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See detailEffect of the ratio of dietary n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on broiler breeder performance, egg quality, and yolk fatty acid composition at different breeder ages.
Koppenol, A.; Delezie, E.; Aerts, J. et al

in Poultry science (2014), 93(3), 564-73

When added to the feed of broiler breeder hens, dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA) can be incorporated into the yolk and therefore become available to the progeny during their early development. The ... [more ▼]

When added to the feed of broiler breeder hens, dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA) can be incorporated into the yolk and therefore become available to the progeny during their early development. The mechanism involved in lipid metabolism and deposition in the egg may be influenced by breeder age. Before the effect of an elevated concentration of certain polyunsaturated FA on the embryo can be investigated, the effect at breeder level and egg quality must be further assessed. The aim of the present experiment was to evaluate the effects of dietary n-6/n-3 ratios and dietary eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) ratios, provided to broiler breeder hens, in terms of their zoo technical performance, egg quality, and yolk FA composition. Starting at 6 wk of age, 640 Ross-308 broiler breeder hens were fed 1 of 4 different diets. The control diet was a basal diet, rich in n-6 FA. The 3 other diets were enriched in n-3 FA, formulated to obtain a different EPA/DHA ratio of 1/1 (EPA = DHA), 1/2 (DHA), or 2/1 (EPA). In fact, after analysis the EPA/DHA ratio was 0.8, 0.4, or 2.1, respectively. Dietary EPA and DHA addition did not affect the performance of the breeder hens, except for egg weight. Egg weight was lower (P < 0.001) for all n-3 treatments. Dietary EPA improved number of eggs laid in the first 2 wk of the production cycle (P = 0.029). The absolute and relative yolk weight of eggs laid by EPA = DHA fed hens was lowest (P = 0.004 and P = 0.025, respectively). The EPA and DHA concentrations in the yolk were highly dependent on dietary EPA and DHA concentrations with a regression coefficient equal to 0.89. It can be concluded that dietary EPA and DHA can be incorporated in the breeder egg yolk to become available for the developing embryo, without compromising the performance and egg quality of the flock. [less ▲]

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See detailPartial albumen removal early during embryonic development of layer-type chickens has negative consequences on laying performance in adult life.
Willems, E.; Wang, Y.; Willemsen, H. et al

in Poultry science (2013), 92(7), 1905-15

To examine the importance of albumen as a protein source during embryonic development on the posthatch performance of laying hens, 3 mL of the albumen was removed. At hatch, no difference in BW could be ... [more ▼]

To examine the importance of albumen as a protein source during embryonic development on the posthatch performance of laying hens, 3 mL of the albumen was removed. At hatch, no difference in BW could be observed. Chicks from the albumen-deprived group had a lower residual yolk weight due to higher yolk utilization. During the rearing phase (hatch to 17 wk of age), the BW of the albumen-deprived pullets was lower compared with the control and sham pullets. The feed intake of the albumen-deprived pullets was also lower than the control pullets. However, during the laying phase (18 to 55 wk of age) these hens exceeded the control and sham hens in BW, although this was not accompanied by a higher feed intake. The albumen-deprived hens exhibited a lower egg production capacity as demonstrated by the reduced egg weight, laying rate, and egg mass and increased number of second grade eggs. In addition, the eggs laid by the albumen-deprived hens had a higher proportional yolk and lower proportional albumen weight. In conclusion, prenatal protein deprivation by albumen removal caused a long-lasting programming effect, possibly by differences in energy allocation, in favor of growth and maintenance and impairing reproductive performance. [less ▲]

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See detailSalmonella Typhimurium oral challenge model in mature broilers: Bacteriological, immunological, and growth performance aspects.
Marcq, Christopher ULg; Cox, Edwin; Szalo, Ioan Mihai ULg et al

in Poultry Science (2011), 90(1), 59-67

In this study, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium challenge models were tested to identify the best conditions under which to perform the experimental infection of 3-wk-old broilers. Such a model ... [more ▼]

