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See detailUse of a metagenetic approach to monitor the bacterial microbiota of “Tomme d’Orchies” cheese during the ripening process
Ceugniez, Alexandre; Taminiau, Bernard ULg; Coucheney, Françoise et al

in International Journal of Food Microbiology (in press)

The study of microbial ecosystems in artisanal foodstuffs is important to complete in order to unveil its diversity. The number of studies performed on dairy products has increased during the last decade ... [more ▼]

The study of microbial ecosystems in artisanal foodstuffs is important to complete in order to unveil its diversity. The number of studies performed on dairy products has increased during the last decade, particularly those performed on milk and cheese derivative products. In this work, we investigated the bacterial content of "Tomme d'Orchies" cheese, an artisanal pressed and uncooked French cheese. To this end, a metagenetic analysis, using Illumina technology, was utilized on samples taken from the surface and core of the cheese at 0, 1, 3, 14 and 21 days of ripening process. In addition to the classical microbiota found in cheese, various strains likely from environmental origin were identified. A large difference between the surface and the core content was observed within samples withdrawn during the ripening process. The main species encountered in the core of the cheese were Lactococcus spp. and Streptococcus spp., with an inversion of this ratio during the ripening process. Less than 2.5% of the whole population was composed of strains issued from environmental origin, as Lactobacillales, Corynebacterium and Brevibacterium. In the core, about 85% of the microbiota was attributed to the starters used for the cheese making. In turn, the microbiota of the surface contained less than 30% of these starters and interestingly displayed more diversity. The predominant genus was Corynebacterium sp., likely originating from the environment. The less abundant microbiota of the surface was composed of Bifidobacteria, Brevibacterium and Micrococcales. To summarize, the “Tomme d’Orchies” cheese displayed a high diversity of bacterial species, especially on the surface, and this diversity is assumed to arise from the production environment and subsequent ripening process. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of bacterial superficial contamination in classical or ritually slaughtered cattle using metagenetics and microbiological analysis
Korsak Koulagenko, Nicolas ULg; Taminiau, Bernard ULg; Hupperts, Caroline et al

in International Journal of Food Microbiology (in press)

The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the slaughter technique (Halal vs. Classical slaughter) on the superficial contamination of cattle carcasses, by using traditional microbiological ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the slaughter technique (Halal vs. Classical slaughter) on the superficial contamination of cattle carcasses, by using traditional microbiological procedures and 16S rDNA metagenetics. The purpose was also to investigate the neck area to identify bacteria originating from the digestive or the respiratory tract. Twenty bovine carcasses (10 from each group) were swabbed at the slaughterhouse, where both slaughtering methods are practiced. Two swabbing areas were chosen: one “legal” zone of 1,600 cm2 (composed of zones from rump, flank, brisket and forelimb) and locally on the neck area (200 cm2). Samples were submitted to classical microbiology for aerobic Total Viable Counts (TVC) at 30°C and Enterobacteriaceae counts, while metagenetic analysis was performed on the same samples. The classical microbiological results revealed no significant differences between both slaughtering practices; with values between 3.95 and 4.87 log CFU/100 cm2 and 0.49 and 1.94 log CFU/100 cm2, for TVC and Enterobacteriaceae respectively. Analysis of pyrosequencing data showed that differences in the bacterial population abundance between slaughtering methods were mainly observed in the “legal” swabbing zone compared to the neck area. Bacterial genera belonging to the Actinobacteria phylum were more abundant in the “legal” swabbing zone in “Halal” samples, while Brevibacterium and Corynebacterium were encountered more in “Halal” samples, in all swabbing areas. This was also the case for Firmicutes bacterial populations (families of Aerococcaceae, Planococcaceae). Except for Planococcoceae, the analysis of Operational Taxonomic Unit (OTU) abundances of bacteria from the digestive or respiratory tract revealed no differences between groups. In conclusion, the slaughtering method does not influence the superficial microbiological pattern in terms of specific microbiological markers of the digestive or respiratory tract. However, precise analysis of taxonomy at the genus level taxonomy highlights differences between swabbing areas. Although not clearly proven in this study, differences in hygiene practices used during both slaughtering protocols could explain the differences in contamination between carcasses from both slaughtering groups. [less ▲]

