References of "Oncogene"
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See detailMT1-MMP protects breast carcinoma cells against type I collagen-induced apoptosis
Maquoi, Erik ULg; Assent, Delphine; Detilleux, Julien et al

in Oncogene (2012), 31(4), 480-93

As invading breast carcinoma cells breach their underlying basement membrane, they become confronted with a dense three-dimensional reactive stroma dominated by type I collagen. To develop metastatic ... [more ▼]

As invading breast carcinoma cells breach their underlying basement membrane, they become confronted with a dense three-dimensional reactive stroma dominated by type I collagen. To develop metastatic capabilities, invading tumor cells must acquire the capacity to negotiate this novel microenvironment. Collagen influences the fate of epithelial cells by inducing apoptosis. However, the mechanisms used by invading tumor cells to evade collagen-induced apoptosis remain to be defined. We demonstrate that membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP/MMP-14) confers breast cancer cells with the ability to escape apoptosis when embedded in a collagen gel and after orthotopic implantation in vivo. In the absence of MMP-14-dependent proteolysis, type I collagen triggers apoptosis by inducing the expression of the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2-interacting killer in luminal-like breast cancer cells. These findings reveal a new mechanism whereby MMP-14 activity promotes tumor progression by circumventing apoptosis. [less ▲]

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See detailA dynamic in vivo model of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions in circulating tumor cells and metastases of breast cancer.
Bonnomet, Arnaud; Syne, Laïdya ULg; Brysse, Anne ULg et al

in Oncogene (2012), 31(33), 3741-53

Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) processes endow epithelial cells with enhanced migratory/invasive properties and are therefore likely to contribute to tumor invasion and metastatic spread ... [more ▼]

Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) processes endow epithelial cells with enhanced migratory/invasive properties and are therefore likely to contribute to tumor invasion and metastatic spread. Because of the difficulty in following EMT processes in human tumors, we have developed and characterized an animal model with transplantable human breast tumor cells (MDA-MB-468) uniquely showing spontaneous EMT events to occur. Using vimentin as a marker of EMT, heterogeneity was revealed in the primary MDA-MB-468 xenografts with vimentin-negative and vimentin-positive areas, as also observed on clinical human invasive breast tumor specimens. Reverse transcriptase-PCR after microdissection of these populations from the xenografts revealed EMT traits in the vimentin-positive zones characterized by enhanced 'mesenchymal gene' expression (Snail, Slug and fibroblast-specific protein-1) and diminished expression of epithelial molecules (E-cadherin, ZO-3 and JAM-A). Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) were detected in the blood as soon as 8 days after s.c. injection, and lung metastases developed in all animals injected as examined by in vivo imaging analyses and histology. High levels of vimentin RNA were detected in CTCs by reverse transcriptase-quantitative PCR as well as, to a lesser extent, Snail and Slug RNA. Von Willebrand Factor/vimentin double immunostainings further showed that tumor cells in vascular tumoral emboli all expressed vimentin. Tumoral emboli in the lungs also expressed vimentin whereas macrometastases displayed heterogenous vimentin expression, as seen in the primary xenografts. In conclusion, our data uniquely demonstrate in an in vivo context that EMT occurs in the primary tumors, and associates with an enhanced ability to intravasate and generate CTCs. They further suggest that mesenchymal-to-epithelial phenomena occur in secondary organs, facilitating the metastatic growth [less ▲]

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See detailThe HTLV-1 Tax protein inhibits formation of stress granules by interacting with histone deacetylase 6.
Legros, S.; Boxus, Mathieu ULg; Gatot, J. S. et al

in Oncogene (2011)

Human T cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) is the causative agent of a fatal adult T-cell leukemia. Through deregulation of multiple cellular signaling pathways the viral Tax protein has a pivotal role ... [more ▼]

