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See detailZooarchaeology of the layers from Dorochivtsy III (Ukraine)
Demay, Laëtitia ULg; Patou-Mathis, Marylène; Koulakovska, Larissa

in Quaternary International (2015)

Palaeolithic archaeological sites of the Western Ukraine are clustered along the Prut and Dniester Rivers. Different sites provided data enabling reconstruction of the paleoenvironment, chronology and ... [more ▼]

Palaeolithic archaeological sites of the Western Ukraine are clustered along the Prut and Dniester Rivers. Different sites provided data enabling reconstruction of the paleoenvironment, chronology and cultures of human group during the Upper Paleolithic (notably Molodova V). During the second part of the Pleniglacial, between 23 000 and 20 000 years BP, palaeoclimatic variations took place. The intensification of cold and arid conditions is liable to force human groups to adapt to a changing environment. Little is known about this period, with only a few assemblages. Ongoing excavations continue to provide new data. The archaeological site of Dorochivtsy III has an important sequence stratigraphy with several archaeological layers. Among the seven Upper Palaeolithic layers, layers 6, 5, 4 and 3 testify to activities of a human group during the Upper Pleniglacial. We studied the faunal assemblages applying zooarchaeological methods, identifying mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius), reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), horse (Equus sp.) and fox (Alopex lagopus/Vulpes vulpes). The Gravettian layers 3, 4, 5 have anthropogenic clues in connection with subsistence activities oriented on reindeer, then horses, and finally fox. Concerning mammoths, we cannot define the modes of acquisition and use. These occupations have been interpreted as recurrent hunting occupations linked to procurement of local flint and lithic production for butchering activities. Layer 6 dated to 22 330 ± 100 BP is remarkable because of previously unseen practises. The lithic assemblage combined with bone industry and engraved tusk is a novel set of cultural elements in this area, called ancient Epigravettian. This layer testifies to the diversity of human activities during the Upper Pleniglacial and to the particular status of mammoth ivory as an artistic medium. Palynological data and taphonomic observations on bones indicate the persistence of relatively moist conditions during some periods, which could favour the movement of human groups. Although little is known about the Upper Pleniglacial period, Dorochivtsy III testifies to the continuity of a large exploitation of the territory of the Dniester valley. [less ▲]

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See detailZooarchaeological study of an Upper Palaeolithic site with mammoth remains, Pushkari Ieexcavation VII (Chernigov oblast, Ukraine)
Demay, Laëtitia ULg; Péan, Stéphane; Belyaeva, Valentina I. et al

in Quaternary International (2015)

The Pushkari archaeological complex is one of the few sites which shows human occupations related to the first part of the Upper Pleniglacial. Pushkari I furnished rich archaeological material. Study of ... [more ▼]

The Pushkari archaeological complex is one of the few sites which shows human occupations related to the first part of the Upper Pleniglacial. Pushkari I furnished rich archaeological material. Study of the lithic industry identified a facies of Gravettian with epigravettian features, called Pushkarian. In order to figure out acquisition and treatment modalities of large mammals, and to test the hypothesis of the use of woolly mammoth as a source of food and building material, we conducted a zooarchaeological study of the faunal remains from excavation VII of Pushkari I. The faunal spectrum is made of Mammuthus primigenius, the predominant species, Equus sp., R. tarandus, Canis lupus and Vulpes vulpes/Alopex lagopus. Taphonomic study suggests that some bone remains of mammoth lay in open-air for a long time before they were buried while bones of carnivores and other bones of mammoth were quickly buried. All the assemblage was affected by acid sandy deposits. Phenomena of freeze-thaw action were observed, but the archaeological layer was little disturbed. Mammoths came regularly on the promontory. The skeletal preservation shows that they died there. The mortality profile with a majority of adults combined with a palethnographic interpretation suggests that they were slaughtered and butchered by human groups. Tusks were stored. The spatial distribution indicates a campsite, which corresponds to recurrent short-termed occupations on the promontory by human groups. This site is a strategic place to collect flint to make weapons, to find dry mammoth bones, and to hunt and butcher mammoths. This study provides new data to understand the particular status of the woolly mammoth for the Upper Pleniglacial human groups in the Russo-Ukrainian plain. [less ▲]

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See detailTechnical diversity within the tanged-tool Gravettian: new results from Belgium
Touzé, Olivier ULg; Flas, Damien; Pesesse, Damien

in Quaternary International (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2015.11.034

Located at the interface between the Paris and the Rhine Basins and the more northern territories of Europe, Belgium contains several Gravettian occupations, both open-air and in caves. The available ... [more ▼]

