References of "Isokinetics & Exercise Science"
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See detailRelevance of inertial fatigue test in sport applications
Jidovtseff, Boris ULg; Cordonnier, Caroline ULg; Binard, Anne-Sophie et al

in Isokinetics & Exercise Science (2008), 16(3), 190

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See detailSports injury surveillance in young athletes in Luxembourg
Frisch, Anne ULg; Windal, T.; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg et al

in Isokinetics & Exercise Science (2008), 16(3), 188

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See detailStrength imbalances and prevention of hamstring injury in professional soccer players: A prospective study
Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg; Ganteaume, S.; Binet, Johnny et al

in Isokinetics & Exercise Science (2008), 16(3), 190

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See detailAdvances in preventing shoulder sports injuries
Forthomme, Bénédicte ULg; Delvaux, François ULg; Crielaard, Jean-Michel ULg et al

in Isokinetics & Exercise Science (2008), 16(3), 167

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See detailPrevention of low back injuries in sports
Vanderthommen, Marc ULg

in Isokinetics & Exercise Science (2008), 16(3), 171

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See detailIsokinetic and iso-inertial assessments: Competion or complementarity?
Jidovtseff, Boris ULg; Crielaard, Jean-Michel ULg; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg

in Isokinetics & Exercise Science (2007), 15(1), 52-53

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See detailPhysiological consequences of strenuous concentric and eccentric isokinetic exercises
Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg; Maquet, Didier ULg; Lehance, Cédric ULg et al

in Isokinetics & Exercise Science (2007), 15(1), 51

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See detailWhole body vibration in the treatment of fibromyalgia: Influence on muscle performances
Maquet, Didier ULg; Helene, Loic; Demoulin, Christophe ULg et al

in Isokinetics & Exercise Science (2007), 15

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See detailRelationship between muscular performances of the shoulder and morphostatic profile
Forthomme, Bénédicte ULg; Arimont, A.; Bregonzio, Jany et al

in Isokinetics & Exercise Science (2007), 15

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See detailField performance of javelin throwers: Relationship with isokinetic findings
Forthomme, Bénédicte ULg; Crielaard, Jean-Michel ULg; Forthomme, L. et al

in Isokinetics & Exercise Science (2007), 15(3), 195-202

Published data related to javelin throwers remain poorly documented. The objectives of this study were therefore to compare isokinetic strength profile of the shoulder rotator muscles between javelin ... [more ▼]

Published data related to javelin throwers remain poorly documented. The objectives of this study were therefore to compare isokinetic strength profile of the shoulder rotator muscles between javelin throwers and sedentary persons and to correlate isokinetic data with different field performance parameters. Eleven male javelin throwers and ten sedentary subjects participated in the study. Shoulder internal (IRs) and external rotators (ERs) were isokinetically assessed at 60, 240 and 400 degrees/s in concentric and 60 degrees/s in eccentric exertions. Subjects also performed throwing tests successively using a javelin and a ball (both of 800 g mass). Side to side comparison in the throwers group revealed a dominance effect in the concentric mode for the IRs at all speeds, and for the ERs at 240 degrees/s. Sedentary subjects showed a dominance effect for the IRs at 60 degrees/s and 240 degrees/s. Simple isokinetic concentric-concentric ratios and mixed velocity DCRs (eccentric60/concentric240) of the dominant shoulder were significantly lower in comparison to the non-dominant side values, in the throwers population. Only the simple ratio at 400 degrees/s and the mixed ratio were significantly lower in the sedentary subjects (dominant versus non dominant side). With respect to the dominant shoulder, no significant difference was noted between the groups the peak torque was bodyweight normalized. However, throwers showed a significant reduction of the DCR when compared to the control group. In addition, throwers exhibited moderate to strong correlations (0.61 <= r <= 0.89) between IRs and ERs strength and either the javelin throw test or the personal throwing record. For the sedentary subjects the javelin throw test was correlated only with the IRs concentric strength at 240 degrees/s. In conclusion, javelin throwers showed a significantly reduced mixed ratio in comparison with a control group, even though body weight normalized peak torques did not differ between both populations. Significant correlation was established between rotator peak-torques and javelin throw test among the thrower athletes. Although training program in thrower athletes classically focuses on IRs strengthening, our findings strongly suggest the need for ERs performance improvement. [less ▲]

