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See detailMigraine preventive drugs differentially affect cortical spreading depression in rat.
Bogdanov, Vladimir ULg; Multon, Sylvie ULg; Chauvel, Virginie ULg et al

in Neurobiology of Disease (2011), 41(2), 430-5

Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is the most likely cause of the migraine aura. Drugs with distinct pharmacological properties are effective in the preventive treatment of migraine. To test the ... [more ▼]

Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is the most likely cause of the migraine aura. Drugs with distinct pharmacological properties are effective in the preventive treatment of migraine. To test the hypothesis that their common denominator might be suppression of CSD we studied in rats the effect of three drugs used in migraine prevention: lamotrigine which is selectively effective on the aura but not on the headache, valproate and riboflavin which have a non-selective effect. Rats received for 4 weeks daily intraperitoneal injections of one of the three drugs. For valproate and riboflavin we used saline as control, for lamotrigine its vehicle dimethyl sulfoxide. After treatment, cortical spreading depressions were elicited for 2h by occipital KCl application. We measured CSD frequency, its propagation between a posterior (parieto-occipital) and an anterior (frontal) electrode, and number of Fos-immunoreactive nuclei in frontal cortex. Lamotrigine suppressed CSDs by 37% and 60% at posterior and anterior electrodes. Valproate had no effect on posterior CSDs, but reduced anterior ones by 32% and slowed propagation velocity. Riboflavin had no significant effect at neither recording site. Frontal Fos expression was decreased after lamotrigine and valproate, but not after riboflavin. Serum levels of administered drugs were within the range of those usually effective in patients. Our study shows that preventive anti-migraine drugs have differential effects on CSD. Lamotrigine has a marked suppressive effect which correlates with its rather selective action on the migraine aura. Valproate and riboflavin have no effect on the triggering of CSD, although they are effective in migraine without aura. Taken together, these results are compatible with a causal role of CSD in migraine with aura, but not in migraine without aura. [less ▲]

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See detailExpression of the interferon-alpha/beta-inducible bovine Mx1 dynamin interferes with replication of rabies virus
Leroy, Michael; Pire, Grégory; Baise, Etienne ULg et al

in Neurobiology of Disease (2006), 21(3), 515-521

Rabies is a fatal anthropozoonotic viral infection of the central nervous system that remains a serious public health problem in many countries. As several animal cases of spontaneous survival to ... [more ▼]

Rabies is a fatal anthropozoonotic viral infection of the central nervous system that remains a serious public health problem in many countries. As several animal cases of spontaneous survival to infection were reported and because type 1 interferons were shown to protect against the virus, it was suggested that innate resistance mechanisms exist. Among the antiviral proteins that are synthesized in response to interferon-alpha/beta stimulation, Mx proteins from several species are long known to block the replication of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). As both VSV and rabies virus belongs to the Rhabdoviridae family, this study was started with the aim to establish whether the anti-VSV activity of a mammalian Mx protein could be extended to rabies virus. This question was addressed by inoculating the virus onto a bovine Mx1 or human MxA-expressing Vero cell clone. Plaque formation was unambiguously blocked, and viral yields were reduced 100- to 1000-fold by bovine Mx1 expression for both SAG2 and SADB19 viral strains. In opposition, only SAG2 strain could be inhibited by the expression of human MxA protein. The effect of both proteins expression was then evaluated at the viral protein expression level. Again, boMx1 was able to repress protein expression in both strain, whereas only SAG2 proteins were inhibited in human MxA-expressing cells. These results suggest that protection conferred by interferon-alpha/beta against rabies could be, at least partially, attributable to the Mx pathway. Alternatively, bovine Mx1 could be unique in its ability to repress rabies virus which, if confirmed in vivo, would open an avenue for the development of new antirabies therapeutic strategies. [less ▲]

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See detailNeurotoxicity Of The Putative Transmembrane Domain Of The Prion Protein
Haik, S.; Peyrin, Jm.; Lins, Laurence ULg et al

in Neurobiology of Disease (2000), 7(6), 644-56

It has been shown recently that the generation of an abnormal transmembrane form of the prion protein ((Ctm)PrP) is involved in the neurodegeneration process during inherited and infectious prion diseases ... [more ▼]

It has been shown recently that the generation of an abnormal transmembrane form of the prion protein ((Ctm)PrP) is involved in the neurodegeneration process during inherited and infectious prion diseases but a causative relationship has never been established. We wanted to know if and how the proposed transmembrane domain of PrP could induce neuronal dysfunction. Thus, we investigated the neurotoxic properties of two peptides whose sequences are encompassed within this domain. We show that PrP peptides 118-135 and 105-132 as well as an amidated more soluble peptide 105-132 induce the death of pure cortical neurons originating from normal and PrP knockout mice. This can be correlated with the high propensity of these peptides to insert stably into and to destabilize cell membranes. Through this study, we have identified a novel mechanism of neurotoxicity for PrP, which directly involves membrane perturbation; this mechanism is independent of fibril formation and probably corresponds to the effect of the transmembrane insertion of (Ctm)PrP. [less ▲]

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