ± 13 gigatons (Gt) per percent reduction in summer cloud cover, principally because of the impact of increased shortwave radiation over the low albedo ablation zone. The observed reduction in cloud cover is strongly correlated with a state shift in the North Atlantic Oscillation promoting anticyclonic conditions in summer and suggests that the enhanced surface mass loss from the GrIS is driven by synoptic-scale changes in Arctic-wide atmospheric circulation. [less ▲]

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See detailJupiter's magnetosphere and aurorae observed by the Juno spacecraft during its first polar orbits
Connerney, J. E. P.; Adriani, A.; Allegrini, F. et al

in Science (2017), 356(6340), 826--832

Jupiter is the largest and most massive planet in our solar system. NASA\textquoterights Juno spacecraft arrived at Jupiter on 4 July 2016 and made its first close pass on 27 August 2016. Bolton et al ... [more ▼]

Jupiter is the largest and most massive planet in our solar system. NASA\textquoterights Juno spacecraft arrived at Jupiter on 4 July 2016 and made its first close pass on 27 August 2016. Bolton et al. present results from Juno\textquoterights flight just above the cloud tops, including images of weather in the polar regions and measurements of the magnetic and gravitational fields. Juno also used microwaves to peer below the visible surface, spotting gas welling up from the deep interior. Connerney et al. measured Jupiter\textquoterights aurorae and plasma environment, both as Juno approached the planet and during its first close orbit.Science, this issue p. 821, p. 826The Juno spacecraft acquired direct observations of the jovian magnetosphere and auroral emissions from a vantage point above the poles. Juno\textquoterights capture orbit spanned the jovian magnetosphere from bow shock to the planet, providing magnetic field, charged particle, and wave phenomena context for Juno\textquoterights passage over the poles and traverse of Jupiter\textquoterights hazardous inner radiation belts. Juno\textquoterights energetic particle and plasma detectors measured electrons precipitating in the polar regions, exciting intense aurorae, observed simultaneously by the ultraviolet and infrared imaging spectrographs. Juno transited beneath the most intense parts of the radiation belts, passed about 4000 kilometers above the cloud tops at closest approach, well inside the jovian rings, and recorded the electrical signatures of high-velocity impacts with small particles as it traversed the equator. [less ▲]

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See detailLocal modulation of human brain responses by circadian rhythmicity and sleep debt
Muto, Vincenzo ULg; Jaspar, Mathieu ULg; Meyer, Christelle et al

in Science (2016), 351(6300),

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See detailTranscriptome-wide distribution and function of RNA hydroxymethylcytosine
Delatte, Benjamin; Wang, F; Ngoc, LV et al

in Science (2016), 351(6270), 282-285

Hydroxymethylcytosine, well described in DNA, occurs also in RNA. Here, we show that hydroxymethylcytosine preferentially marks polyadenylated RNAs and is deposited by Tet in Drosophila. We map the ... [more ▼]

Hydroxymethylcytosine, well described in DNA, occurs also in RNA. Here, we show that hydroxymethylcytosine preferentially marks polyadenylated RNAs and is deposited by Tet in Drosophila. We map the transcriptome-wide hydroxymethylation landscape, revealing hydroxymethylcytosine in the transcripts of many genes, notably in coding sequences, and identify consensus sites for hydroxymethylation. We found that RNA hydroxymethylation can favor mRNA translation. Tet and hydroxymethylated RNA are found to be most abundant in the Drosophila brain, and Tet-deficient fruitflies suffer impaired brain development, accompanied by decreased RNA hydroxymethylation. This study highlights the distribution, localization, and function of cytosine hydroxymethylation and identifies central roles for this modification in Drosophila. [less ▲]

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See detailOn-demand continuous flow production of pharmaceuticals in a compact, reconfigurable system
Adamo, Andrea; Beingessner, Rachel L.; Behnam, Mohsen et al

in Science (2016), 352

Pharmaceutical manufacturing typically uses batch processing at multiple locations. Disadvantages of this approach include long production times and the potential for supply chain disruptions. As a ... [more ▼]