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See detailUse of the potential probiotic strain Lactobacillus salivarius SMXD51 to control Campylobacter jejuni in broilers.
Saint-Cyr, Manuel Jimmy; Haddad, Nabila; Taminiau, Bernard ULg et al

in International Journal of Food Microbiology (2016)

Campylobacteriosis is the most frequently reported zoonotic disease in humans in the EU since 2005. As chicken meat is the main source of contamination, reducing the level of Campylobacter in broiler ... [more ▼]

Campylobacteriosis is the most frequently reported zoonotic disease in humans in the EU since 2005. As chicken meat is the main source of contamination, reducing the level of Campylobacter in broiler chicken will lower the risk to consumers. The aim of this project was to evaluate the ability of Lactobacillus salivarius SMXD51 to control Campylobacter jejuni in broilers and to investigate the mechanisms that could be involved. Thirty broilers artificially contaminated with C. jejuni were treated by oral gavage with MRS broth or a bacterial suspension (107CFU) of Lb. salivarius SMXD51 (SMXD51) in MRS broth. At 14 and 35days of age, Campylobacter and Lb. salivarius loads were assessed in cecal contents. The impact of the treatment on the avian gut microbiota at day 35 was also evaluated. At day 14, the comparison between the control and treated groups showed a significant reduction (P<0.05) of 0.82 log. After 35days, a significant reduction (P<0.001) of 2.81 log in Campylobacter loads was observed and 73% of chickens treated with the culture exhibited Campylobacter loads below 7log10CFU/g. Taxonomic analysis revealed that SMXD51 treatment induced significant changes (P<0.05) in a limited number of bacterial genera of the avian gut microbiota and partially limited the impact of Campylobacter on Anaerotruncus sp. decrease and Subdoligranulum sp. increase. Thus, SMXD51 exhibits an anti-Campylobacter activity in vivo and can partially prevent the impact of Campylobacter on the avian gut microbiota. [less ▲]

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See detailMetagenomic insights into the dynamics of microbial communities in food
Kergourlay, Gilles ULg; Taminiau, Bernard ULg; Daube, Georges ULg et al

in International Journal of Food Microbiology (2015), 213

Metagenomics has proven to be a powerful tool in exploring a large diversity of natural environments such as air, soil, water, and plants, as well as various human microbiota (e.g. digestive tract, lungs ... [more ▼]

Metagenomics has proven to be a powerful tool in exploring a large diversity of natural environments such as air, soil, water, and plants, as well as various human microbiota (e.g. digestive tract, lungs, skin). DNA sequencing techniques are becoming increasingly popular and less and less expensive. Given that high-throughput DNA sequencing approaches have only recently started to be used to decipher food microbial ecosystems, there is a significant growth potential for such technologies in the field of food microbiology. The aim of this review is to present a survey of recent food investigations via metagenomics and to illustrate how this approach can be a valuable tool in the better characterization of foods and their transformation, storage and safety. Traditional food in particular has been thoroughly explored by global approaches in order to provide information on multi-species and multi-organism communities. [less ▲]

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See detailPsychrotrophic lactic acid bacteria associated with production batch recalls and sporadic cases of early spoilage in Belgium between 2010 and 2014
Pothakos, Vasileios; Taminiau, Bernard ULg; Huys, Geert et al

in International Journal of Food Microbiology (2014), 191

Between 2010 and 2014 several spoilage cases in Belgium occurring in retail foodstuffs prior to the end of shelf-life have been reported to our laboratory. Overall, seven cases involved strictly ... [more ▼]