Human T cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) is the causative agent of a fatal adult T-cell leukemia. Through deregulation of multiple cellular signaling pathways the viral Tax protein has a pivotal role in T-cell transformation. In response to stressful stimuli, cells mount a cellular stress response to limit the damage that environmental forces inflict on DNA or proteins. During stress response, cells postpone the translation of most cellular mRNAs, which are gathered into cytoplasmic mRNA-silencing foci called stress granules (SGs) and allocate their available resources towards the production of dedicated stress-management proteins. Here we demonstrate that Tax controls the formation of SGs and interferes with the cellular stress response pathway. In agreement with previous reports, we observed that Tax relocates from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in response to environmental stress. We found that the presence of Tax in the cytoplasm of stressed cells prevents the formation of SGs and counteracts the shutoff of specific host proteins. Unexpectedly, nuclear localization of Tax promotes spontaneous aggregation of SGs, even in the absence of stress. Mutant analysis revealed that the SG inhibitory capacity of Tax is independent of its transcriptional abilities but relies on its interaction with histone deacetylase 6, a critical component of SGs. Importantly, the stress-protective effect of Tax was also observed in the context of HTLV-1 infected cells, which were shown to be less prone to form SGs and undergo apoptosis under arsenite exposure. These observations identify Tax as the first virally encoded inhibitory component of SGs and unravel a new strategy developed by HTLV-1 to deregulate normal cell processes. We postulate that inhibition of the stress response pathway by Tax would favor cell survival under stressful conditions and may have an important role in HTLV-1-induced cellular transformation.Oncogene advance online publication, 2 May 2011; doi:10.1038/onc.2011.120. [less ▲]

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See detailFhit regulates invasion of lung tumor cells
Joannes, A.; Bonnomet, A.; Bindels, S. et al

in Oncogene (2010), 29(8), 1203-13

In many types of cancers, the fragile histidine triad (Fhit) gene is frequently targeted by genomic alterations leading to a decrease or loss of gene and protein expression. Fhit has been described as a ... [more ▼]

In many types of cancers, the fragile histidine triad (Fhit) gene is frequently targeted by genomic alterations leading to a decrease or loss of gene and protein expression. Fhit has been described as a tumor suppressor gene because of its ability to induce apoptosis and to inhibit proliferation of tumor cells. Moreover, several studies have shown a correlation between the lack of Fhit expression and tumor aggressiveness, thus suggesting that Fhit could be involved in tumor progression. In this study, we explored the potential role of Fhit during tumor cell invasion. We first showed that a low Fhit expression is associated with in vivo and in vitro invasiveness of tumor cells. Then, we showed that Fhit overexpression in Fhit-negative highly invasive NCI-H1299 cells by transfection of Fhit cDNA and Fhit inhibition in Fhit-positive poorly invasive HBE4-E6/E7 cells by transfection of Fhit small interfering RNA induce, respectively, a decrease and an increase in migratory/invasive capacities. These changes in cell behavior were associated with a reorganization of tight and adherens junction molecules and a regulation of matrix metalloproteinase and vimentin expression. These results show that Fhit controls the invasive phenotype of lung tumor cells by regulating the expression of genes associated with epithelial–mesenchymal transition. [less ▲]

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See detailHigher sensitivity of Adamts12-deficient mice to tumor growth and angiogenesis.
El Hour, Mehdi ULg; Moncada-Pazos, A.; Blacher, Silvia ULg et al

in Oncogene (2010), 29(20), 3025-32

ADAMTS (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain with thrombospondin motifs) constitute a family of endopeptidases related to matrix metalloproteinases. These proteases have been largely implicated in ... [more ▼]