In this study, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium challenge models were tested to identify the best conditions under which to perform the experimental infection of 3-wk-old broilers. Such a model would be useful to study the efficiency of therapeutic treatments that could take place at the end of the grow-out period. Salmonella-free chicks were obtained from a breeder flock vaccinated with Salmonella. Intestinal maternal immunity was monitored by ELISA analyses at 2, 9, and 16 d of age. Data indicated that protection of maternal origin was not maintained over time and was drastically reduced at 9 d of age (P < 0.01). At 21 d of age, chickens were orally inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium. The effects of the oral challenge dose (0, 3 x 10(3), 3 x 10(6), and 3 x 10(9) cfu/bird) and vancomycin pretreatment (no administration or 25 mg/bird) on intestinal immune responses, growth performance, and Salmonella colonization of chickens were investigated. After infection, the mucosal immune response was rapid, with increased (P < 0.01) anti-Salmonella Typhimurium IgA titers measured at 8 d postinfection in intestinal contents. A linear relationship (P < 0.05) existed between specific IgA levels in intestinal and cecal contents and the challenge dose inoculated. None of the challenge protocols caused mortality or clinical symptoms after infection. Nevertheless, the experimental infection induced a significant deterioration of growth performance. The pretreatment with 25 mg of vancomycin at 3 h before Salmonella inoculation was able to establish stable infection rates among the population of 3-wk-old infected chickens. Nevertheless, Salmonella shedding was not stable over the rearing period, and the bacteria seemed to be naturally eliminated from most birds at 22 d postinfection. This natural clearance of the gut, which was related, at least in part, to the intestinal immune response, should limit the usability of the created mature challenge model within 1 to 2 wk after inoculation. [less ▲]

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See detailIntermittent thermal manipulations of broiler embryos during late incubation and their immediate effect on the embryonic development and hatching process.
Willemsen, H.; Li, Yongzhen ULg; Willems, E. et al

in Poultry science (2011), 90(6), 1302-12

Intermittent high (+3 degrees C) and low (-3 degrees C) temperature treatments for 4 h on embryonic day (E) 16, E17, and E18 showed differential effects on embryonic metabolism, without influencing ... [more ▼]

Intermittent high (+3 degrees C) and low (-3 degrees C) temperature treatments for 4 h on embryonic day (E) 16, E17, and E18 showed differential effects on embryonic metabolism, without influencing embryonic growth or hatchability. Embryos in the high-temperature group shifted to a more anaerobic metabolism, as indicated by a lower partial pressure of O(2) and a higher partial pressure of CO(2) in the air cell, lower blood pH, and higher lactic acid production. Three hours after the end of the high-temperature treatment, a decrease in metabolism was observed, as indicated by the lower partial pressure of CO(2) and higher partial pressure of O(2) in the air cell and increased plasma triglyceride levels. The embryos in the low-temperature group responded by temporarily slowing down their metabolism, especially the metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids, as indicated by altered air cell gases, a higher relative yolk weight, higher plasma triglyceride level, and higher liver glycogen level. Three hours after the end of the temperature treatment, the metabolism of embryos in the low-temperature treatment had increased to the level of the control temperature group. However, for both temperature treatments, during the hatching process, all the shortages and excesses created were restored to control levels, which would explain the lack of change in embryo growth and hatchability and the slight delay in the hatching process. These mild consequences of the intermittent temperature treatment indicate that the different metabolic shifts made by the embryos seem to be efficient in overcoming the challenges of the intermittent high- or low-temperature treatment during late incubation. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of dietary supplementation of methionine and its hydroxy analog DL-2-hydroxy-4-methylthiobutanoic acid on growth performance, plasma hormone levels, and the redox status of broiler chickens exposed to high temperatures.
Willemsen, H.; Swennen, Q.; Everaert, Nadia ULg et al

in Poultry science (2011), 90(10), 2311-20

Heat stress is known to impair performance and to induce oxidative stress in poultry. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of dietary supplementation of dl-methionine (dl-M) or the ... [more ▼]