Pharmaceutical manufacturing typically uses batch processing at multiple locations. Disadvantages of this approach include long production times and the potential for supply chain disruptions. As a preliminary demonstration of an alternative approach, we report here the continuous-flow synthesis and formulation of active pharmaceutical ingredients in a compact, reconfigurable manufacturing platform. Continuous end-to-end synthesis in the refrigerator-sized [1.0 meter (width) × 0.7 meter (length) × 1.8 meter (height)] system produces sufficient quantities per day to supply hundreds to thousands of oral or topical liquid doses of diphenhydramine hydrochloride, lidocaine hydrochloride, diazepam, and fluoxetine hydrochloride that meet U.S. Pharmacopeia standards. Underlying this flexible plug-and-play approach are substantial enabling advances in continuous-flow synthesis, complex multistep sequence telescoping, reaction engineering equipment, and real-time formulation. [less ▲]

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See detailTyranny of Trees in Global Climate Change Mitigation
Veldman, Joseph W.; Overbeck, Gerhard; Negreiros, Daniel et al

in Science (2015), 347(6221)

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See detailEarly MAVEN Deep Dip campaign reveals thermosphere and ionosphere variability
Bougher, S.; Jakosky, B.; Halekas, J. et al

in Science (2015), 350(6261),

The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) mission, during the second of its Deep Dip campaigns, made comprehensive measurements of martian thermosphere and ionosphere composition, structure, and ... [more ▼]

The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) mission, during the second of its Deep Dip campaigns, made comprehensive measurements of martian thermosphere and ionosphere composition, structure, and variability at altitudes down to ~130 kilometers in the subsolar region. This altitude range contains the diffusively separated upper atmosphere just above the well-mixed atmosphere, the layer of peak extreme ultraviolet heating and primary reservoir for atmospheric escape. In situ measurements of the upper atmosphere reveal previously unmeasured populations of neutral and charged particles, the homopause altitude at approximately 130 kilometers, and an unexpected level of variability both on an orbit-To-orbit basis and within individual orbits. These observations help constrain volatile escape processes controlled by thermosphere and ionosphere structure and variability. [less ▲]

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See detailMAVEN observations of the response of Mars to an interplanetary coronal mass ejection
Jakosky, B. M.; Grebowsky, J. M.; Luhmann, J. G. et al

in Science (2015), 350(6261),

Coupling between the lower and upper atmosphere, combined with loss of gas from the upper atmosphere to space, likely contributed to the thin, cold, dry atmosphere of modern Mars. To help understand ... [more ▼]

Coupling between the lower and upper atmosphere, combined with loss of gas from the upper atmosphere to space, likely contributed to the thin, cold, dry atmosphere of modern Mars. To help understand ongoing ion loss to space, the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) spacecraft made comprehensive measurements of the Mars upper atmosphere, ionosphere, and interactions with the Sun and solar wind during an interplanetary coronal mass ejection impact in March 2015. Responses include changes in the bow shock and magnetosheath, formation of widespread diffuse aurora, and enhancement of pick-up ions. Observations and models both show an enhancement in escape rate of ions to space during the event. Ion loss during solar events early in Mars history may have been a major contributor to the long-Term evolution of the Mars atmosphere. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasurement and laser control of attosecond charge migration in ionized iodoacetylene
Kraus, P. M.; Mignolet, Benoît ULg; Baykusheva, D. et al

in Science (2015), 350(6262), 790-795

The ultrafast motion of electrons and holes after light-matter interaction is fundamental to a broad range of chemical and biophysical processes. We advanced high-harmonic spectroscopy to resolve ... [more ▼]

The ultrafast motion of electrons and holes after light-matter interaction is fundamental to a broad range of chemical and biophysical processes. We advanced high-harmonic spectroscopy to resolve spatially and temporally the migration of an electron hole immediately after ionization of iodoacetylene while simultaneously demonstrating extensive control over the process. A multidimensional approach, based on the measurement and accurate theoretical description of both even and odd harmonic orders, enabled us to reconstruct both quantum amplitudes and phases of the electronic states with a resolution of ~100 attoseconds. We separately reconstructed quasi–field-free and laser-controlled charge migration as a function of the spatial orientation of the molecule and determined the shape of the hole created by ionization. Our technique opens the prospect of laser control over electronic primary processes. [less ▲]