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See detailIsokinetic strength and fatigability in patients with multiple sclerosis. The relationship between gait speed and isokinetic parameters
Maquet, Didier ULg; Dive, Dominique ULg; Entem, Arnaud et al

in Isokinetics & Exercise Science (2007), 15

Introduction Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease characterized by inflammation and demyelisation of the central nervous system. Decline of muscular performances, fatigue, weakness and spasticity ... [more ▼]

Introduction Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease characterized by inflammation and demyelisation of the central nervous system. Decline of muscular performances, fatigue, weakness and spasticity are the most common and disabling symptoms characterizing this neurological disease. Undoubtedly, objective assessments of muscle function would be relevant to deliver the most appropriate treatment and to appraise possible training effects resulting from rehabilitation. The purposes of this study were to assess muscle strength and fatigue of knee flexors and extensors in patients with multiple sclerosis by means of an isokinetic dynamometer. Relations between isokinetic results and gait speed were also investigated. Methods Eight patients (49 +/- 7 years old) suffering from multiple sclerosis (with unaided gait) were included in this study. Bilateral knee flexor and extensor performances were assessed using a Cybex Norm dynamometer. Maximal isokinetic strength was measured at 60°/s (3 repetitions) and 180°/s (5 repetitions). Thereafter, patients performed a fatigue protocol consisting in 30 successive maximal-intensity knee flexions and extensions at 180°/s angular velocity. Fatigue was analysed using the cumulative work parameter (corresponding to the sum of work developed through the 30 movements) and a fatigue index (ratio between work developed during 3 last contractions and 3 first contractions). Gait speeds corresponded to the time necessary to subject for walking at maximal speed on a 7.62 m and 100 m long walkway. Results Isokinetic parameters (strength and fatigue) appeared to be decreased in MS patients comparatively to normative data [1]. Knee flexors/extensors ratio was reduced for some patients, yet MS subjects displayed no significant bilateral asymmetry, suggesting a bilateral weakness process. Significant negative correlations (- 0.76 < r < - 0.95, p < 0.05) between gait speeds (measured through a 7.62 m and 100 m long walkway) and hamstring isokinetic parameters (peak torque and cumulative work) were observed. In contrast, we did not find any correlation between gait speed and quadriceps isokinetic performances, except for the correlation between gait speed on 100 m long walkway and fatigue index (0.78 < r < 0.89, p < 0.05). Discussion and conclusion Objective evaluation of muscle performance deficiencies in patients with MS appears essential for designing a successful rehabilitation program. However, no consensus has been established with regard to the most relevant isokinetic protocol modalities for assessing patients suffering form central nervous system lesions. Our preliminary results underlined that gait speed was negatively correlated to hamstring isokinetic parameters (strength and cumulative work). Interestingly, no patient included in our study reported increased symptoms such as spasticity during or after the test, indicating that MS patients are able to perform strength and fatigue isokinetic assessments. References [1] Maquet D, Croisier JL, Renard C, Crielaard JM. Muscle performance in patients with fibromyalgia, Joint Bone Spine 69 :293-9, 2002. [less ▲]

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See detailDoes neuromuscular electrical stimulation influence muscle recovery after maximal isokinetic exercise?
Vanderthommen, Marc ULg; Soltani, Karim ULg; Maquet, Didier ULg et al

in Isokinetics & Exercise Science (2007), 15(2), 143-149

Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (ES) and passive recovery (PR) were compared in ten healthy men after a provocation exercise inducing delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS). The exercise consisted ... [more ▼]

Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (ES) and passive recovery (PR) were compared in ten healthy men after a provocation exercise inducing delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS). The exercise consisted of 3 sets of 30 maximal eccentric contractions performed by the knee flexor muscles of the dominant leg on an isokinetic dynamometer at 60 degrees/s angular velocity. There was an interval of 8 weeks between both bouts and the order of the recovery mode (ES or PR) was block-randomly assigned. ES recovery consisted of a 25-min continuous and non-tetanic (5 Hz) stimulation of the hamstring muscles. Concentric and eccentric hamstrings peak torques were evaluated before and immediately after the provocation exercise, after the recovery period, as well as 24 h (d1), 48 h (d2), 72 h (0) and 168 h (0) after the bout. Subjective perception of muscle soreness (VAS, 0-10 a.u.) was evaluated before exercise and at d1, d2, 0 and d7. To assess the CK activity, five blood samples were drawn before exercise and at d1, d2, d3 and d7. For both recovery modes, the greatest reductions in isokinefic muscle performances were measured on d2 (66.3 +/- 24.1 % of initial values (ES) vs. 57.4 +/- 26.5% (PR) for the concentric mode and 55.6 +/- 16% (ES) vs. 53.1 +/- 19.3% (PR) for the eccentric mode). d2 also corresponded to the highest painful sensations (5.4 +/- 2.14 a.u. (ES) vs. 6.15 +/- 2.55 a.u. (PR)). Peak activities of CK were reached on d3 (47507 +/- 19973 IU/l (ES) vs. 75887 41962 IU/l (PR)). Serum CK was lower with ES than PR at 0 (p <= 0.05) but all other parameters changed in a manner that was not statistically different between the two recovery protocols (p > 0.05). This strong trend could be explained by an electro-induced hyperperfusion that may efficiently wash out the muscle from the cellular debris resulting from the initial injury, and hence diminish the inflammatory response and the delayed amplification of tissue damages. [less ▲]

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See detailElectromyographic activity of the knee flexors and extensors during isokinetic fatigue assessments
Maquet, Didier ULg; Bosquet, L.; Forthomme, Bénédicte ULg et al

in Isokinetics & Exercise Science (2007), 15

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See detailAnalysis of a fatigue protocol for knee extensor and flexor muscle groups
Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg; Maquet, Didier ULg; Forthomme, Bénédicte ULg et al

in Isokinetics & Exercise Science (2007), 15

Complementary to the muscle strength measurement, the isokinetic dynamometry offers the opportunity to investigate another essential variable: the fatigue which can be defined as a deterioration in ... [more ▼]

Complementary to the muscle strength measurement, the isokinetic dynamometry offers the opportunity to investigate another essential variable: the fatigue which can be defined as a deterioration in maximum torque generating capacity. Many articles in the literature refer to isokinetic fatigue protocols, yet we may consider that there is a lack of consensus about testing modalities and methodological aspects. The overall aim of that preliminary study was to investigate concentric fatigue protocols in terms of contraction number, measurement reproducibility and appropriateness of parameters classically analysed. Twelve male subjects (23  2 years old; 71  3 kg) without history of lower limb injury were included in the study. After standardized warm-up and familiarization with the isokinetic exercise (Biodex 3 dynamometer), each subject performed a unilateral concentric testing on their dominant side knee flexors and extensors. The protocol consisted in 50 maximal contractions at 180°/s angular velocity along a constant 100° range of motion. The fatigue protocol was repeated at 3 different sessions, separated by one week, in the same standardized conditions. Measured and calculated parameters were analysed: maximal work (Wmax); total work (Wtot); cumulated work on 10-20-30-40-50 repetitions (W10-20-30-40-50); different fatigue indexes: mean on the 3 last reps/Wmax (W3L/Wmax), mean on the 5 last reps/Wmax (W5L/Wmax), W3L/mean on the 3 first reps (W3L/W3F), W5L / mean on the 5 first reps (W5L/W5F). These fatigue indexes were established from the 50 repetitions protocol but also calculated on the 30 and 40 first repetitions of the whole test. The heart rate (HR) throughout the fatigue protocol was recorded using a Polar cardiofrequencemeter. A generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) was used for the statistical analysis of reproducibility. The cumulated work calculated on 20, 30, 40 or 50 repetitions was found to be reproducible for the Q muscle group. The same parameters calculated on the Fl muscle group showed a less satisfactory reproducibility. Among indexes of fatigue, the most reproducible were those using Wmax as denominator (by contrast with W3F or W5F as denominator), in particular the W5L/Wmax index for the Q. From 20 repetitions to the end of exercise, the fatigue indexes calculated on the Fl were significantly (p < 0.05) inferior to the indexes established for the Q, suggesting a more marked effect of fatigue on the Fl decrease of maximal strength production. With respect to the HR expressed in percentage of the theoretical maximal HR, the value averaged 53 % before exercise, 83 % after 20 reps and peaked at 87 % after 50 reps. After 2 minutes of recovery, the HR reached 58 % of the HR max. These findings must be taken into account when designing a fatigue isokinetic protocol, in terms of exercise duration and parameters to be analysed. [less ▲]

