Cellular thiamine status is coupled to function of mitochondrial 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase
; ; Bettendorff, Lucien et al
in Neurochemistry International (in press)
Decreased thiamine and reduced activity of thiamine diphosphate (ThDP)-dependent 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (OGDH) cause neurodegeneration. We hypothesized on concerted cell-specific regulation of the ... [more ▼]
Decreased thiamine and reduced activity of thiamine diphosphate (ThDP)-dependent 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (OGDH) cause neurodegeneration. We hypothesized on concerted cell-specific regulation of the thiamine metabolism and ThDP-dependent reactions. We identified a smaller thiamine pool, a lower expression of the mitochondrial ThDP transporter, and a higher expression of OGDH in rat astrocytes versus neuroblastoma N2A. According to the data, the astrocytic OGDH may be up-regulated by an increase in intracellular ThDP, while the neuroblastomal OGDH functions at full ThDP saturation. Indeed, in rat astrocytes and brain cortex, OGDH inhibition by succinyl phosphonate (SP) enlarged the pool of thiamine compounds. Increased ThDP level in response to the OGDH inhibition presumably up-regulated the enzyme to compensate for a decrease in reducing power which occurred in SP-treated astrocytes. Under the same SP treatment of N2A cells, their thiamine pool and reducing power were unchanged, although SP action was evident from accumulation of glutamate. The presented data indicate that functional interplay between OGDH, other proteins of the tricarbocylic acid cycle and proteins of thiamine metabolism is an important determinant of physiology-specific networks and their homeostatic mechanisms. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 17 (3 ULg)
125I-Tyr0-hCRH labelling characteristics of corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors: differences between normal and adenomatous corticotrophs.
; ; et al
in Neurochemistry International (1997), 30(3), 291-297
The presence of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) receptors has been previously demonstrated in corticotrophs from normal pituitaries using a method combining immunocytochemistry and liquid emulsion ... [more ▼]
The presence of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) receptors has been previously demonstrated in corticotrophs from normal pituitaries using a method combining immunocytochemistry and liquid emulsion autoradiography. The aim of this study was to compare the characteristics of the 125I-Tyr0-hCRH binding in corticotrophs from normal pituitaries (three obtained at autopsy and one obtained at surgery) with corticotrophs from pituitary adenomas (six corticotroph adenomas responsible for Cushing's disease and two silent corticotroph adenomas secreting a biologically inactive ACTH molecule). In normal corticotrophs, the larger part of the 125I-Tyr0-hCRH binding was localised in patchy conglomerates at the centre of the cell and, to a much lesser degree, in a diffuse pattern at the cell periphery. In adenomatous corticotrophs, CRH receptor expression is disturbed both quantitatively and qualitatively. Except for a minority of cells in one adenoma, all adenomatous corticotrophs showed only peripherally bound 125I-Tyr0-hCRH and no centrally localised binding. Furthermore, adenomatous corticotrophs revealed a statistically significant lower signal intensity when compared to normal corticotrophs and a strongly negative correlation was found between the labelling area in adenomatous corticotrophs and both the basal and CRH-stimulated plasma ACTH levels. These findings suggest defective processing of CRH receptors and could be relevant to the sustained ACTH secretion by adenomatous corticotrophs in Cushing's disease and, more generally, provide an explanation to its pathology. The silent corticotrophs secreting a biologically inactive ACTH molecule were characterised by a very faint signal intensity, although present on almost every cell. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 50 (1 ULg)
Thiamine Homeostasis in Neuroblastoma Cells
in Neurochemistry International (1995), 26(3), 295-302
We recently showed that thiamine uptake by neuroblastoma cells is mediated by two saturable transport system: the first with high affinity for thiamine (Km = 35 nM) is blocked by veratridine; the other ... [more ▼]
We recently showed that thiamine uptake by neuroblastoma cells is mediated by two saturable transport system: the first with high affinity for thiamine (Km = 35 nM) is blocked by veratridine; the other, with low affinity is blocked by Ca2+. The driving force for thiamine uptake is its phosphorylation to thiamine diphosphate (TDP) by thiamine pyrophosphokinase and subsequent binding of this cofactor to apoenzymes. Our results suggest that cells of neuronal origin possess mechanisms regulating the intracellular concentration of thiamine. At low external thiamine, the vitamin is taken up by a high-affinity transporter and pyrophosphorylated in thiamine diphosphate (TDP): this is the TDP pool of slow turnover. An intraover extracellular concentration gradient of free thiamine is observed at low external concentration of the vitamin. At higher external thiamine concentration, TDP accumulation is limited by the binding capacity to the apoenzymes and unbound TDP (i.e. a small pool of fast turnover) is quickly hydrolyzed. Thiamine is slowly released by the cells by at least two different mechanisms. The first, accounting for a maximum of 50% of total thiamine release, is stimulated by external thiamine and is blocked by veratridine, suggesting that it is a self-exchange mechanism catalyzed by the high affinity thiamine transporter. The remaining thiamine efflux is neither sensitive to veratridine nor to Ca2+ and its mechanism is unknown. About 25% of intracellular thiamine is not released, even after treatment of the cells with digitonin, thus maintaining an apparent gradient. This suggests a binding or sequestration in intracellular compartments.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 22 (1 ULg)
Thymic oxytocin and vasopressin: a role in T cell ontogeny ?
Geenen, Vincent ; ; Legros, Jean-Jacques
in Neurochemistry International (1988), 13Detailed reference viewed: 4 (0 ULg)
Glial control of neuronal excitability in mammals: I. Electrophysiological and isotopic evidence in culture.
Moonen, Gustave ; ;
in Neurochemistry International (1980), 2cDetailed reference viewed: 11 (0 ULg)