ADAMTS (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain with thrombospondin motifs) constitute a family of endopeptidases related to matrix metalloproteinases. These proteases have been largely implicated in tissue remodeling and angiogenesis associated with physiological and pathological processes. To elucidate the in vivo functions of ADAMTS-12, we have generated a knockout mouse strain (Adamts12−/−) in which Adamts12 gene was deleted. The mutant mice had normal gestations and no apparent defects in growth, life span and fertility. By applying three different in vivo models of angiogenesis (malignant keratinocyte transplantation, Matrigel plug and aortic ring assays) to Adamts12−/− mice, we provide evidence for a protective effect of this host enzyme toward angiogenesis and cancer progression. In the absence of Adamts-12, both the angiogenic response and tumor invasion into host tissue were increased. Complementing results were obtained by using medium conditioned by cells overexpressing human ADAMTS-12, which inhibited vessel outgrowth in the aortic ring assay. This angioinhibitory effect of ADAMTS-12 was independent of its enzymatic activity as a mutated inactive form of the enzyme was similarly efficient in inhibiting endothelial cell sprouting in the aortic ring assay than the wild-type form. Altogether, our results show that ADAMTS-12 displays antiangiogenic properties and protect the host toward tumor progression. [less ▲]

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See detailMatrix Metalloproteinase-9 gene induction by a truncated oncogenic NF-κB2 protein involves the recruitment of MLL1 and MLL2 H3K4 histone methyltransferase complexes.
Robert, Isabelle ULg; Aussems, Marie ULg; Keutgens, Aurore ULg et al

in Oncogene (2009), 28(13), 1626-1638

Constitutive nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation in haematological malignancies is caused in several cases by loss of function mutations within the coding sequence of NF-kappaB inhibitory molecules such ... [more ▼]

Constitutive nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation in haematological malignancies is caused in several cases by loss of function mutations within the coding sequence of NF-kappaB inhibitory molecules such as IkappaBalpha or p100. Hut-78, a truncated form of p100, constitutively generates p52 and contributes to the development of T-cell lymphomas but the molecular mechanism underlying this oncogenic potential remains unclear. We show here that MMP9 gene expression is induced through the alternative NF-kappaB-activating pathway in fibroblasts and also on Hut-78 or p52 overexpression in fibroblasts as well as in lymphoma cells. p52 is critical for Hut-78-mediated MMP9 gene induction as a Hut-78 mutant as well as other truncated NF-kappaB2 proteins that are not processed into p52 failed to induce the expression of this metalloproteinase. Conversely, MMP9 gene expression is impaired in p52-depleted HUT-78 cells. Interestingly, MLL1 and MLL2 H3K4 methyltransferase complexes are tethered by p52 on the MMP9 but not on the IkappaBalpha promoter, and the H3K4 trimethyltransferase activity recruited on the MMP9 promoter is impaired in p52-depleted HUT-78 cells. Moreover, MLL1 and MLL2 are associated with Hut-78 in a native chromatin-enriched extract. Thus, we identified a molecular mechanism by which the recruitment of a H3K4 histone methyltransferase complex on the promoter of a NF-kappaB-dependent gene induces its expression and potentially the invasive potential of lymphoma cells harbouring constitutive activity of the alternative NF-kappaB-activating pathway. [less ▲]

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See detailHDAC4 represses p21(WAF1/Cip1) expression in human cancer cells through a Sp1-dependent, p53-independent mechanism.
Mottet, Denis ULg; Pirotte, Sophie ULg; Lamour, Virginie ULg et al

in Oncogene (2009), 28(2), 243-56

Cancer cells have complex, unique characteristics that distinguish them from normal cells, such as increased growth rates and evasion of anti-proliferative signals. Global inhibition of class I and II ... [more ▼]