Heat stress is known to impair performance and to induce oxidative stress in poultry. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of dietary supplementation of dl-methionine (dl-M) or the synthetic analog 2-hydroxy-4-methylthiobutanoic acid (dl-HMTBA) on broiler growth performance, plasma hormone levels, and some oxidative stress-related parameters under conditions of chronic exposure to high temperatures (HT). From 2 to 6 wk of age, male broiler chickens were reared under either a constant temperature of 32 degrees C until 6 wk of age or a normal temperature scheme (gradual decrease to 18 degrees C at 5 wk of age). Chicks in both the normal and HT treatments were provided with a commercial grower diet supplemented with either 1.0 or 1.2 g/kg of dl-M or 1.0 or 1.2 g/kg of dl-HMTBA. Because there were no effects of supplement dose, data were pooled over both doses within each temperature treatment. The chronic HT treatment impaired feed intake and BW gain, but these negative effects were less pronounced when the chickens received dl-HMTBA. Exposure to HT was also associated with decreased (P < 0.001) plasma thyroid hormones and increased (P < 0.0001) plasma corticosterone levels. At 4 wk of age, and irrespective of the supplemental source, chickens subjected to HT were characterized by significantly lower plasma TBA-reactive substance levels. In contrast, at 6 wk of age, plasma TBA-reactive substance levels were significantly increased by HT, but this effect was observed only for the chickens receiving dl-M and not for those receiving dl-HMTBA. High temperatures induced a significant increase in hepatic total glutathione (GSH) and oxidized GSH levels, regardless of the supplemental source. However, the hepatic ratios of reduced GSH to total GSH and reduced GSH to oxidized GSH were highest in chickens supplemented with dl-HMTBA. In conclusion, dl-HMTBA supplementation partially prevented the growth-depressing effects of chronic heat exposure compared with dl-M supplementation. It can be inferred that dl-HMTBA is more efficient in alleviating HT-induced oxidative damage because of a more favorable reduced GSH-to-total GSH ratio. [less ▲]

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See detailHigh- and low-temperature manipulation during late incubation: effects on embryonic development, the hatching process, and metabolism in broilers.
Willemsen, H.; Kamers, B.; Dahlke, F. et al

in Poultry science (2010), 89(12), 2678-90

Temperatures continuously higher and lower than the standard incubation temperature by 3 degrees C from embryonic d 16 until embryonic d 18.5 result in differential effects on embryonic development, the ... [more ▼]

Temperatures continuously higher and lower than the standard incubation temperature by 3 degrees C from embryonic d 16 until embryonic d 18.5 result in differential effects on embryonic development, the hatching process, and embryonic metabolism. Embryos in the high-temperature group were forced into a state of malnutrition by the temperature treatment, as reflected by reduced embryo growth and yolk consumption, resulting in a significantly lower chick weight at hatch. In addition, altered air cell and blood gases as well as a retarded hatching process further indicated reduced growth of embryos exposed to higher incubation temperatures during the latter part of incubation. In addition, hatchability was significantly reduced by the high-temperature treatment due to higher embryonic mortality during the treatment period and the hatching process. Levels of blood glucose, lactate, liver glycogen, plasma triglycerides, and nonesterified fatty acids indicated an altered carbohydrate and lipid metabolism for the high-temperature group. Although the hatching process of embryos exposed to lower incubation temperatures was also significantly retarded, their embryonic development and growth were strikingly similar to those of the control group. [less ▲]

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See detailEfficiency of a Lactobacillus plantarum-xylanase combination on growth performances, microflora populations, and nutrient digestibilities of broilers infected with Salmonella Typhimurium
Vandeplas, Sabrina ULg; Dubois Dauphin, Robin ULg; Thiry, Christophe ULg et al

in Poultry Science (2009), 88(8), 1643-1654

Three experiments were performed to assess the ability of a Lactobacillus plantarum probiotic combined with a xylanase to reduce the effects of S. typhimurium infection in broiler chickens from 1- to 30 ... [more ▼]

