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See detailAn exploratory study on the use of enzyme activities as sediment tracers: Biochemical fingerprints?
Nosrati, K.; Govers, G.; Ahmadi, H. et al

in International Journal of Sediment Research (2011), 26(2), 136-151

Little information exists on the potential of soil enzyme activities, which are sensitive to soil properties and management, for the characterization of sediment sources at the catchment scale. The ... [more ▼]

Little information exists on the potential of soil enzyme activities, which are sensitive to soil properties and management, for the characterization of sediment sources at the catchment scale. The objective of this study is to explore and evaluate enzyme activity as tracer for sediment fingerprinting in the Hiv catchment (55 km2), Iran. Therefore, four enzymes were measured from 42 different sampling sites, covering three sediment source areas (rangeland/surface erosion, orchard/surface erosion, and streambank erosion), as well as from 12 sediment samples from reservoir check dams (sediment sinks). The results indicate that, based upon backward mode discriminant analysis, β-glucosidase and dehydrogenase, allowed more than 95% of the samples to be correctly assigned to their source areas. These enzymes were selected as input data for a mixing-model to determine the relative contribution of the sampled sediment sources. The mean contributions from rangeland, orchard and streambank sources in the study area were estimated as 11.3%, 15.1% and 73.7%, respectively. Using geochemical tracers, the mean contribution from rangeland, orchard and streambank sources was estimated as 14.1%, 9.5% and 74.8%, respectively. Combined biochemical and geochemical tracers, similar values were obtained (18.7%, 10.7% and 70.7%, respectively). Our results indicate that soil enzyme activity allows for a good characterization of sediment sources, and can provide a complementary tool to currently existing sediment fingerprinting approaches. However, the method should be also tested in other regions. © 2011 International Research and Training Centre on Erosion and Sedimentation and the World Association for Sedimentation and Erosion Research. [less ▲]

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See detailExperimental investigation of flow pattern and sediment deposition in rectangular shallow reservoirs
Dufresne, Matthieu; Dewals, Benjamin ULiege; Erpicum, Sébastien ULiege et al

in International Journal of Sediment Research (2010), 25(3), 258-270

This work involved the experimental investigation of flow pattern, preferential regions of deposition and trap efficiency as a function of the length of rectangular shallow reservoirs. Four flow patterns ... [more ▼]

This work involved the experimental investigation of flow pattern, preferential regions of deposition and trap efficiency as a function of the length of rectangular shallow reservoirs. Four flow patterns were identified (from longer to shorter reservoirs): an asymmetric flow with two reattachment points, an asymmetric flow with one reattachment point, an unstable flow, and a symmetric flow without any reattachment point. Using dye visualizations, the median value and the temporal variability of the reattachment lengths were precisely measured for the asymmetric flows. For each stable flow, sediment tests with plastic particles were carried out. The regions of deposition on the bed of the reservoir were clearly a function of the flow pattern. The transition from an asymmetric flow pattern to a symmetric flow pattern was responsible for an abrupt decrease of the trap efficiency; a number of regression laws were discussed to take it into account. [less ▲]

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