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See detailDominance effect on scapula 3-dimensional posture and kinematics in healthy male and female populations
Schwartz, Cédric ULg; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg; Rigaux, Elise et al

in Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery (2013), (0), -

Background: The contralateral shoulder is often used as a reference when evaluating a pathological shoulder. However literature provides contradictory results regarding the symmetry of the scapular ... [more ▼]

Background: The contralateral shoulder is often used as a reference when evaluating a pathological shoulder. However literature provides contradictory results regarding the symmetry of the scapular pattern in a healthy population. We assume that several factors including the gender and the type of motion may influence the scapula bilateral symmetry. Method: The dominant and non dominant shoulders of two populations of men and women composed of 11 subjects each were evaluated for three distinct motions: flexion in the sagittal plane, abduction in the frontal plane and gleno-humeral internal/external rotation with the arm abducted at 90°. Posture, kinematic and range of motion were studied separately. Results: Asymmetries are observed for motions performed in the frontal and sagittal plane but not for the internal/external rotation with the arm abducted at 90°. Multiplane asymmetries are observed for the male population, whereas asymmetries for the female one are mainly uniplanar. For both men and women, the scapula has a larger upward rotation on the dominant side. For men, a larger posterior tilt is also observed. The asymmetries mainly originate in the scapula kinematic and not in its original posture. Discussion: Even if the asymmetries are not large in terms of amplitude (inferior to 5°), one should be aware of their existence and the influence of the composition of the studied population when using the contralateral shoulder as a reference. [less ▲]

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See detailA comparative study between proximal radial morphology and the floating radial head prosthesis.
Popovic, Nebojsa; Djekic, Julien; Lemaire, Roger ULg et al

in Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery (2005), 14(4), 433-40

A morphometric study of the proximal radius was performed with computed tomography scanning in 51 healthy adults. These dimensions were then compared with those of a commercially available floating radial ... [more ▼]

A morphometric study of the proximal radius was performed with computed tomography scanning in 51 healthy adults. These dimensions were then compared with those of a commercially available floating radial head prosthesis. Results were expressed as mean values, SD, and minimum and maximum values. The minimum and maximum diameters of the radial head were 21.9 +/- 1.9 mm and 22.9 +/- 1.9 mm, respectively. The minimum and maximum intramedullary diameters of the radial neck were 8.3 +/- 1.3 mm and 9.3 +/- 1.5 mm, respectively. The combined length of the radial head and neck was 22.47 +/- 2.84 mm. The implications for prosthetic design are as follows: the small floating cup (19 mm in diameter) is too small for the large majority of adults, the large floating cup (22 mm in diameter) is closer to the radial anatomy, the mean values are significantly different between male and female patients, and a single component would suffice for right and left elbows. [less ▲]

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