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See detailHigh prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus in palatine tonsils from healthy children and adults.
Duray, Anaelle; Descamps, Geraldine; Bettonville, Marie et al

in Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery (2011), 145(2), 230-5

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in 80 tumor-free tonsils from healthy children and adults using a sensitive E6/E7 type-specific polymerase ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in 80 tumor-free tonsils from healthy children and adults using a sensitive E6/E7 type-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Ear, nose, and throat department, university hospital. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Paraffin-embedded tissues from tumor-free tonsils (TFTs) were evaluated for HPV DNA using GP5+/6+ consensus PCR and subsequent genotyping using E6/E7 type-specific PCR for HPV types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 53, 56, 58, 59, 66, and 68. The immunohistochemical expression of p16 and p53 was also assessed. RESULTS: In 80 TFTs, the authors identified 10 (12.5%) that tested positive for the following high-risk HPV types: HPV 16 (8 cases), 18 (1 case), and 31 (1 case). Twelve patients (15%) tested positive for HPV infection using the GP5+/GP6+ consensus primers but were negative using quantitative PCR. These patients were considered infected with low-risk HPV types. Fifty-eight TFTs (72.5%) tested negative for both GP5+/GP6+ and type-specific HPV PCR analysis (HPV negative). Among patients infected with HPV, the authors observed a slight increase in frequency with age. CONCLUSION: In TFTs, oncogenic and nononcogenic HPVs were present at a relatively high frequency in children and adults. The presence of high-risk HPV DNA in young children supports the horizontal transmission hypothesis and argues in favor of HPV vaccination at birth. [less ▲]

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See detailVestibular habituation training: exercise treatment for vertigo based upon the habituation effect.
Norre, M. E.; Beckers, Albert ULg

in Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery (1989), 101(1), 14-19

Vestibular habituation training is an exercise treatment for positional vertigo based on the assumption that such a type of vertigo can be cured by habituation effect. The latter is produced by repeating ... [more ▼]

Vestibular habituation training is an exercise treatment for positional vertigo based on the assumption that such a type of vertigo can be cured by habituation effect. The latter is produced by repeating the situation eliciting vertigo. In this way the mechanisms of adaptation and compensation are stimulated, processes of which have been considered "error controlled." Clinical experience with the vestibular habituation training test battery (consisting of 19 maneuvers) showed that in each particular patient only a limited number of responses were positive in various combinations. Selecting the exercises is then a logical consequence. Followup showed a progressive reduction of the positive cases, as well as the number of positive maneuvers. This is in accordance with the development of compensation as it has been observed in experimental conditions and with the decline of progressive responses observed in habituation experiments. [less ▲]

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