Three experiments were performed to assess the ability of a Lactobacillus plantarum probiotic combined with a xylanase to reduce the effects of S. typhimurium infection in broiler chickens from 1- to 30- or 42-d-old. Chicks were challenged at 3-d-old with 108 or 105 cfu S. typhimurium/chick. Four diets were studied: a wheat-based diet (C+) supplemented with 0.1 g/kg xylanase (E), or 106 cfu/g or L. plantarum (P), or both (PE). Uninfected chicks fed the C diet were used as negative control (C-). Six or 8 chicks were housed per cage with 9 cages/treatment. Growth performance and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were recorded weekly. In experiment 1, bacterial enumeration in caeca was achieved using the fluorescent in situ hybridization technique. Salmonella enumeration was realized in excreta by microbiological cultures (Exp. 2 and 3). Nutrient digestibilities and AMEn were determined in experiment 3 from d 35 to d 39. Infection with S. typhimurium led to a significant decrease in the daily weight gain (DWG) by 23.6% to 32.8%, whereas FCR was increased by 1.0% to 19.7%. Chickens fed the PE diet showed significantly improved performance in comparison with C+ birds (DWG: +12.5% in Exp. 1; FCR: -2.1-8.6%), and in comparison with the P and E treatments (DWG: +6.3-8.3% in Exp. 1; FCR: -2.7-6.4%). In experiment 3, the FCR was significantly improved by 3% with the PE diet in comparison with C- chickens. The PE combination tended to restore a microflora similar to that of uninfected broilers, whereas the P and E diets had less of an effect on the profile of bacterial communities. At slaughter age, Salmonella contamination was reduced by 2.00 and 1.85 log cfu for the E and PE treatment, respectively. The PE diet significantly reduced the crude fat digestibility by 9.2%, in comparison with the C+ chickens. These results suggest that combination between L. plantarum and a xylanase as feed additive could be effective for reduction of detrimental effect following S. typhimurium infection of broilers. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of feed supplementation with specific hen egg yolk antibody (immunoglobin Y) on Salmonella species cecal colonization and growth performances of challenged broiler chickens
Chalghoumi, Raja; Marcq, Christopher ULg; Thewis, André ULg et al

in Poultry Science (2009), 88(10), 2081-2092

Anti-Salmonella spp. egg yolk antibodies (IgY) simultaneously directed against Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium were tested to determine if their inclusion in feed decreased Salmonella ... [more ▼]

Anti-Salmonella spp. egg yolk antibodies (IgY) simultaneously directed against Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium were tested to determine if their inclusion in feed decreased Salmonella spp. cecal colonization in experimentally infected broiler chickens. Egg yolk powder (EYP) was obtained by freeze-drying egg yolks containing anti-Salmonella spp. Immunoglobin Y was included in feed at 5 levels of concentration (0 to 5%). Feeds were formulated to similar nutrient levels and provided for ad libitum intake from d 1 to 28. Three days after initiation of feed treatments (d 4), chickens were co-challenged with equal numbers of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium (2x10(6) cfu/bird). Cecal samples were recovered weekly over the experimental period (d 7 to 28) to enumerate Salmonella spp. The effect of anti-Salmonella spp. IgY feed supplementation on growth performance of infected chickens was also evaluated during the same period. In comparison with the positive control treatment (PC), treatments involving EYP (T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5), whether containing anti-Salmonella spp. IgY or not, significantly improved (P<0.05) the growth performance of challenged chickens, but without reaching the performance levels of nonchallenged chickens (NC1 and NC2). However, no link can be established between the enhancement in growth performance of challenged birds and their contamination levels by Salmonella because in-feed incorporation of EYP had no significant effect on cecal colonization by Salmonella. Furthermore, the comparison of the 5 anti-Salmonella spp. IgY concentration levels in feed did not reveal any anti-Salmonella spp. IgY concentration effect on growth performance and Salmonella cecal colonization. These results suggest that anti-Salmonella spp. IgY would undergo denaturation and degradation after their passage through the animal gastrointestinal tract and reveal that components of EYP other than specific antibodies have a beneficial effect on growth performance. [less ▲]

