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See detailPolymer/carbon based composites as electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding materials
Thomassin, Jean-Michel ULg; Jérôme, Christine ULg; Pardoen, Thomas et al

in Materials Science & Engineering : R (2013), 74(7), 211-232

The extensive development of electronic systems and telecommunications has lead to major concerns regarding electromagnetic pollution. Motivated by environmental questions and by a wide variety of ... [more ▼]

The extensive development of electronic systems and telecommunications has lead to major concerns regarding electromagnetic pollution. Motivated by environmental questions and by a wide variety of applications, the quest for materials with high efficiency to mitigate electromagnetic interferences (EMI) pollution has become a mainstream field of research. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art research in the design and characterization of polymer/carbon based composites as EMI shielding materials. After a brief introduction, in Section 1, the electromagnetic theory will be briefly discussed in Section 2 setting the foundations of the strategies to be employed to design efficient EMI shielding materials. These materials will be classified in the next section by the type of carbon fillers, involving carbon black, carbon fiber, carbon nanotubes and graphene. The importance of the dispersion method into the polymer matrix (melt-blending, solution processing, etc.) on the final material properties will be discussed. The combination of carbon fillers with other constituents such as metallic nanoparticles or conductive polymers will be the topic of Section 4. The final section will address advanced complex architectures that are currently studied to improve the performances of EMI materials and, in some cases, to impart additional properties such as thermal management and mechanical resistance. In all these studies, we will discuss the efficiency of the composites/devices to absorb and/or reflect the EMI radiation. [less ▲]

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See detailPolymers in modern ophthalmic implants—Historical background and recent advances
Bozukova, Dimitriya; Pagnoulle, Christophe; Jérôme, Robert ULg et al

in Materials Science & Engineering : R (2010), 69(6), 63-83

Cataract surgery is the most frequently performed surgical intervention, pursued by replacement of the opacified natural lens by a polymeric intraocular lens (IOL). This paper, based on an exhaustive ... [more ▼]

Cataract surgery is the most frequently performed surgical intervention, pursued by replacement of the opacified natural lens by a polymeric intraocular lens (IOL). This paper, based on an exhaustive number of scientific references, provides a brief simplified discussion of the surgical advances for cataract treatment, and is mainly focused on the process of IOL discovery, engineering and development. The performances of the polymer materials, used for the IOLs fabrication are discussed in a comparative way, and their properties, such as handling during surgery, biocompatibility, rate of some post-surgical complications (e.g. Posterior Capsular Opacification) and optical properties, are considered. Special attention is paid on the basic scientific approaches for engineering and modification of the IOL surface and bulk properties. Polymer coating techniques like ‘grafting onto’ and ‘grafting from’ are discussed and exemplified by a variety of coating compositions and performances. In another part of the review, modification techniques concerning optimization of the bulk properties of the polymer lens are also discussed and synthetic approaches such as copolymerization and nanocomposite formation are considered. A perspective aspect of this discussion concerns improvement of the performance of the main polymer by the incorporation of in situ formed or preformed nanoparticles. The most attractive perspectives concerning the improvement of the IOL properties by chemical modification approaches are described. [less ▲]

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See detailNew prospects in flame retardant polymer materials: From fundamentals to nanocomposites
Laoutid, Fouad; Bonnaud, Leïla; Alexandre, Michaël ULg et al

in Materials Science & Engineering : R (2009), 63(3), 100-125

The objective of this review is to make the field of “flame retardants for polymer materials” more accessible to the materials science community, i.e. chemists, physicists and engineers. We present the ... [more ▼]

The objective of this review is to make the field of “flame retardants for polymer materials” more accessible to the materials science community, i.e. chemists, physicists and engineers. We present the fundamentals of polymer combustion theory, the main flame retardant properties and tests used to describe fire behavior, together with the nature and modes of action of the most representative flame retardants and the synergistic effects that can be achieved by combining them. We particularly focus on polymer nanocomposites, i.e. polymer matrices filled with specific, finely dispersed nanofillers, which will undoubtedly pave the way for future materials combining physicochemical and thermo-mechanical performances with enhanced flame retardant behavior. [less ▲]

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