Between 2010 and 2014 several spoilage cases in Belgium occurring in retail foodstuffs prior to the end of shelf-life have been reported to our laboratory. Overall, seven cases involved strictly psychrotrophic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) contamination in packaged and chilled-stored food products. The products derived either fromrecalls of entire production batches or as specimens of sporadic spoilage manifestations. Some of these samples were returned to the manufacturing companies by consumers who observed the alterations after purchasing the products. The products covered a wide range of foodstuffs (i.e. meat, dairy, vegetable, egg products and composite food) and denoted different spoilage defects. However, the microbiota determined by means of 16S rRNA gene high throughput sequencing analysis underpin few LAB genera (i.e. Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus, Weissella and Lactococcus), which are frequently encountered nowadays as specific spoilage organisms (SSO) albeit overlooked by mesophilic enumeration methods due to their strictly psychrotrophic character. The present study confirms the spreading of psychrotrophic LAB in Belgian food processing environments leading to unexpected spoilage, corroborating their spoilage dynamics and prevalence in all kinds of packaged and refrigerated foodstuffs in Northern Europe. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of viability and growth of Acetobacter senegalensis under different stress conditions
Shafiei, Rasoul ULg; Thonart, Philippe ULg; Delvigne, Frank ULg et al

in International Journal of Food Microbiology (2013)

Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are used in production of vinegars. During acetic acid fermentation, AAB encounter various aggressive conditions which may lead to a variety of cellular disorders. Previous ... [more ▼]

Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are used in production of vinegars. During acetic acid fermentation, AAB encounter various aggressive conditions which may lead to a variety of cellular disorders. Previous researches mainly studied the influences of different carbon sources on tolerance of AAB to ethanol and acetic acid. In this study, different techniques were used comparatively to investigate the effects of preadaptation on the ability of A. senegalensis to tolerate ethanol and acetic acid. In general, the carbon sources used for preadaptation of A. senegalensis exhibited significant effects on the tolerance of cells to stressors. Flow-cytometric assessments of preadapted cells in ethanol showed that 87.3% of the cells perform respiration after exposure to a stress medium containing 5% (v/v) ethanol and 3% (w/v) acetic acid. However, 58.4% of these preadapted cells could keep their envelope integrity under the stress condition. They could also grow rapidly (μmax = 0.39/h) in the stress medium (E5A3) with a high yield (>80%). A. senegalensis grown in glucose exhibited a low tolerance to acetic acid. Analysis of their respiration capacity, membrane integrity and culturability revealed that almost all the population were dead after exposure to 5% (v/v) ethanol and 3% (w/v) acetic acid. In contrast, exposure of A. senegalensis preadapted in a mixture of glucose and acetic acid to a stress medium containing 5% (v/v) ethanol and 3% (w/v) acetic acid, exhibited an intact respiration system and cellular membrane integrity in 80.3% and 50.01% of cells, respectively. Moreover, just 24% of these cells could keep their culturability under that stress condition. [less ▲]

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See detailPresence of Clostridium difficile in pigs and cattle intestinal contents and carcass contamination at the slaughterhouse in Belgium.
Rodriguez Diaz, Cristina ULg; Avesani, V.; Van Broeck, J. et al

in International Journal of Food Microbiology (2013), 166(2), 256-262

The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of Clostridium difficile in intestinal and carcass samples collected from pigs and cattle at a single slaughterhouse. C. difficile was isolated in ... [more ▼]

The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of Clostridium difficile in intestinal and carcass samples collected from pigs and cattle at a single slaughterhouse. C. difficile was isolated in 1% and 9.9% of the pig and cattle intestinal contents and in 7.9% and 7% of cattle and pig carcass samples respectively. A total of 19 different PCR-ribotypes were identified, among them types 078 and 014. Seven of 19 ribotypes correlated with the PCR-ribotypes involved in human C. difficile infections in Belgium. This study confirms that animals are carriers of C. difficile at slaughter and ribotypes are identical than those in humans, and that carcass contamination occurs inside the slaughterhouse. [less ▲]

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See detailModelling the fate of Listeria monocytogenes during manufacture and ripening of smeared cheese made with pasteurised or raw milk.
Schvartzman Echenique, Maria Sol ULg; Maffre, A.; Tenenhaus-Aziza, F. et al

in International journal of food microbiology (2011), 145 Suppl 1

The dynamics of the physicochemical characteristics of foods help to determine the fate of pathogens throughout processing. The aim of this study was to assess the behaviour of Listeria monocytogenes ... [more ▼]