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See detailProduction Of Hen Egg Yolk Immunoglobulins Simultaneously Directed Against Salmonella Enteritidis And Salmonella Typhimurium In The Same Egg Yolk
Chalghoumi, Raja ULg; Thewis, André ULg; Portetelle, Daniel ULg et al

in Poultry Science (2008), 87(1), 32-40

The present study was an attempt to raise hen egg yolk Ig (IgY) simultaneously directed against Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) and Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) in the same egg yolk. The immunopotentiating ... [more ▼]

The present study was an attempt to raise hen egg yolk Ig (IgY) simultaneously directed against Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) and Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) in the same egg yolk. The immunopotentiating effect of 2 different adjuvants—Freund’s adjuvants (FA) and immunostimulating complexes matrix (IM)—on antibody response was also evaluated. Bacterial outer membrane proteins (OMP) were selected as target antigens. The ISA Brown hens, specific-Salmonella spp.-free status, divided into 6 groups were intramuscularly injected with a monocompound antigen preparation: SE-OMP (treatment SEFA or SE-IM) or ST-OMP (treatment ST-FA or ST-IM), or a combined antigen preparation: ¹⁄₂ SE-OMP and ¹⁄₂ STOMP (treatment SEST-FA or SEST-IM). Titers of antibodies in yolk were evaluated biweekly with ELISA. There was no antigen × adjuvant interaction on antibody titers. Anti-SE IgY titers in hens that received treatment SESTFA or SEST-IM were statistically similar (P > 0.05) as compared with those obtained from hens immunized with treatment SE-FA or SE-IM. Anti-ST IgY titers in hens immunized with treatment SEST-FA or SEST-IM were slightly lower than those of hens that received treatment ST-FA or ST-IM. The cross-reactivity of anti-SE IgY, induced by treatment SE-FA or SE-IM, with ST-OMP antigen and that of anti-ST IgY, induced by ST-FA or ST-IM, with SE-OMP antigen were arbitrarily assessed on d 43 and 155 by ELISA. The average cross-reactivity of anti-SE IgY with ST-OMP antigen was 71.7%. The average cross-reactivity of anti-ST IgY with SE-OMP antigen was 78.8%. In FA groups, antibody titers were found higher (P < 0.05) than those in IM groups. Furthermore, no extensive lesions or clinical abnormalities were detected in hens injected with FA. These findings showed the opportunity to raise IgY antibody against 2 Salmonella serovars in the same yolk and that FA was more efficient than IM in mediating antibody response. [less ▲]

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See detailCritical assessment of chick quality measurements as an indicator of posthatch performance.
Willemsen, H.; Everaert, Nadia ULg; Witters, A. et al

in Poultry science (2008), 87(11), 2358-66

For hatcheries, not only is it important to have a high level of hatchability, but the quality of the chicks provided also has to be good, because broiler farmers are looking for chicks with a high growth ... [more ▼]

For hatcheries, not only is it important to have a high level of hatchability, but the quality of the chicks provided also has to be good, because broiler farmers are looking for chicks with a high growth potential, resulting in a greater slaughter yield at the end of the rearing period. However, chick quality has proven to be a difficult and subjective matter to define. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the predictive value of different chick quality measurements for BW at slaughter age. Body weight, chick length, shank length, and toe length measurements as well as Tona score determination were performed on 1-d-old chicks and were linked to posthatch performance parameters. Different breeder lines (Cobb and Ross) and breeder ages (39, 42, and 53 wk of age) were used to investigate line and age effects. In addition, variability between people and repeatability in time of these quality measurements were determined. Body weight at 7 d of age appeared to be the best predictor of BW at slaughter age among all the quality measurements performed. Body weight at 1 d of age had the second greatest predictive value, closely followed by the ratio between BW at 1 d of age and chick length squared. Chick length and shank length both had low to no predictive value whatsoever for posthatch performance. The lack of significant correlations between the Tona score and posthatch performance could be explained by the absence of day-old chicks with anomalies (and thus a suboptimal Tona score) because a distinction had already been made, as is done in practice, between top-grade and lower grade chicks. [less ▲]