Located at the interface between the Paris and the Rhine Basins and the more northern territories of Europe, Belgium contains several Gravettian occupations, both open-air and in caves. The available documentation is unfortunately limited by the earliness of the excavations conducted at most sites. Stratified records in karstic context, primarily excavated in the 19th century, are particularly affected by this situation. The analysis of Gravettian lithic technological behaviours can, however, rely on two open air sites excavated in the late 20th century which provide more rigorous data: Maisières-Canal and Station de l'Hermitage. These two sites have been the focus of comparisons that highlight their similarities, both in terms of the lithic industry and location. In fact, the former stands out for the presence of tanged tools, a typological marker which is usually associated with the Early Gravettian of Western Europe. In this article, we present a new study that evidences the differences in the lithic technical systems represented at these sites. After a presentation of the most recent data, we consider the causes that may be responsible for such diversity, highlighting the possible role of the chronological factor, but also of the existence of an original technical tradition in north-western Europe during the appearance and development of the Gravettian. [less ▲]

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See detailThe open-air site of Tolbor 16 (Northern Mongolia): preliminary results and perspectives
Zwyns, N.; Gladyshev; Gunchinsuren, B. et al

in Quaternary International (2014), 347

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See detailRevisiting the Palaeolithic site of Kulbulak (Uzbekistan): First results from luminescence dating
Vandenberghe, D.A.G.; Flas, Damien ULg; De Dapper, Morgan et al

in Quaternary International (2014), 324

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See detailAn open-air site from the recent Middle Palaeolithic in the Paris Basin (France): Les Bossats at Ormesson (Seine-et-Marne).
Bodu, Pierre; Salomon, Hélène ULg; Leroyer, Mathieu et al

in Quaternary International (2014), 331

In northern France, most of the sites attributed to the Middle Palaeolithic are open-air sites in which mainly lithic artefacts are found, due to taphonomic conditions often unfavourable to the ... [more ▼]

In northern France, most of the sites attributed to the Middle Palaeolithic are open-air sites in which mainly lithic artefacts are found, due to taphonomic conditions often unfavourable to the preservation of fauna. The lithic assemblages found in most of those open-air sites suggest that the activities on the camp sites were diversified, although flint knapping was often intense due to the proximity of sources of raw siliceous materials. With the exception of very rare open-air sites, fauna is poorly preserved and spatial and economic analyses may often be based on the spatial distribution of lithic artefacts, in particular based on refits and their analysis. Therefore the palaeoethnological approach is difficult to implement in most open-air areas. In contrast, in the Paris Basin, the study of more recent sites from the Tardiglacial, such as the Magdalenian sites of Pincevent or Etiolles, falls within this approach. The recent discovery (2009) and excavation of the open-air site of Ormesson (Seine-et-Marne - France) was initially intended to document a Gravettian occupation floor dated around 26,000 years uncal BP and related to a preferential bison hunt. Whilst checking the thickness of the loess in which the Gravettian level was found, several other prehistoric settlements were discovered (Chatelperronian, Middle Solutrean) including two units attributed to the Middle Palaeolithic. One of them, level 4, seems to be particularly well-preserved. It occurs between one and three meters below the main Upper Palaeolithic occupation. The lithic industry from level 4 belongs to a technical tradition generally attributed to the Middle Palaeolithic: discoid technology. The freshness of the material and the presence of bone fragments attributed in part to horse support a general good state of preservation of this occupation. The Mousterian remains seem to cover at least 500 m2, as currently estimated. Even more exceptional is the close spatial relationship between the discoid industry, the bone pieces, remains of fireplaces and especially the numerous fragments and nodules of red colouring materials. These were brought to the site where they were utilised by the Mousterians. The used surfaces show indisputable scraping traces and facets. These recent discoveries will certainly contribute to the debate on the cognitive capacities of nearly the last representatives of the Middle Palaeolithic and this within a complex stratigraphy which will allow us to make comparisons between the different periods. [less ▲]

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See detailMammoths used as food and building resources by Neanderthals: Zooarchaeological study applied to layer 4, Molodova I (Ukraine)
Demay, Laëtitia ULg; Péan, Stéphane; Patou-Mathis, Marylène

in Quaternary International (2012, October 25), 276-277(25 October 2012), 212-226

Considering Neanderthal subsistence, the use of mammoth resources has been particularly discussed. Apart from procurement for food, the use of mammoth bones as building material has been proposed. The ... [more ▼]