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See detailDiscovery of diffuse aurora on Mars
Schneider, N. M.; Deighan, J. I.; Jain, S. K. et al

in Science (2015), 350(6261),

Planetary auroras reveal the complex interplay between an atmosphere and the surrounding plasma environment.We report the discovery of low-Altitude, diffuse auroras spanning much of Mars' northern ... [more ▼]

Planetary auroras reveal the complex interplay between an atmosphere and the surrounding plasma environment.We report the discovery of low-Altitude, diffuse auroras spanning much of Mars' northern hemisphere, coincident with a solar energetic particle outburst. The Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph, a remote sensing instrument on the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) spacecraft, detected auroral emission in virtually all nightside observations for ~5 days, spanning nearly all geographic longitudes. Emission extended down to ~60 kilometer (km) altitude (1 microbar), deeper than confirmed at any other planet. Solar energetic particles were observed up to 200 kilo-electron volts; these particles are capable of penetrating down to the 60 km altitude. Given minimal magnetic fields over most of the planet, Mars is likely to exhibit auroras more globally than Earth. [less ▲]

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See detailBinary Interaction Dominates the Evolution of Massive Stars
Sana, H.; de Mink, S. E.; de Koter, A. et al

in Science (2012), 337(6093), 444-446

The presence of a nearby companion alters the evolution of massive stars in binary systems, leading to phenomena such as stellar mergers, x-ray binaries, and gamma-ray bursts. Unambiguous constraints on ... [more ▼]

The presence of a nearby companion alters the evolution of massive stars in binary systems, leading to phenomena such as stellar mergers, x-ray binaries, and gamma-ray bursts. Unambiguous constraints on the fraction of massive stars affected by binary interaction were lacking. We simultaneously measured all relevant binary characteristics in a sample of Galactic massive O stars and quantified the frequency and nature of binary interactions. More than 70% of all massive stars will exchange mass with a companion, leading to a binary merger in one-third of the cases. These numbers greatly exceed previous estimates and imply that binary interaction dominates the evolution of massive stars, with implications for populations of massive stars and their supernovae. [less ▲]

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See detailA simple type of wood in two early Devonian plants
Gerrienne, Philippe ULg; Gensel, Patricia G.; Strullu-Derrien, Christine et al

in Science (2011), 333

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See detailKepler Detected Gravity-Mode Period Spacings in a Red Giant Star
Beck, P. G.; Bedding, T. R.; Mosser, B. et al

in Science (2011), 332

Stellar interiors are inaccessible through direct observations. For this reason, helioseismologists made use of the Sun’s acoustic oscillation modes to tune models of its structure. The quest to detect ... [more ▼]

Stellar interiors are inaccessible through direct observations. For this reason, helioseismologists made use of the Sun’s acoustic oscillation modes to tune models of its structure. The quest to detect modes that probe the solar core has been ongoing for decades. We report the detection of mixed modes penetrating all the way to the core of an evolved star from 320 days of observations with the Kepler satellite. The period spacings of these mixed modes are directly dependent on the density gradient between the core region and the convective envelope. [less ▲]

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See detailPreserved feedforward but impaired top-down processes in the vegetative state.
Boly, Mélanie ULg; Garrido, Marta Isabel; Gosseries, Olivia ULg et al

in Science (2011), 332(6031), 858-62

Frontoparietal cortex is involved in the explicit processing (awareness) of stimuli. Frontoparietal activation has also been found in studies of subliminal stimulus processing. We hypothesized that an ... [more ▼]

Frontoparietal cortex is involved in the explicit processing (awareness) of stimuli. Frontoparietal activation has also been found in studies of subliminal stimulus processing. We hypothesized that an impairment of top-down processes, involved in recurrent neuronal message-passing and the generation of long-latency electrophysiological responses, might provide a more reliable correlate of consciousness in severely brain-damaged patients, than frontoparietal responses. We measured effective connectivity during a mismatch negativity paradigm and found that the only significant difference between patients in a vegetative state and controls was an impairment of backward connectivity from frontal to temporal cortices. This result emphasizes the importance of top-down projections in recurrent processing that involve high-order associative cortices for conscious perception. [less ▲]