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See detailThe effect of nonventilation during early incubation on the embryonic development of chicks of two commercial broiler strains differing in ascites susceptibility.
De Smit, L.; Bruggeman, V.; Debonne, M. et al

in Poultry science (2008), 87(3), 551-60

Despite thorough selection during the last decade, the incidence of ascites is still high in modern broiler strains. Although ascites occurs mostly at the end of the rearing period, there are indications ... [more ▼]

Despite thorough selection during the last decade, the incidence of ascites is still high in modern broiler strains. Although ascites occurs mostly at the end of the rearing period, there are indications that the etiology of this problem may have started during embryonic development. Recent studies have shown that the post-hatch performance of the broiler chick might be influenced by changing the environmental conditions in the incubator during embryonic development. This study investigated the effect of increasing incubator CO(2) concentration up to 0.7%, by nonventilation during the first 10 d of incubation, on the embryonic development of 2 commercial broiler strains (Cobb and SAS) differing in their susceptibility for ascites syndrome. The Cobb strain is suspected to be less susceptible than the SAS strain. Overall, the chick embryos of the Cobb strain had a faster development than those of the SAS strain as expressed by their higher BW from embryonic day (ED)10 until ED18. Nonventilation stimulated embryonic development resulting in higher embryonic BW, early hatch, and narrower spread of hatch in both strains. In the SAS strain, nonventilation improved hatchability by more than 10%. Gas composition of the air cell in the egg of the nonventilation groups (both Cobb and SAS) had higher partial pressure of CO(2) and lower partial pressure of O(2) from ED11 until ED14 compared with the ventilation groups. During the entire incubation period, partial pressure of CO(2) was higher in eggs of the Cobb strain compared with the SAS strain. Plasma triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and corticosterone levels were different at the end of the incubation period and during hatching due to nonventilation at the beginning of incubation. It is concluded that nonventilation during the first 10 d of incubation had a stimulatory effect on embryonic development of the 2 broiler strains with no effect of heart weights but with effects on hormone levels, air cell pressures, and hatching parameters. [less ▲]

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See detailChanges in acid-base balance and related physiological responses as a result of external hypercapnia during the second half of incubation in the chicken embryo.
Everaert, Nadia ULg; De Smit, L.; Debonne, M. et al

in Poultry science (2008), 87(2), 362-7

This study investigated the effect of high CO2 (4%) from embryonic day (ED)10 until ED16 on the acid-base balance and related parameters in the chicken embryo. From ED10 to ED16, blood was taken from a ... [more ▼]

This study investigated the effect of high CO2 (4%) from embryonic day (ED)10 until ED16 on the acid-base balance and related parameters in the chicken embryo. From ED10 to ED16, blood was taken from a vein from the chorioallantois membrane and was analyzed for pH, partial pressure of CO2, partial pressure of O2 (pO2), [HCO3(-)], [K+], and [Ca2+]. Allantoic fluid was taken for measurement of pH, NH3-N, phosphate, and calcium concentration. The right tibia was ashed, and calcium was measured with atomic absorption spectroscopy. Embryos exposed to high CO2 showed a consistent higher blood pH than control embryos. Notwithstanding this alkalosis, bicarbonate concentration was significantly higher in the CO2 group from ED12 until ED16. Potassium concentration in the blood was significantly higher in the CO2 group from ED11 until ED16. The pH of the allantois was significantly higher on ED14 and ED15. Ammonia N concentration was significantly higher in the CO2-incubated embryos on ED12 and ED13, whereas phosphate did not differ between groups. Calcium per tibia dry weight did not differ between incubation conditions. We can conclude that embryos adapt to high CO2 during the second half of incubation by increasing blood HCO3(-). It appears that this increase in HCO3(-)is mainly the result of the stimulated intracellular exchange of H+ with K+, although temporary reabsorption of HCO3(-)by the kidney cannot be excluded. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of four percent carbon dioxide during the second half of incubation on embryonic development, hatching parameters, and posthatch growth.
Everaert, Nadia ULg; Kamers, B.; Witters, A. et al

in Poultry science (2007), 86(7), 1372-9

In this study, broiler embryos were exposed during the second half of incubation [embryonic day (ED) 10 until ED18] to 4% CO(2). The CO(2) was set to reach 2% on ED11 and 4% from ED12 onward. Two ... [more ▼]

