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See detailPAI-1 mediates the antiangiogenic and profibrinolytic effects of 16K prolactin.
Bajou, Khalid ULg; Herkenne, Stéphanie ULg; Thijssen, Victor L. et al

in Nature Medicine (2014), sous presse

The N-terminal fragment of prolactin (16K PRL) inhibits tumor growth by impairing angiogenesis, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here, we found that 16K PRL binds the fibrinolytic inhibitor ... [more ▼]

The N-terminal fragment of prolactin (16K PRL) inhibits tumor growth by impairing angiogenesis, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here, we found that 16K PRL binds the fibrinolytic inhibitor plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), which is known to contextually promote tumor angiogenesis and growth. Loss of PAI-1 abrogated the antitumoral and antiangiogenic effects of 16K PRL. PAI-1 bound the ternary complex PAI-1-urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA)-uPA receptor (uPAR), thereby exerting antiangiogenic effects. By inhibiting the antifibrinolytic activity of PAI-1, 16K PRL also protected mice against thromboembolism and promoted arterial clot lysis. Thus, by signaling through the PAI-1-uPA-uPAR complex, 16K PRL impairs tumor vascularization and growth and, by inhibiting the antifibrinolytic activity of PAI-1, promotes thrombolysis. [less ▲]

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See detailDNA released from dying host cells mediates aluminum adjuvant activity
Marichal, Thomas ULg; Ohata, Keiichi; Bedoret, Denis et al

in Nature Medicine (2011), 17

Aluminum-based adjuvants (alum) are widely used in human vaccination, although little is understood of their mechanisms of action. Here, we report that, in mice, alum causes the release of host cell DNA ... [more ▼]

Aluminum-based adjuvants (alum) are widely used in human vaccination, although little is understood of their mechanisms of action. Here, we report that, in mice, alum causes the release of host cell DNA, which acts as a potent endogenous immunostimulatory signal mediating alum adjuvant activity. Furthermore, we propose that host DNA signaling differentially regulates IgE and IgG1 production upon alum immunization. Indeed, we support that host DNA induces primary B cell responses, including IgG1 production, through Interferon Response Factor (Irf) 3-independent mechanisms, and 'canonical' type 2 T cell responses associated with IgE isotype switching and peripheral effector responses through Irf3-dependent mechanisms. The finding that host cell DNA is a damage-associated molecular pattern relaying alum adjuvant activity may thus help in the comprehension of the mechanisms of action of current vaccines and in the design of novel adjuvants. [less ▲]

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See detailAcute cardiovascular protective effects of corticosteroids are mediated by non-transcriptional activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase.
Hafezi-Moghadam, Ali; Simoncini, Tommaso; Yang, Zequan et al

in Nature Medicine (2002), 8(5), 473-9

Corticosteroids have been shown to exert beneficial effects in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction, but the precise mechanisms underlying their protective effects are unknown. Here we show that ... [more ▼]

Corticosteroids have been shown to exert beneficial effects in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction, but the precise mechanisms underlying their protective effects are unknown. Here we show that high-dose corticosteroids exert cardiovascular protection through a novel mechanism involving the rapid, non-transcriptional activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Binding of corticosteroids to the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) stimulated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and protein kinase Akt, leading to eNOS activation and nitric oxide dependent vasorelaxation. Acute administration of pharmacological concentrations of corticosteroids in mice led to decreased vascular inflammation and reduced myocardial infarct size following ischemia and reperfusion injury. These beneficial effects of corticosteroids were abolished by GR antagonists or eNOS inhibitors in wild-type mice and were completely absent in eNOS-deficient (Nos3(-/-)) mice. The rapid activation of eNOS by the non-nuclear actions of GR, therefore, represents an important cardiovascular protective effect of acute high-dose corticosteroid therapy. [less ▲]

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See detailSynergism between vascular endothelial growth factor and placental growth factor contributes to angiogenesis and plasma extravasation in pathological conditions
Carmeliet, Peter; Moons, Lieve; Luttun, Aernout et al

in Nature Medicine (2001), 7(5), 575-583

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) stimulates angiogenesis by activating VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2). The role of its homolog, placental growth factor (PlGF), remains unknown. Both VEGF and PlGF bind ... [more ▼]

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) stimulates angiogenesis by activating VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2). The role of its homolog, placental growth factor (PlGF), remains unknown. Both VEGF and PlGF bind to VEGF receptor-1 (VEGFR-1), but it is unknown whether VEGFR-1, which exists as a soluble or a membrane-bound type, is an inert decoy or a signaling receptor for PlGF during angiogenesis. Here, we report that embryonic angiogenesis in mice was not affected by deficiency of PlGF (Pgf -/-). VEGF-B, another ligand of VEGFR-1, did not rescue development in Pgf -/- mice. However, loss of PlGF impaired angiogenesis, plasma extravasation and collateral growth during ischemia, inflammation, wound healing and cancer. Transplantation of wild-type bone marrow rescued the impaired angiogenesis and collateral growth in Pgf -/- mice, indicating that PlGF might have contributed to vessel growth in the adult by mobilizing bone-marrow−derived cells. The synergism between PlGF and VEGF was specific, as PlGF deficiency impaired the response to VEGF, but not to bFGF or histamine. VEGFR-1 was activated by PlGF, given that anti-VEGFR-1 antibodies and a Src-kinase inhibitor blocked the endothelial response to PlGF or VEGF/PlGF. By upregulating PlGF and the signaling subtype of VEGFR-1, endothelial cells amplify their responsiveness to VEGF during the 'angiogenic switch' in many pathological disorders. [less ▲]

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See detailAbsence of Host Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 Prevents Cancer Invasion and Vascularization
Bajou, Khalid ULg; Noël, Agnès ULg; Gerard, R. D. et al

in Nature Medicine (1998), 4(8), 923-8

Acquisition of invasive/metastatic potential through protease expression is an essential event in tumor progression. High levels of components of the plasminogen activation system, including urokinase ... [more ▼]

Acquisition of invasive/metastatic potential through protease expression is an essential event in tumor progression. High levels of components of the plasminogen activation system, including urokinase, but paradoxically also its inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI1), have been correlated with a poor prognosis for some cancers. We report here that deficient PAI1 expression in host mice prevented local invasion and tumor vascularization of transplanted malignant keratinocytes. When this PAI1 deficiency was circumvented by intravenous injection of a replication-defective adenoviral vector expressing human PAI1, invasion and associated angiogenesis were restored. This experimental evidence demonstrates that host-produced PAI is essential for cancer cell invasion and angiogenesis. [less ▲]

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