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See detailResponse to comment on "preserved feedforward but impaired top-down processes in the vegetative state".
Boly, Mélanie ULg; Garrido, Marta Isabel; Gosseries, Olivia ULg et al

in Science (2011), 334(6060), 1203

King et al. raise some technical issues about our recent study showing impaired top-down processes in the vegetative state. We welcome the opportunity to provide more details about our methods and results ... [more ▼]

King et al. raise some technical issues about our recent study showing impaired top-down processes in the vegetative state. We welcome the opportunity to provide more details about our methods and results and to resolve their concerns. We substantiate our interpretation of the results and provide a point-by-point response to the issues raised. [less ▲]

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See detailEvidence for Network Evolution in an Arabidopsis Interactome Map
Arabidopsis Interactome Mapping Consortium; Braun, Pascal; Carvunis, Anne-Ruxandra et al

in Science (2011), 333(6042), 601-607

Plants have unique features that evolved in response to their environments and ecosystems. A full account of the complex cellular networks that underlie plant-specific functions is still missing. We ... [more ▼]

Plants have unique features that evolved in response to their environments and ecosystems. A full account of the complex cellular networks that underlie plant-specific functions is still missing. We describe a proteome-wide binary protein-protein interaction map for the interactome network of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana containing about 6200 highly reliable interactions between about 2700 proteins. A global organization of plant biological processes emerges from community analyses of the resulting network, together with large numbers of novel hypothetical functional links between proteins and pathways. We observe a dynamic rewiring of interactions following gene duplication events, providing evidence for a model of evolution acting upon interactome networks. This and future plant interactome maps should facilitate systems approaches to better understand plant biology and improve crops. [less ▲]

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See detailLearning from the Past to Improve Future Resettlement Associated with Climate Change
de Sherbinin, Alex; Castro, Marcia; Gemenne, François ULg et al

in Science (2011), 334(6055), 456-457

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See detailResponse to Comment on “Homeostatic Sleep Pressure and Responses to Sustained Attention in the Suprachiasmatic Area”
Schmidt, Christina ULg; Peigneux, Philippe ULg; Maquet, Pierre ULg et al

in Science (2010)

Astafiev et al. question whether the blood oxygen level–dependent (BOLD) response that we reported in the brainstem was located in the locus coeruleus (LC). Using high-resolution T1-turbo spin echo images ... [more ▼]

Astafiev et al. question whether the blood oxygen level–dependent (BOLD) response that we reported in the brainstem was located in the locus coeruleus (LC). Using high-resolution T1-turbo spin echo images (T1-TSE) acquired in an independent group of subjects, we show that the reported task-related BOLD response in the brainstem is actually compatible with the anatomical location of the LC. [less ▲]

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See detailDeep Water Formation in the North Pacific during the Last Glacial Termination
Okazaki, Y.; Timmermann, A.; Menviel, L. et al

in Science (2010), 329

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See detailIdentification of functional elements and regulatory circuits by Drosophila modENCODE.
Roy, Sushmita; Ernst, Jason; Kharchenko, Peter V. et al

in Science (2010), 330(6012), 1787-97

To gain insight into how genomic information is translated into cellular and developmental programs, the Drosophila model organism Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (modENCODE) project is comprehensively ... [more ▼]

To gain insight into how genomic information is translated into cellular and developmental programs, the Drosophila model organism Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (modENCODE) project is comprehensively mapping transcripts, histone modifications, chromosomal proteins, transcription factors, replication proteins and intermediates, and nucleosome properties across a developmental time course and in multiple cell lines. We have generated more than 700 data sets and discovered protein-coding, noncoding, RNA regulatory, replication, and chromatin elements, more than tripling the annotated portion of the Drosophila genome. Correlated activity patterns of these elements reveal a functional regulatory network, which predicts putative new functions for genes, reveals stage- and tissue-specific regulators, and enables gene-expression prediction. Our results provide a foundation for directed experimental and computational studies in Drosophila and related species and also a model for systematic data integration toward comprehensive genomic and functional annotation. [less ▲]

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