Cancer cells have complex, unique characteristics that distinguish them from normal cells, such as increased growth rates and evasion of anti-proliferative signals. Global inhibition of class I and II histone deacetylases (HDACs) stops cancer cell proliferation in vitro and has proven effective against cancer in clinical trials, at least in part, through transcriptional reactivation of the p21(WAF1/Cip1)gene. The HDACs that regulate p21(WAF1/Cip1) are not fully identified. Using small interfering RNAs, we found that HDAC4 participates in the repression of p21(WAF1/Cip1) through Sp1/Sp3-, but not p53-binding sites. HDAC4 interacts with Sp1, binds and reduces histone H3 acetylation at the Sp1/Sp3 binding site-rich p21(WAF1/Cip1) proximal promoter, suggesting a key role for Sp1 in HDAC4-mediated repression of p21(WAF1/Cip1). Induction of p21(WAF1/Cip1) mediated by silencing of HDAC4 arrested cancer cell growth in vitro and inhibited tumor growth in an in vivo human glioblastoma model. Thus, HDAC4 could be a useful target for new anti-cancer therapies based on selective inhibition of specific HDACs. [less ▲]

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See detailp21(WAF1) gene promoter is epigenetically silenced by CTIP2 and SUV39H1.
Cherrier, Thomas ULg; Suzanne, S.; Redel, L. et al

in Oncogene (2009), 28(38), 3380-9

Mainly regulated at the transcriptional level, the cellular cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, CDKN1A/p21(WAF1) (p21), is a major cell cycle regulator of the response to DNA damage, senescence and tumor ... [more ▼]

Mainly regulated at the transcriptional level, the cellular cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, CDKN1A/p21(WAF1) (p21), is a major cell cycle regulator of the response to DNA damage, senescence and tumor suppression. Here, we report that COUP-TF-interacting protein 2 (CTIP2), recruited to the p21 gene promoter, silenced p21 gene transcription through interactions with histone deacetylases and methyltransferases. Importantly, treatment with the specific SUV39H1 inhibitor, chaetocin, repressed histone H3 lysine 9 trimethylation at the p21 gene promoter, stimulated p21 gene expression and induced cell cycle arrest. In addition, CTIP2 and SUV39H1 were recruited to the silenced p21 gene promoter to cooperatively inhibit p21 gene transcription. Induction of p21(WAF1) gene upon human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infection benefits viral expression in macrophages. Here, we report that CTIP2 further abolishes Vpr-mediated stimulation of p21, thereby indirectly contributing to HIV-1 latency. Altogether, our results suggest that CTIP2 is a constitutive p21 gene suppressor that cooperates with SUV39H1 and histone methylation to silence the p21 gene transcription. [less ▲]

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See detailMolecular effectors and modulators of hypericin-mediated cell death in bladder cancer cells
Buytaert, E.; Matroule, J. Y.; Durinck, S. et al

in Oncogene (2008)

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an anticancer approach utilizing a light-absorbing molecule and visible light irradiation to generate, in the presence of O(2), cytotoxic reactive oxygen species, which cause ... [more ▼]

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an anticancer approach utilizing a light-absorbing molecule and visible light irradiation to generate, in the presence of O(2), cytotoxic reactive oxygen species, which cause tumor ablation. Given that the photosensitizer hypericin is under consideration for PDT treatment of bladder cancer we used oligonucleotide microarrays in the T24 bladder cancer cell line to identify differentially expressed genes with therapeutic potential. This study reveals that the expression of several genes involved in various metabolic processes, stress-induced cell death, autophagy, proliferation, inflammation and carcinogenesis is strongly affected by PDT and pinpoints the coordinated induction of a cluster of genes involved in the unfolded protein response pathway after endoplasmic reticulum stress and in antioxidant response. Analysis of PDT-treated cells after p38(MAPK) inhibition or silencing unraveled that the induction of an important subset of differentially expressed genes regulating growth and invasion, as well as adaptive mechanisms against oxidative stress, is governed by this stress-activated kinase. Moreover, p38(MAPK) inhibition blocked autonomous regrowth and migration of cancer cells escaping PDT-induced cell death. This analysis identifies new molecular effectors of the cancer cell response to PDT opening attractive avenues to improve the therapeutic efficacy of hypericin-based PDT of bladder cancer. [less ▲]