The dynamics of the physicochemical characteristics of foods help to determine the fate of pathogens throughout processing. The aim of this study was to assess the behaviour of Listeria monocytogenes during cheesesmaking and ripening and to model the growth observed under the dynamic conditions of the cheese. A laboratory scale cheese was made in 4 independent replicates from pasteurised or raw cow's milk, artificially contaminated with L. monocytogenes. No growth of L. monocytogenes occurred during raw milk cheese-making, whereas growth did occur in pasteurised milk. During ripening, growth occurred in raw milk cheese, but inactivation occurred in pasteurised milk cheese. The behaviour observed for L. monocytogenes was modelled using a logistic primary model coupled with a secondary cardinal model, taking into account the effect of physicochemical conditions (temperature, pH, water activity and lactate). A novel statistical approach was proposed to assess the optimal growth rate of a microorganism from experiments performed in dynamic conditions. This complex model had an acceptable quality of fit on the experimental data. The estimated optimum growth rates can be used to predict the fate of L. monocytogenes during cheese manufacture in raw or pasteurized milk in different physicochemical conditions. The data obtained contributes to a better understanding of the potential risk that L. monocytogenes presents to cheese producers (growth on the product, if it is contaminated) and consumers (the presence of high numbers) and constitutes a very useful set of data for the completion of chain-based modelling studies. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of growth/no growth interface of Listeria monocytogenes growing on stainless steel surfaces, detached from biofilms or in suspension, in response to pH and NaCl.
Belessi, Charalambia-Eirini A.; Gounadaki, Antonia S.; Schvartzman Echenique, Maria Sol ULg et al

in International journal of food microbiology (2011), 145 Suppl 1

The present study aimed to describe the growth/no growth interface of Listeria monocytogenes at three potential states of growth in industrial environments, namely attached, (Att), detached (Det) from a ... [more ▼]

The present study aimed to describe the growth/no growth interface of Listeria monocytogenes at three potential states of growth in industrial environments, namely attached, (Att), detached (Det) from a biofilm, or in a planktonic state (suspended; Plan). A 3-strain composite of L. monocytogenes cells was left to colonize stainless steel (SS) surfaces in tryptic soy broth supplemented with 0.6% yeast extract (TSBYE) at 20 degrees C for 72 h and then transferred to TSBYE at 30 different pH and NaCl concentrations, which were renewed every two days during incubation at 10 degrees C. Survival of attached population was observed at optimal conditions (pH 7.2, a(w) 0.996), whereas at 4.5-8.0% salt and/or pH<6.0, reduction of attached population on SS surfaces was observed. PFGE patterns showed that 91% of the cells colonizing the SS coupons after 30 days, at any pH and a(w) conditions, belonged to a single strain. Furthermore, the change in the probability of a single cell to initiate growth (P(in)) over time, as well as the number of cells needed (CN) for growth initiation of planktonically growing Plan and Det L. monocytogenes cells were evaluated based on MPN Tables. An ordinary logistic regression model was also used to describe the growth/no growth interface of varying inoculation levels (from <10 to 10(4)CFU/ml) of Plan and Det cells in response to pH and a(w). Although both cell types demonstrated similar growth limits at populations of 10(2)-10(4)CFU/ml, higher numbers of Det than Plan cells were needed (CN) in order to initiate growth at low a(w) and pH. Individual Plan cells reached higher maximum levels of probability of growth initiation (P(max)) and had shorter times to reach P(max)/2 (t(au)), compared to their Det counterparts. Data on growth potential of cells in suspension, attached or detached status, may assist in ranking the risk from different sources of contamination. In addition, they may establish the link between the behavior of L. monocytogenes in foods and its origin from the processing plant. The latter link is important component of biotraceability. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification of surf actin producing strains in Soumbala and Bikalga fermented condiments using polymerase chain reaction and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry methods
Savadogo, A; Tapi, Arthur; Chollet, Marlène et al

in International Journal of Food Microbiology (2011)