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See detailIsokinetic assessment of the scapular muscles
Forthomme, Bénédicte ULg; Arimont, A.; Maquet, Didier ULg et al

in Isokinetics & Exercise Science (2007), 15

The scapula plays an important role in normal shoulder function. In sports in which demands on the shoulder are extremely high, the quality of movements depends on the interaction between scapular and ... [more ▼]

The scapula plays an important role in normal shoulder function. In sports in which demands on the shoulder are extremely high, the quality of movements depends on the interaction between scapular and glenohumeral kinematics. Comparatively to a normal status, the scapular dyskinesis is defined as observable alteration in the position of the scapula and in the patterns of scapular motion in relation to the thoracic cage [1]. Surprisingly, only sparse literature focused on the isokinetic assessment of scapulothoracic muscles. To our knowledge, only Cools et al. [2,3] have investigated such evaluation, using a closed kinetic chain system. The aim of this study was to provide new insights in the isokinetic assessment of the scapular muscle performances, among sedentary and overhead athletes populations. 10 sedentary men (23.5  2.6 years; 67.3  62 kg) and 10 overhead athletes (22.2 +/- 2.3 years; 72.9 +/- 9.7 kg) participated into the study. All subjects were free of previous shoulder pathology. The overhead population included 2 volleyball, 2 handball, 3 tennis and 3 badminton players, all with at least 9 years of intensive practice. They sustained a bilateral isokinetic assessment (Biodex 3 dynamometer) of the protractors (PRO) and retractors (RET) of the scapula (closed kinetic chain). Subjects were seated and the closed kinetic chain attachment was placed in a horizontal plane, at 30° from the frontal plane, which corresponded to the scapular plane; the elbow was placed in full extension. The range of motion was individualized from the maximal protraction to the maximal retraction positions. After a specific warm up using an elastic theraband and familiarization on the isokinetic device, the isokinetic protocol consisted in 3 repetitions at slow speed (12.2 cm/s) and 5 repetitions at high speed (36.6 cm/s). The strength performances (peak-force in N) and ratios (Protractors / Retractors; PRO/RET) are described in Tables 1 and 2. The maximum force developed by scapular muscles decreased with increase in motion velocity. Generally, there was no dominance effect, except for the RET at high speed within the sedentary population (Table 1). The PRO/RET ratios remained inferior to 1 indicating higher performances on RET muscle group (Table 2). Even if the athletes recruited in our study used their shoulder in an asymmetrical way, we did not find any significant difference between the dominant and non dominant ratios in that population; only the PRO/RET ratio of sedentaries at high speed showed a dominance effect. The PRO/RET ratios were higher into the athletes, yet the difference did not reach statistical significance. There was no significant difference between both populations, if considering the absolute strength or the bodyweight normalized peak force. The sports population appeared more homogenous with lower standard deviation values for all data. Nevertheless, in such closed kinetic chain assessment, compensations of the trunk during protraction and of the elbow during retraction must be strictly controlled. The shoulder assessment in a closed kinetic chain allowed to investigate the force developed by the protractors and the retractors of the scapula. In spite of upper limb asymmetrical use through overhead activities, a dominance effect in strength performances or agonist-antagonist ratios was not detected among athletes recruited in that study. These preliminary results could be useful for further comparison with pathological cases. REFERENCES 1. W. Kibler, The role of the scapula in athletic shoulder function, Am J Sports Med 26 (1998), 325-337. 2. A. Cools, E. Witrouw, L. Danneels, Test-retest reproducibility of concentric strength values for shoulder girdle protraction and retraction using a Biodex isokinetic dynamometer, Isokin Exerc Sci 10 (2002), 129-136. 3. A. Cools, E. Witrouw, G. Declerq, G. Vanderstraeten, D. Cambier, Evaluation of isokinetic force production and associated muscle activity in the scapular rotators during a protraction-retraction movement in overhead athletes with impingement symptoms, Br J Sports Med 38 (2004), 64-68. [less ▲]

