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See detailEffectiveness of Moringa oleifera defatted cake versus seed in the treatment of unsafe drinking water : case study of surface and well waters in Burkina Faso.
Kabore, Aminata; Savadogo, Boubacar; Rosillon, Francis ULg et al

in Journal of Water Resource and Protection [=JWARP] (2013), 5(11),

Safe drinking water access for rural populations in developing countries remains a challenge for a sustainable develop-ment, particularly in rural and periurban areas of Burkina Faso. The study aims to ... [more ▼]

Safe drinking water access for rural populations in developing countries remains a challenge for a sustainable develop-ment, particularly in rural and periurban areas of Burkina Faso. The study aims to investigate the purifying capacity of Moringa oleifera defatted cake as compared to Moringa oleifera seed in the treatment of surface and well waters used for populations alimentation. A total of 90 water samples were collected in sterile glass bottles from 3 dams’ water reservoirs, a river, and a large diameter well, respectively. The water samples were treated in triplicate with Moringa oleifera seed and defatted cake coagulants. At different settling time and coagulant concentration, turbidity and pH were measured to determine the optimal conditions and factors influencing treatment with regard to sampling source. Nine physicochemical parameters (turbidity, pH, nitrates, nitrites, calcium, magnesium, total hardness, organic matter and sulfates), three bacterial fecal pollution indicators (Escherichia coli, fecal Coliforms and fecal Streptococcus) and parasite cysts were monitored based on laboratory standard methods. Data were analyzed using the Student’ t test and XLSTAT 7.5.2 statistical software. From the results obtained, for the same concentration of coagulant, settling times providing the lowest turbidity were significantly shorter (p<0.0001) with Moringa oleifera cake than seed. Optimum settling time with Moringa oleifera cake was between 15-60 min versus 60-120 min, with Moringa oleifera seed. Both treatments reduced significantly minerals concentration in water excepted sulfates for which the concentration reversely increased. However, only Moringa oleifera cake treatment reduced organic matter content in all the water samples, while it increased with Moringa oleifera seed one (p<0.0001). The reduction of microbial pollution indicators was 92-100% with M. oleifera cake treatment and 84-100% with M. oleifera seed one. Overall, for all water samples, Moringa oleifera cake treatment appeared more efficient in improving drinking water quality than the M. oleifera seed treatment. [less ▲]

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See detailAttempts to Answer on the Origin of the High Nitrates Concentrations in Groundwaters of the Sourou Valley in Burkina Faso
Rosillon, Francis ULg; Savadogo, Boubacar; Kabore, Aminata et al

in Journal of Water Resource and Protection [=JWARP] (2012), 4

Within the framework of the contract of Sourou River, a survey of the groundwater quality was performed through 7 campaigns of water sampling and analysis from 2006 till 2012. The water samples resulted ... [more ▼]

Within the framework of the contract of Sourou River, a survey of the groundwater quality was performed through 7 campaigns of water sampling and analysis from 2006 till 2012. The water samples resulted from 23 drillings and 9 wells located in the Sourou Valley. Among the analyzed physico-chemical parameters, the nitrates concentrations ob- served were worrisome. Out of 32 water sources, 14 (44%) supplied a nitrates content superior to the WHO threshold value for drinking water (50 mg NO3/L). Very high concentrations, superior to 500 mg NO3/L with a peak in 860 mg/L, were observed. Given the important variations observed from a sampling point to another, a generalized contamination of the total aquifer was not possible. An individual diagnosis allowed to identify the possible causes of this degradation. Several sources of contamination, in connection with the anthropological activities, were observed near the water facili- ties (drillings/wells): animal and human wild defecation, presence of nontight latrines, solid waste, wastewater dis- charges. It is also advisable to wonder about the impact of the dynamite use for digging wells, this one being able to leave nitrates in the water. With regard to the intensive use of water from the strongly contaminated wells and drillings by the rural populations of Sourou, implementing protection areas within which would be eliminated the sources of contamination in addition to health education among populations could improve the situation. Care should also be taken in the use of nitrates explosives for digging new wells or drillings. [less ▲]

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