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See detailA Box-Behnken Design For Predicting The Combined Effects Of Relative Humidity And Temperature On Antagonistic Yeast Population Density At The Surface Of Apples
Lahlali, Rachid; Massart, Sébastien ULg; Serrhini, Mn. et al

in International Journal of Food Microbiology (2008), 122(1-2), 100-108

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See detailUse of Lactobacillus strains to start cassava fermentations for Gari production
Huch, M.; Hanak, A.; Specht, I. et al

in International Journal of Food Microbiology (2008), 128(2), 258-267

Two Lactobacillus strains, Lactobacillus plantarum BFE 6710 and Lactobacillus fermentum BFE 6620, were used to start cassava fermentations in a pilot study under field production conditions in Kenya, to ... [more ▼]

Two Lactobacillus strains, Lactobacillus plantarum BFE 6710 and Lactobacillus fermentum BFE 6620, were used to start cassava fermentations in a pilot study under field production conditions in Kenya, to determine their potential to establish themselves as predominant lactobacilli during the fermentation. Predominant strains from three fermentations were isolated throughout the 48 h fermentation period. The use of these strains in high numbers clearly resulted in 1 to 2 log higher lactic acid bacteria (LAB) counts over the course of the fermentation when compared to the uninoculated control. 178 predominant LAB isolates were grouped based on their phenotypic characteristics, and were characterised to strain level by RAPD–PCR, followed by PFGE strain typing. Overall, L. plantarum strains represented the majority of the isolates, followed by Weissella confusa and Lactococcus garvieae strains. The results of RAPD–PCR and PFGE strain typing techniques indicated that L. plantarum BFE 6710 was successful in asserting itself as a predominant strain. In contrast, L. fermentum BFE 6620 failed to establish itself as a predominant organism in the fermentation. The success of the L. plantarum strains to predominate in the cassava fermentation demonstrates the potential for development of Lactobacillus starter cultures to industrialise the Gari production process. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterisation and biochemical properties of predominant lactic acid bacteria from fermenting cassava for selection as starter cultures
Kostinek, M.; Specht, I.; Edward, V. A. et al

in International Journal of Food Microbiology (2007), 114(3), 342-351

A total of 375 lactic acid bacteria were isolated from fermenting cassava in South Africa, Benin, Kenya and Germany, and were characterised by phenotypic and genotypic tests. These could be divided into ... [more ▼]

A total of 375 lactic acid bacteria were isolated from fermenting cassava in South Africa, Benin, Kenya and Germany, and were characterised by phenotypic and genotypic tests. These could be divided into five main groups comprising strains of facultatively heterofermentative rods, obligately heterofermentative rods, heterofermentative cocci, homofermentative cocci and obligately homofermentative rods, in decreasing order of predominance. Most of the facultatively heterofermentative rods were identified by phenotypic tests as presumptive Lactobacillus plantarum-group strains, which also comprised the most predominant bacteria (54.4% of strains) isolated in the study. The next predominant group of lactic acid bacteria (14.1% of total isolates) consisted of obligately heterofermentative rods belonging either to the genus Lactobacillus or Weissella, followed by the heterofermentative cocci (13.9% of isolates) belonging to the genera Weissella or Leuconostoc. Homofermentative cocci were also isolated (13.3% of isolates). Biochemical properties such as production of alpha-amylase, p-glucosidase, tannase, antimicrobials (presumptive bacteriocin and H2O2-production), acidification and fermentation of the indigestible sugars raffinose and stachyose, were evaluated in vitro for selection of potential starter strains. A total of 32 strains with one or more desirable biochemical properties were pre-selected and identified using rep-PCR fingerprinting in combination with 16S rRNA sequencing of representative rep-PCR cluster isolates. Of these strains, 18 were identified as L. plantarum, four as Lactobacillus pentosus, two each as Leuconostoc fallax, Weissella paramesenteroides and Lactobacillus fermentum, one each as Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides and Weissella cibaria, while two remained unidentified but could be assigned to the L. plantarum-group. These strains were further investigated for clonal relationships, using RAPD-PCR with three primers, and of the 32 a total of 16 strains were finally selected for the development as starter cultures for Gari production. (C) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailPredictive Modelling Of Temperature And Water Activity (Solutes) On The In Vitro Radial Growth Of Botrytis Cinerea Pers
Lahlali, R.; Serrhini, Mn.; Friel, D. et al

in International Journal of Food Microbiology (2007), 114(1), 1-9

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See detailA seven-year survey of Campylobacter contamination in meat at different production stages in Belgium
Ghafir, Yasmine; China, Bernard; Dierick, Katelijne et al

in International Journal of Food Microbiology (2007), 116(1), 111-120

The presence of Campylobacter was assessed in different samples of poultry, pork and beef meat and carcasses from slaughterhouses, production plants and retail level. An introductory study from 1997 to ... [more ▼]