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See detailUnexpected effects of dental occlusion on lower limb muscle strength development
Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg; O'Thanh, R.; Domken, Olivier ULg et al

in Isokinetics & Exercise Science (2007), 15

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See detailInter-session, inter-tester and inter-site reproducibility of isometric trunk muscle strength measurements
Demoulin, Christophe ULg; Grosdent, Stéphanie ULg; Debois, I. et al

in Isokinetics & Exercise Science (2006), 14(4), 317-325

The purpose of this study was to investigate the inter-session, inter-tester and inter-site reproducibility of trunk muscle strength scores in flexion, extension, lateral flexion and rotation. Ten healthy ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this study was to investigate the inter-session, inter-tester and inter-site reproducibility of trunk muscle strength scores in flexion, extension, lateral flexion and rotation. Ten healthy students were tested on four apparatus with a 7-10 day break between sessions. The first two sessions were identical while the other two differed either by the tester or by the site. Furthermore, 10 patients with chronic low back dysfunction (CLBD) were assessed with the four apparatus, once only. For all tests, CV ranged from 3.4% to 7.6% and from 3.9% to 8.1% in the inter-session and inter-tester studies, respectively (p > 0.05 except for inter-session reproducibility of trunk flexor strength). Peak torque (PT) was more variable from site to site with a CV ranging from 4.2% to 12.7%, particularly in extension and left lateral flexion (p < 0.05). No statistically significant difference in the strength ratios (flexion/extension, right/left lateral-flexion and right/left rotation) were found between sessions or testers (4.9% < CV < 9.7%). The inter-site reproducibility of ratios was lower. Comparison between the CLBD patients and the healthy subjects with regard to PT normalized to body weight indicated significantly decreased performance for the former except for flexion and rotation scores in males. We conclude that in the case of healthy subjects, inter-session and inter-tester trunk strength measurements derived from these devices are reproducible. The low inter-site reproducibility suggests that caution should be exercised when interpreting findings originating from different sites. The lower extension strength scores in CLBD patients test lends some validity to the system. However, further studies focusing on reproducibility and validity of this system in CLBD patients are critical before any conclusion regarding their clinical viability may be drawn. [less ▲]

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See detailThe concept of iso-inertial assessment: Reproducibility analysis and descriptive data
Jidovtseff, Boris ULg; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg; Lhermerout, Claude ULg et al

in Isokinetics & Exercise Science (2006), 14(1), 53-62

The purpose of this study was to investigate the reproducibility of findings derived from a new iso-inertial dynamometer during bench press (BP) and squat (SQ) and to provide descriptive data for ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this study was to investigate the reproducibility of findings derived from a new iso-inertial dynamometer during bench press (BP) and squat (SQ) and to provide descriptive data for recreational athletes. A position transducer and accelerometer were combined to assess velocity and power during free weight lifting exercises. Simulated movement with a pulley system revealed the excellent technical consistency of the dynamometer. Sixteen male subjects participated in the study. Iso-inertial tests consisted of lifting as fast as possible four different relative loads (35, 50, 70, 90% 1RM in BP and 45, 60, 75, 90% 1RM in SQ). The test was repeated one week later. Analysis of variance revealed no significant variation between sessions or trials. Reproducibility was better in velocity than in power, although it remained fairly good in both exercises (coefficients of variation [CV] never exceeding 10%) except for the time to peak power parameter. Descriptive data confirmed the classical force-velocity and force-power relationships for BP and SQ. In conclusion, this study demonstrated reliable measurements in BP and SQ iso-inertial exercises. Monitoring force-velocity and force-power relationships offers an original functional approach in strength training supervision. [less ▲]

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See detailConsequences of latissimus dorsi transfer on shoulder function
Forthomme, Bénédicte ULg; Heymans, Olivier; Grandjean, F. X. et al

in Isokinetics & Exercise Science (2005, March), 13(1), 69-70

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See detailIsokinetic assessment of shoulder rotator cuff sutures 36 months after surgery
Binet, J.; Forthomme, Bénédicte ULg; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg

in Isokinetics & Exercise Science (2005, March), 13(1), 79-80

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