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See detailThe E-cadherin-repressed hNanos1 gene induces tumor cell invasion by upregulating MT1-MMP expression
Bonnomet, A.; Polette, M.; Strumane, K. et al

in Oncogene (2008), 27(26), 3692-9

In this study, we examined the role of the E-cadherin-repressed gene human Nanos1 (hNanos1) in tumor invasion process. First, our in vivo study revealed that hNanos1 mRNAs were overexpressed in invasive ... [more ▼]

In this study, we examined the role of the E-cadherin-repressed gene human Nanos1 (hNanos1) in tumor invasion process. First, our in vivo study revealed that hNanos1 mRNAs were overexpressed in invasive lung carcinomas. Moreover, hNanos1 was co-localized with MT1-MMP (membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase) in E-cadherin-negative invasive lung tumor clusters. Using an inducible Tet-on system, we showed that induction of hNanos1 expression in DLD1 cells increased their migratory and invasive abilities in a three-dimensional migration and in a modified Boyden chamber assay. Accordingly, we demonstrated that hNanos1 upregulated MT1-MMP expression at the mRNA and protein levels. Inversely, using an RNA interference strategy to inhibit hNanos1 expression in invasive Hs578T, BT549 and BZR cancer cells, we observed a downregulation of MT1-MMP mRNA and protein and concomitantly a decrease of the invasive capacities of tumor cells in a modified Boyden chamber assay. Taken together, our results demonstrate that hNanos1, by regulating MT1-MMP expression, plays an important role in the acquisition of invasive properties by epithelial tumor cells. [less ▲]

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See detailRetinoic acid induces TGFbeta-dependent autocrine fibroblast growth.
Fadloun, A.; Kobi, D.; Delacroix, Laurence ULg et al

in Oncogene (2008), 27(4), 477-89

To evaluate the role of murine TFIID subunit TAF4 in activation of cellular genes by all-trans retinoic acid (T-RA), we have characterized the T-RA response of taf4(lox/-) and taf4(-/-) embryonic ... [more ▼]

To evaluate the role of murine TFIID subunit TAF4 in activation of cellular genes by all-trans retinoic acid (T-RA), we have characterized the T-RA response of taf4(lox/-) and taf4(-/-) embryonic fibroblasts. T-RA regulates almost 1000 genes in taf4(lox/-) cells, but less than 300 in taf4(-/-) cells showing that TAF4 is required for T-RA regulation of most, but not all cellular genes. We further show that T-RA-treated taf4(lox/-) cells exhibit transforming growth factor (TGF)beta-dependent autocrine growth and identify a set of genes regulated by loss of TAF4 and by T-RA corresponding to key mediators of the TGFbeta signalling pathway. T-RA rapidly and potently induces expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) via a conserved DR2 type response element in its proximal promoter leading to serum-free autocrine growth. These results highlight the role of TAF4 as a cofactor in the cellular response to T-RA and identify the genetic programme of a novel cross talk between the T-RA and TGFbeta pathways that leads to deregulated cell growth. [less ▲]

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See detailClass IIa histone deacetylases: regulating the regulators.
Martin, Maud ULg; Kettmann, Richard ULg; Dequiedt, Franck ULg

in Oncogene (2007), 26(37),

n the last decade, the identification of enzymes that regulate acetylation of histones and nonhistone proteins has revealed the key role of dynamic acetylation and deacetylation in various cellular ... [more ▼]

n the last decade, the identification of enzymes that regulate acetylation of histones and nonhistone proteins has revealed the key role of dynamic acetylation and deacetylation in various cellular processes. Mammalian histone deacetylases (HDACs), which catalyse the removal of acetyl groups from lysine residues, are grouped into three classes, on the basis of similarity to yeast counterparts. An abundance of experimental evidence has established class IIa HDACs as crucial transcriptional regulators of various developmental and differentiation processes. In the past 5 years, a tremendous effort has been dedicated to characterizing the regulation of these enzymes. In this review, we summarize the latest discoveries in the field and discuss the molecular and structural determinants of class IIa HDACs regulation. Finally, we emphasize that comprehension of the mechanisms underlying class IIa HDAC functions is essential for potential therapeutic applications. [less ▲]