Considering Neanderthal subsistence, the use of mammoth resources has been particularly discussed. Apart from procurement for food, the use of mammoth bones as building material has been proposed. The hypothesis was based on the discovery made in Molodova I, Ukraine (Dniester valley). In this large multistratified open-air site, a rich Mousterian layer was excavated. Dated to the Inter-Pleniglacial (MIS 3), it has yielded 40 000 lithic remains associated with ca. 3000 mammal bones, mostly from mammoth. Several areas have been excavated: a pit filled with bones, different areas of activities (butchering, tool production), twenty-five hearths and a circular accumulation made of mammoth bones, described as a dwelling structure set up by Neanderthals. Attested dwelling structures made of mammoth bones are known in Upper Paleolithic sites, from Ukraine and Russia, attributed to the Epigravettian tradition. This paper presents a zooarchaeological study of large mammal remains from Molodova I layer 4, to understand the modalities of acquisition and utilization of mammoth resources for food and technical purposes, especially to test the hypothesis of using bones as building elements. The number of mammoths is estimated to at least fifteen individuals of all age classes and both sexes, which died during several episodes, near or on the site. The taphonomic modifications due to weathering, water percolation and plant roots indicate the location of bones in holes, such as the pit and the basement of the circular accumulation. Secondary actions of carnivores, especially of hyaenid type, are rare on bones, showing that the assemblage was not accumulated by these predators. The anatomical preservation, the age and sex features and the taphonomic data indicate several modalities of mammoth acquisition by hunting, scavenging and collecting. Based on anthropogenic marks, mammoth meat has been eaten. The presence of series of striations and ochre on mammoth bones are associated with a technical or symbolic use. Furthermore, mammoth bones have been deliberately selected (long and flat bones, tusks, connected vertebrae) and circularly arranged. This mammoth bone structure could be described as the basement of a wooden cover or as a wind-screen. The inner presence of fifteen hearths, lithic artifacts and waste of mammal butchery and cooking is characteristic of a domestic area, which was probably the centre of a residential camp recurrently settled. It appears that Neanderthals were the oldest known humans who used mammoth bones to build a dwelling structure. [less ▲]

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See detailMapping the expansion of the Northwest Magdalenian
Miller, Rebecca ULg

in Quaternary International (2012), 272-273

New paleoclimatic data for the Lateglacial clarify climatic phases during the Lateglacial. Cold climate played a key role in limiting Magdalenian expansion from southwest and central Europe This paper ... [more ▼]

New paleoclimatic data for the Lateglacial clarify climatic phases during the Lateglacial. Cold climate played a key role in limiting Magdalenian expansion from southwest and central Europe This paper presents chronological and geographic data for the different climatic phases to map the expansion of the Magdalenian into northwest Europe. Specifically, it can be seen that initial expansion follows a southwest-northeast trajectory into southern Germany, followed by northern expansion into Belgium, central Germany and the Paris Basin at the end of the Oldest Dryas. During the Bølling and Allerød phases, human occupation intensified in the Paris Basin and contacts and/or territorial exploitation between both the Paris Basin and the Rhineland region with Belgian territory is demonstrated. [less ▲]

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See detailA millennial record of environmental change in peat deposits from the Misten bog (East Belgium).
De Vleeschouwer, F; Pazdur, A; Luthers, C et al

in Quaternary International (2012), 268

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See detailChronostratigraphic context of the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition. Recent data from Belgium
Pirson, Stéphane; Flas, Damien ULg; Abrams, Grégory et al

in Quaternary International (2012), 259

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See detailDevelopment and application of high-resolution petrography on resin-impregnated Holocene peat columns to detect and analyse tephras, cryptotephras, and other materials
De Vleeschouwer, François ULg; van Vliet-Lanoe, Brigitte; Fagel, Nathalie ULg et al

in Quaternary International (2008), 178

We describe the potential for high-resolution detection, observation and chemical analysis of tephras and cryptotephras in freeze-dried and resin-impregnated peat sections. Special attention is drawn to ... [more ▼]

We describe the potential for high-resolution detection, observation and chemical analysis of tephras and cryptotephras in freeze-dried and resin-impregnated peat sections. Special attention is drawn to tephra grain alteration products, sensitive to standard lab treatment, but preserved using an impregnation technique developed here. Resulting blocks and thin sections provide a continuous archive of tephras that can be investigated through a wide range of non-destructive techniques encompassing polarising and fluorescence microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with/without elemental analysis, and XRF-based core scanning. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailA method for estimating the migration time of plant species within the time range of 14C-Dating.
Juvigné, Etienne ULg; Bastin, B; Delibrias, G et al

in Quaternary International (1998), 47/48

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See detailA comprehensive pollen- and tephra- based chronostratigraphic model for the Late Glacial and Holocene Period in the French Massif Central.
Juvigné, Etienne ULg; Bastin, B; Delibrias, G et al

in Quaternary International (1996), 34-36

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