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See detailAuditory-verbal hallucinations and ordinary verbal thought
Laroi, Frank ULg

in Psychological Medicine (2009), 39

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See detailAutobiographical memory in non-amnesic alcohol-dependent patients
D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Verbanck, Paul et al

in Psychological Medicine (2006), 36(12), 1707-1715

Background. Chronic alcohol abuse is associated with a wide range of cognitive deficits. However, little is known about memory for real-life events (autobiographical memory) in non-amnesic alcoholic ... [more ▼]

Background. Chronic alcohol abuse is associated with a wide range of cognitive deficits. However, little is known about memory for real-life events (autobiographical memory) in non-amnesic alcoholic patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate (a) non-amnesic alcoholics' ability to recall specific autobiographical memories and (b) their subjective experience when they access specific memories.Method. Twenty non-amnesic (without Korsakoff syndrome) recently detoxified alcoholics and 20 healthy controls completed the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT), which assesses the frequency of specific (versus general) memories recalled in response to cue words, and the Memory Characteristics Questionnaire (MCQ), which assesses subjective experience (e.g. the amount of sensory and contextual details experienced) when remembering specific events.Results. Alcoholic patients recalled specific memories less frequently and general memories more frequently than healthy controls. Nevertheless, when a specific past event was accessed, alcoholic patients subjectively experienced as many sensory and contextual details as controls.Conclusions. These findings suggest that non-amnesic alcoholics have difficulties strategically accessing event-specific autobiographical knowledge, which might result from changes in frontal lobe function that are associated with alcoholism. [less ▲]

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See detailAbnormal response to metabolic stress in schizophrenia: marker of vulnerability or acquired sensitization?
Marcelis, Machteld; Cavalier, Etienne ULg; Gielen, Jacques ULg et al

in Psychological Medicine (2004), 34(6), 1103-1111

Background. Previous work suggests that individuals with schizophrenia display an altered homovanillic acid (HVA) response to metabolic stress. The present study replicated and extended this paradigm ... [more ▼]

Background. Previous work suggests that individuals with schizophrenia display an altered homovanillic acid (HVA) response to metabolic stress. The present study replicated and extended this paradigm, including individuals with elevated genetic risk for schizophrenia. Method. Patients with psychosis (n = 50), non-psychotic first-degree relatives of patients with psychosis (n = 5 1) and controls without psychosis (n = 50) underwent, in randomized order, double-blind administration of placebo and the glucose analogue 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG), which induces a mild, transient clinical state of glucoprivation. Plasma HVA and cortisol were assessed twice before the start of the 2DG/placebo infusion (baseline values), as well as four times post infusion. Data were analysed using multi-level random regression techniques. Results. During the stress condition, significant increases in plasma HVA and cortisol were found. The increase in plasma HVA level during the stress condition was significantly stronger in patients than in controls, whereas this was not the case in relatives v. controls. The increase in plasma cortisol during the stress condition was significantly less in patients than controls, but no significant difference in the increase of plasma cortisol during stress was found in the comparison between relatives and controls. Conclusions. Patients with psychosis, but not their non-psychotic first-degree relatives, show an altered neurobiological response to metabolic stress, suggesting that this dysregulation is not a genetically transmitted vulnerability, but an illness-related effect, possibly reflecting acquired sensitization of neuroendocrine systems by repeated environmental stressors or repeated stimulation with agonistic drugs. [less ▲]

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See detail5-HT1A dysfunction in borderline personality disorder.
Hansenne, Michel ULg; Pitchot, William ULg; Pinto, Emmanuel ULg et al

in Psychological Medicine (2002), 32(5), 935-41

BACKGROUND: A number of challenge studies have reported abnormalities of serotonergic function in borderline personality disorder (BPD). There are, however, problems with the pharmacological probes used ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: A number of challenge studies have reported abnormalities of serotonergic function in borderline personality disorder (BPD). There are, however, problems with the pharmacological probes used in these studies since fenfluramine and m-CPP are not only serotonergic agents but also induce release of catecholamines, particularly dopamine. Therefore, we tested whether subjects with BPD showed a blunted prolactin (PRL) response to flesinoxan, a highly potent and selective 5-HT1A agonist. METHODS: Flesinoxan challenge test was carried out in 20 BPD in-patients and 20 healthy controls matched for gender but not for age. Since 16 BPD in-patients exhibited major depressive co-morbidity, a group of 20 depressed in-patients matched for gender but not for age was also included. RESULTS: BPD in-patients exhibited blunted PRL responses as compared to controls, whereas depressed in-patients did not differ from controls. Moreover, PRL responses were lower among BPD in-patients than among depressed in-patients. Among the BPD in-patients, PRL responses to flesinoxan were lower in patients with past history of suicide attempts (N = 8) than in those with a negative history. CONCLUSIONS: The results show major involvement of serotonergic function in BPD and are consistent with previous studies linking lower serotonergic activity with impulsivity. More particularly, our data suggest that BPD is characterized by lower 5-HT1A receptor sensitivity. Moreover, the data support the involvement of 5-HT1A activity in suicidal behaviour. However, this conclusion is limited because other hormonal responses such as ACTH and cortisol were not assessed, and because BPD was assessed by a self-report questionnaire and not a structured clinical interview. [less ▲]

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See detailGrowth hormone response to clonidine in male untreated panic patients
Scittecatte, Michel; ANSSEAU, Marc ULg; Charles, Gerard et al

in Psychological Medicine (1992)

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