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See detailTranscriptional activation of cyclooxygenase-2 by tumor suppressor p53 requires nuclear factor-kappaB
Benoit, Valérie; de Moraes, E.; Dar, N. A. et al

in Oncogene (2006), 25(42), 5708-5718

Overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) is thought to exert antiapoptotic effects in cancer. Here we show that the tumor suppressor p53 upregulated Cox-2 in esophageal and colon cancer cell lines by ... [more ▼]

Overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) is thought to exert antiapoptotic effects in cancer. Here we show that the tumor suppressor p53 upregulated Cox-2 in esophageal and colon cancer cell lines by inducing the binding of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) to its response element in the COX-2 promoter. Inhibition of NF-kappaB prevented p53 induction of Cox-2 expression. Cooperation between p53 and NF-kappaB was required for activation of COX-2 promoter in response to daunomycin, a DNA-damaging agent. Pharmacological inhibition of Cox-2 enhanced apoptosis in response to daunomycin, in particular in cells containing active p53. In esophageal cancer, there was a correlation between Cox-2 expression and wild-type TP53 in Barrett's esophagus (BE) and in adenocarcinoma, but not in squamous cell carcinoma (P < 0.01). These results suggest that p53 and NF-kappaB cooperate in upregulating Cox-2 expression, promoting cell survival in inflammatory precursor lesions such as BE. [less ▲]

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See detailRegulation of vimentin by SIP1 in human epithelial breast tumor cells
Bindels, Sandrine ULg; Mestdagt, Mélanie ULg; Van de Walle, C. et al

in Oncogene (2006), 25(36), 4975-4985

The expression of Smad interacting protein-1 (SIP1; ZEB2) and the de novo expression of vimentin are frequently involved in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions (EMTs) under both normal and pathological ... [more ▼]

The expression of Smad interacting protein-1 (SIP1; ZEB2) and the de novo expression of vimentin are frequently involved in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions (EMTs) under both normal and pathological conditions. In the present study, we investigated the potential role of SIP1 in the regulation of vimentin during the EMT associated with breast tumor cell migration and invasion. Examining several breast tumor cell lines displaying various degrees of invasiveness, we found SIP1 and vimentin expression only in invasive cell lines. Also, using a model of cell migration with human mammary MCF10A cells, we showed that SIP1 is induced specifically in vimentin-positive migratory cells. Furthermore, transfection of SIP1 cDNA in MCF10A cells increased their vimentin expression both at the mRNA and protein levels and enhanced their migratory abilities in Boyden Chamber assays. Inversely, inhibition of SIP1 expression by RNAi strategies in BT-549 cells and MCF10A cells decreased vimentin expression. We also showed that SIP1 transfection did not activate the TOP-FLASH reporter system, suggesting that the beta-catenin/TCF pathway is not implicated in the regulation of vimentin by SIP1. Our results therefore implicate SIP1 in the regulation of vimentin observed in the EMT associated with breast tumor cell migration, a pathway that may contribute to the metastatic progression of breast cancer. [less ▲]

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See detailRestoration of SHIP-1 activity in human leukemic cells modifies NF-kappaB activation pathway and cellular survival upon oxidative stress.
Gloire, Geoffrey ULg; Charlier, Edith; Rahmouni, Souad ULg et al

in Oncogene (2006), 25(40), 5485-94

Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) is an important prosurvival transcription factor activated in response to a large array of external stimuli, including reactive oxygen species (ROS). Previous works have ... [more ▼]

Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) is an important prosurvival transcription factor activated in response to a large array of external stimuli, including reactive oxygen species (ROS). Previous works have shown that NF-kappaB activation by ROS involved tyrosine phosphorylation of the inhibitor IkappaBalpha through an IkappaB kinase (IKK)-independent mechanism. In the present work, we investigated with more details NF-kappaB redox regulation in human leukemic cells. By using different cell lines (CEM, Jurkat and the subclone Jurkat JR), we clearly showed that NF-kappaB activation by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is cell-type dependent: it activates NF-kappaB through tyrosine phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha in Jurkat cells, whereas it induces an IKK-mediated IkappaBalpha phosphorylation on S32 and 36 in CEM and Jurkat JR cells. We showed that this H2O2-induced IKK activation in CEM and Jurkat JR cells is mediated by SH2-containing inositol 5'-phosphatase 1 (SHIP-1), a lipid phosphatase that is absent in Jurkat cells. Indeed, the complementation of SHIP-1 in Jurkat cells made them shift to an IKK-dependent mechanism upon oxidative stress stimulation. We also showed that Jurkat cells expressing SHIP-1 are more resistant to H2O2-induced apoptosis than the parental cells, suggesting that SHIP-1 has an important role in leukemic cell responses to ROS in terms of signal transduction pathways and apoptosis resistance, which can be of interest in improving ROS-mediated chemotherapies. [less ▲]

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See detailLow daunomycin concentrations protect colorectal cancer cells from hypoxia-induced apoptosis
Lechanteur, Chantal ULg; Jacobs, Nathalie ULg; Greimers, Roland ULg et al

in Oncogene (2005), 24(10), 1788-1793

Hypoxia, a common feature of solid tumors, is a direct stress that triggers apoptosis in many cell types. Poor or irregular tumor vascularization also leads to a decreased drug diffusion and cancer cells ... [more ▼]

Hypoxia, a common feature of solid tumors, is a direct stress that triggers apoptosis in many cell types. Poor or irregular tumor vascularization also leads to a decreased drug diffusion and cancer cells distant from blood vessels (hypoxic cells) are exposed to low drug concentrations. In this report, we show that low daunomycin concentrations protect HCT116 colorectal cancer cells from hypoxia-induced apoptosis. While hypoxia induced p53 accumulation without expression of its responsive genes (bax and p21), daunomycin treatment restored p53 transactivation activity and cell cycle progression. We also demonstrated a role for Akt activation in daunomycin-induced protection through phosphorylation and inactivation of the Bcl-2 family proapoptotic factor Bad. Our data therefore suggest that chemotherapy could possibly, because of low concentrations in poorly vascularized tumors, protect cancer cells from hypoxia-induced cytotoxicity. [less ▲]

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See detailReduced cell turnover in lymphocytic monkeys infected by human T-lymphotropic virus type 1.
Debacq, Christophe; Heraud, Jean-Michel; Asquith, Becca et al

in Oncogene (2005), 24(51), 7514-23

Understanding cell dynamics in animal models have implications for therapeutic strategies elaborated against leukemia in human. Quantification of the cell turnover in closely related primate systems is ... [more ▼]

Understanding cell dynamics in animal models have implications for therapeutic strategies elaborated against leukemia in human. Quantification of the cell turnover in closely related primate systems is particularly important for rare and aggressive forms of human cancers, such as adult T-cell leukemia. For this purpose, we have measured the death and proliferation rates of the CD4+ T lymphocyte population in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) infected by human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). The kinetics of in vivo bromodeoxyuridine labeling revealed no modulation of the cell turnover in HTLV-1-infected monkeys with normal CD4 cell counts. In contrast, a substantial decrease in the proliferation rate of the CD4+ T population was observed in lymphocytic monkeys (e.g. characterized by excessive proportions of CD4+ T lymphocytes and by the presence of abnormal flower-like cells). Unexpectedly, onset of HTLV-associated leukemia thus occurs in the absence of increased CD4+ T-cell proliferation. This dynamics significantly differs from the generalized activation of the T-cell turnover induced by other primate lymphotropic viruses like HIV and SIV. [less ▲]