In this study, broiler embryos were exposed during the second half of incubation [embryonic day (ED) 10 until ED18] to 4% CO(2). The CO(2) was set to reach 2% on ED11 and 4% from ED12 onward. Two experiments were conducted with the same setup. Embryo weight was measured and partial pressure of CO(2) and O(2) in the air cell was analyzed at several embryonic ages. Times of internal pipping, external pipping, and hatching were recorded. Chicks were raised until d 7 posthatch. Plasma corticosterone, triiodothyronine, and thyroxine concentrations were determined. Embryonic growth was not retarded and hatchability did not decrease in the CO(2)-incubated group, demonstrating that chicken embryos can tolerate high (4%) concentrations of CO(2) between ED10 and ED18. In the first experiment, partial pressure of CO(2) in the air cell was significantly higher in the CO(2) group on ED11, ED12, ED13, and ED14, but disappeared thereafter. This difference was not observed in the second experiment. A change in the hatching process of the CO(2) group was seen. Relative growths of newly hatched chicks until d 7 posthatch were equal in the CO(2) group and the control group. However, corticosterone and thyroxine concentrations were significantly higher in the CO(2)-incubated chicks on d 7 posthatch. [less ▲]

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See detailSemiautonomous development of the extraembryonic membranes in the chicken embryo.
Everaert, Nadia ULg; Coucke, P. M.; Bamelis, F. et al

in Poultry science (2006), 85(9), 1626-31

Based on an old paradigm that the extra-embryonic membranes develop semiautonomously from the embryo, it can also be postulated that subembryonic fluid (SEF) will be formed semiautonomously against ... [more ▼]

Based on an old paradigm that the extra-embryonic membranes develop semiautonomously from the embryo, it can also be postulated that subembryonic fluid (SEF) will be formed semiautonomously against embryonic growth, because the formation of SEF is mediated by the yolk sac membrane. In this study, we interfered in the development of SEF or the embryo. The acoustic resonance technique (which measures the resonant frequency of an excited egg) was used as a nondestructive tool to monitor the development of SEF. In the first experiment, in which the embryo was killed chemically with NaN3, it was proven that the formation of SEF continued, even when the embryo was killed after the initiation of the growth of the yolk sac membrane. In the second experiment, in which the development of SEF was inhibited chemically with amiloride, it was shown that the embryo developed further, although SEF formation was inhibited. In the last experiment, it was shown that the age of the flock affected the development of the embryo and the sudden decrease of the resonant frequency in a different way. However, some presetting conditions, such as storage, may affect both in a similar way. Our results further strengthen the idea that the formation of SEF develops semiautonomously against embryonic development by using the nondestructive acoustic resonance technique as an indirect method to monitor yolk sac membrane formation. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of monoamine concentrations in the brains of adult male and female Japanese quail.
Ottinger, M. A.; Schumacher, M.; Clarke, R. N. et al

in Poultry Science (1986), 65(7), 1413-20

A fluorometric assay measuring brain tissue concentrations of norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin has been validated for Japanese quail. Accuracy, precision, specificity, and parallelism were ... [more ▼]

A fluorometric assay measuring brain tissue concentrations of norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin has been validated for Japanese quail. Accuracy, precision, specificity, and parallelism were determined. The sensitivity of the assays was 6 ng/tube, which allowed individual assay of 1 to 2 mg hypothalamic tissue. In Experiment 1, relatively large areas of brain from adult, reproductively active males and females were found to differ significantly in norepinephrine content in optic lobes and for dopamine in right telencephalon. A microdissection technique was used in Experiment 2 to sample small portions of hypothalamic tissue. Sex differences were observed for norepinephrine in the sections containing the lobus paraolfactorius and the preoptic, anterior, and medial hypothalamus. Differences in monoamine content were most apparent when smaller areas dissected by microdissection were analyzed. These results give evidence for sex differences in the monoamine content in specific areas of the brain. [less ▲]

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