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See detailEccentric muscle contractions: risks and benefits
Hody, Stéphanie ULg; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg; Lacrosse, Zoé ULg et al

in Proceedings of the Belgian Royal Academies of Medicine (2014)

La contraction musculaire excentrique se caractérise par le développement d'une tension musculaire associée à l'étirement concomitant du complexe musculo-tendineux. Ce mode de contraction présente un ... [more ▼]

La contraction musculaire excentrique se caractérise par le développement d'une tension musculaire associée à l'étirement concomitant du complexe musculo-tendineux. Ce mode de contraction présente un intérêt croissant dans de nombreux domaines tels que l’entraînement sportif, la médecine physique et la rééducation. De plus, certaines indications de l’entraînement en mode excentrique ont été posées chez des patients porteurs de maladies chroniques. Cependant, lorsqu’il est réalisé de manière intense et inhabituelle, l’exercice excentrique peut entraîner diverses altérations de l’ultrastructure musculaire qui se manifestent par une série de symptômes cliniques comme des douleurs musculaires d’apparition retardées (Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness, DOMS) et une altération de la fonction musculaire. Malgré la littérature abondante consacrée à la description du phénomène des DOMS, aucune théorie cohérente n’est actuellement disponible pour expliquer la survenue différée des sensations douloureuses et des signes associés. De même, toujours à l’analyse de la littérature, on ne peut que constater l’absence de solution thérapeutique susceptible d’atténuer significativement l’intensité des DOMS et de leurs conséquences fonctionnelles associées à l’exception, paradoxalement, de l’exercice excentrique lui-même qui, lorsqu’il est proposé en conditions sous-maximales d’intensité progressivement croissante, semble constituer la seule prévention réellement efficace de l’apparition des DOMS. De même, si l’efficacité d’un entraînement spécifique dans la prévention des DOMS a été confirmée par de nombreux travaux, la nature de cet effet protecteur reste sujette à conjectures. Nous sommes néanmoins convaincus qu’une meilleure compréhension des réponses aiguës et/ou adaptatives à l’exercice excentrique contribuerait d’une part, à la mise au point d’interventions thérapeutiques efficaces et d’autre part, à élucider les évènements moléculaires impliqués dans des conditions pathologiques telles que les myalgies et certaines maladies neuromusculaires. [less ▲]

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See detailThe thymus in 2013: from a 'vestigial' organ to immunological self-tolerance and autoimmunity
Geenen, Vincent ULg

in Proceedings of the Belgian Royal Academies of Medicine (2014), 3

The programming of ‘neuroendocrine self’ occurs in the thymus, a cross-talk organ the emergence of which some 450 millions years ago allowed an integrated and harmonious coevolution between the major ... [more ▼]

The programming of ‘neuroendocrine self’ occurs in the thymus, a cross-talk organ the emergence of which some 450 millions years ago allowed an integrated and harmonious coevolution between the major systems of cell-to-cell communication, the nervous, endocrine and immune systems. Neuroendocrine self-peptides are secreted by thymic epithelial cells not according to the classic model of neurosecretion, but are processed for the presentation by, or in association with, the major histocompatibility complex proteins. The autoimmune regulator (Aire) gene/protein controls the transcription of neuroendocrine genes in thymic epithelial cells. The presentation of self-peptides derived from endogenous proteins in the thymus is responsible for the negative selection of self-reactive T cells and, paradoxically in the same time, for the positive selection of thymo- dependant regulatory T (tTreg) cells that can inhibit, in the periphery, those self-reactive T cells that escaped clonal deletion in the thymus. The development of autoimmunity towards endocrine glands first results from a defect in the intrathymic programming of self-tolerance to neuroendocrine functions. This defect may be genetic or acquired, for example during an enteroviral infection. This novel knowledge of normal and pathological functions of the thymus constitutes a solid basis for the development of a novel type of tolerogenic/negative ‘self-vaccination’ against type 1 diabetes. [less ▲]

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See detailUpdate on nutritional management of the premature infants
SENTERRE, Thibault ULg; Rigo, Jacques ULg

in Proceedings of the Belgian Royal Academies of Medicine (2013), 2

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See detailTransformation by deltaretroviruses: mechanisms and therapies
Willems, Luc ULg

in Proceedings of the Belgian Royal Academies of Medicine (2012), 1

Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and bovine leukemia virus (BLV) are two closely related deltaretroviruses inducing hematological diseases in human and ruminants. HTLV-1 infects about 25 million ... [more ▼]

Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and bovine leukemia virus (BLV) are two closely related deltaretroviruses inducing hematological diseases in human and ruminants. HTLV-1 infects about 25 million subjects worldwide and causes Adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATLL) or HAM/TSP (HTLV-induced myelopathy - tropical spastic paraparesis). BLV is the etiological agent of enzootic bovine leukemia. HTLV-1 and BLV have developed strategies to subvert hosts' immune surveillance. Understanding these mechanisms has allowed development of novel therapeutic approaches. [less ▲]

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See detailTransformation by deltaretroviruses: mechanisms and therapies
Willems, Luc ULg

in Proceedings of the Belgian Royal Academies of Medicine (2012), 1

Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and bovine leukemia virus (BLV) are two closely related deltaretroviruses inducing hematological diseases in human and ruminants. HTLV-1 infects about 25 million ... [more ▼]

Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and bovine leukemia virus (BLV) are two closely related deltaretroviruses inducing hematological diseases in human and ruminants. HTLV-1 infects about 25 million subjects worldwide and causes Adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATLL) or HAM/TSP (HTLV-induced myelopathy - tropical spastic paraparesis). BLV is the etiological agent of enzootic bovine leukemia. HTLV-1 and BLV have developed strategies to subvert hosts' immune surveillance. Understanding these mechanisms has allowed development of novel therapeutic approaches. [less ▲]

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See detailTransformation by deltaretroviruses: mechanisms and therapies
Willems, Luc ULg

in Proceedings of the Belgian Royal Academies of Medicine (2012), 1

Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and bovine leukemia virus (BLV) are two closely related deltaretroviruses inducing hematological diseases in human and ruminants. HTLV-1 infects about 25 million ... [more ▼]

Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and bovine leukemia virus (BLV) are two closely related deltaretroviruses inducing hematological diseases in human and ruminants. HTLV-1 infects about 25 million subjects worldwide and causes Adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATLL) or HAM/TSP (HTLV-induced myelopathy - tropical spastic paraparesis). BLV is the etiological agent of enzootic bovine leukemia. HTLV-1 and BLV have developed strategies to subvert hosts' immune surveillance. Understanding these mechanisms has allowed development of novel therapeutic approaches. [less ▲]

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See detailMultimodal evaluation of gait and stride dynamics in relapsing and progressive forms of multiple sclerosis
Belachew, Shibeshih ULg; Pierard, Sébastien ULg; PHAN BA, Remy ULg et al

in Proceedings of the Belgian Royal Academies of Medicine (2012), 1

Ambulation measures are being increasingly recognized as highly relevant to the quantification of multiple sclerosis (MS) severity and response to treatment. Feet paths are highly informative for gait ... [more ▼]

Ambulation measures are being increasingly recognized as highly relevant to the quantification of multiple sclerosis (MS) severity and response to treatment. Feet paths are highly informative for gait analysis and we have recently designed a new system, which captures the position of the feet in real time. We use several range laser scanners (RLS) to analyze a horizontal slice of the scene in which each foot is considered as a point, and the vertical movements are ignored. Neat ambulation measures may be easily extracted such as walking speed, distance between feet over time, swing phase duration, and gait asymmetry in specific settings of walking recommendations. Our RLS platform is much cheaper than existing sensor-based and motion capture systems and may be more convenient for the development of multicentric clinical trials settings since patients can be easily and rapidly assessed without tags or sensors in the hallway of an outpatient clinic. We use 4 BEA LZR-i100 RLS arranged in a corridor of at least 10m long and 4m width, devoid of obstacle. The scanned plane is chosen to be located at 15 cm above the floor, which is right above the tibio-tarsal joint of the ankle in a barefoot configuration for adult individuals in stance phase. We expect further studies to validate and empower the meaning of non-intrusive RLS-derived gait measures that should pave the ground for major improvements in the way we will assess the efficacy of disease-modifying treatments (DMTs), physical therapy and symptomatic interventions on walking impairment, ataxia and fatigability in MS. RLS-derived gait measures may also reveal to be crucial in the near future for the development of treatments that would specifically target progressive forms of MS. [less ▲]

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