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See detailDual activities of galectin-3 in human prostate cancer: tumor suppression of nuclear galectin-3 vs tumor promotion of cytoplasmic galectin-3
Castronovo, Vincenzo ULg; Bracke, M.; van den Brule, F. et al

in Oncogene (2004), 23(45), 7527-7536

Galectin-3, a multifunctional lectin, is involved during cancer progression. Previous observations showed that both cytosolic expression and nuclear exclusion of galectin-3 in human prostate cancer cells ... [more ▼]

Galectin-3, a multifunctional lectin, is involved during cancer progression. Previous observations showed that both cytosolic expression and nuclear exclusion of galectin-3 in human prostate cancer cells were associated to progression of the disease. In this study, we examined the biological roles of galectin-3 when expressed either in the nucleus or in the cytosol. LNCaP, a galectin-3-negative human prostate cancer cell line, was used to generate transfectants expressing galectin-3 either in the nucleus or in the cytosol. No changes in cell morphology, proliferation, attachment to laminin-1 or androgen dependency were observed. Cytoplasmic galectin-3 induced significantly increased Matrigel invasion, anchorage-independent growth and in vivo tumor growth and angiogenesis, and decreased inducible apoptosis. Surprisingly, nuclear galectin-3 affected these parameters in an opposite fashion with an overall antitumoral activity. Thus, our study demonstrates that galectin-3 exerts opposite biological activities according to its cellular localization: nuclear galectin-3 plays antitumor functions and cytoplasmic galectin-3 promotes tumor progression. [less ▲]

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See detailHost-derived plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) concentration is critical for in vivo tumoral angiogenesis and growth
Bajou, Khalid ULg; Maillard, Catherine ULg; Jost, M. et al

in Oncogene (2004), 23(41), 6986-6990

Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) plays a key role in tumor progression and is believed to control proteolytic activity and cell migration during angiogenesis. We report here that host PAI-1 ... [more ▼]

Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) plays a key role in tumor progression and is believed to control proteolytic activity and cell migration during angiogenesis. We report here that host PAI-1, at physiological concentration, promotes in vivo tumor invasion and angiogenesis. In sharp contrast, inhibition of tumor vascularization was observed when PAI-1 was produced at supraphysiologic levels, either by host cells (transgenic mice overexpressing PAI-1) or by tumor cells (after transfection with murine PAI-1 cDNA). This study provides for the first time in vivo evidence for a dose-dependent effect of PAI-1 on tumor angiogenesis. Of great interest is the finding that PAI-1 produced by tumor cells, even at high concentration, did not overcome the absence of PAI-1 in the host, emphasizing the importance of the cellular source of PAI-1. [less ▲]

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See detailRegulation of HER-2 oncogene expression by cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E2
Benoit, Valérie; Relic, Biserka ULg; de Leval, Laurence ULg et al

in Oncogene (2004), 23(8), 1631-1635

The oncoprotein HER-2/neu is a prosurvival factor and its overexpression has been correlated with adverse prognosis in breast cancers. High levels of the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), a proinflammatory and ... [more ▼]

The oncoprotein HER-2/neu is a prosurvival factor and its overexpression has been correlated with adverse prognosis in breast cancers. High levels of the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), a proinflammatory and antiapoptotic enzyme, were detected in HER-2-positive tumors and this observation was linked to an HER-2-mediated induction of COX-2 gene transcription. Here, we report that COX-2 expression, and synthesis of its major enzymatic product, PGE2, leads in turn to an enhanced HER-2 expression. Moreover, COX-2 enzymatic inhibition dramatically reduced HER-2 protein levels, efficiently increased the cancer cells sensitility to chemotherapeutic treatment and acted in synergy with HER-2 inhibitor, trastuzumab. Therefore, we propose an original model where HER-2 and COX-2 transcriptionally regulate each other in a positive loop. [less ▲]

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