The presence of Campylobacter was assessed in different samples of poultry, pork and beef meat and carcasses from slaughterhouses, production plants and retail level. An introductory study from 1997 to 1999, had the purpose of establishing the optimum dilution to detect changes in prevalence and allowed a semi-quantitative estimation of poultry and pork contamination. Following this, between 2000 and 2003, 4254 samples were taken in order to study the trends. The poultry matrixes represented the greatest number and the most highly contaminated samples, with 30.9% (in 0.01 g) positive samples, 18.7% (in 1 g), 46.9% (in 25 g) and 19.6% (in 0.01 g) for broiler carcasses, broiler fillets, prepared chicken and layer carcasses, respectively. Broiler carcasses and fillets sampled at retail level were significantly less contaminated than samples from production plants. Pork, beef and veal samples were rarely contaminated and, where contamination existed, it was at a low prevalence (maximum 5.0%). The high and unvarying prevalence of Campylobacter in poultry necessitates the implementation of intervention measures at the primary production level, in addition to methods of minimizing cross-contamination at the processing level. A survey plan in line with the present study could be used in the future to monitor the effects of the planned measures and performance objectives and to follow the evolution of Campylobacter contamination at all stages of the food chain, in accordance with European legislation. (c) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailQuantitative risk assessment of Campylobacter spp. in poultry based meat preparations as one of the factors to support the development of risk-based microbiological criteria in Belgium
Uyttendaele, Mieke; Baert, Katleen; Ghafir, Yasmine et al

in International Journal of Food Microbiology (2006), 111(2), 149-163

The objective of this study was to do an exercise in risk assessment on Campylobaeter spp. for poultry based meat preparations in Belgium. This risk assessment was undertaken on the demand of the ... [more ▼]

The objective of this study was to do an exercise in risk assessment on Campylobaeter spp. for poultry based meat preparations in Belgium. This risk assessment was undertaken on the demand of the competent national authorities as one of the supportive factors to define fisk-based microbiological criteria. The quantitative risk assessment model follows a retail to table approach and is divided in different modules. The contamination of raw chicken meat products (CMPs) was represented by a normal distribution of the natural logarithm of the concentration of Campylobacter spp. (In[Camp]) in raw CMPs based on data from surveillance programs in Belgium. To analyse the relative impact of reducing the risk of campylobacteriosis associated with a decrease in the Campylobacter contamination level in these types of food products, the model was run for different means and standard deviations of the normal distribution of the ln[Camp] in raw CMPs. The limitation in data for the local situation in Belgium and on this particular product and more precisely the semi-quantitative nature of concentration of Campylobacter spp. due to presence/absence testing, was identified as an important information gap. Also the knowledge on the dose-response relationship of Campylobacter spp. was limited, and therefore three different approaches of dose-response modelling were compared. Two approaches (1 and 2), derived from the same study, showed that the reduction of the mean of the distribution representing the ln[Camp] in raw CMPs is the best approach to reduce the risk of Campylobacter spp. in CMPs. However, for the simulated exposure and approach 3 it was observed that the reduction of the standard deviation is the most appropriate technique to lower the risk of campylobacteriosis. Since the dose-response models used in approach I and 2 are based on limited data and the reduction of the mean corresponds with a complete shift of the contamination level of raw CMPs, demanding high efforts from the poultry industry, it is proposed to lower the standard deviation of the concentration of Campylobacter spp. in raw CMPs. This proposal corresponds with the elimination of the products that are highly contaminated. Simulation showed that eating raw chicken meat products can give rise to exposures that are 10(10) times higher than when the product is heated, indicating that campaigns are important to inform consumers about the necessity of an appropriate heat treatment of these type of food products. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailUse of a serological approach for prediction of Salmonella status in an integrated pig production system
Korsak Koulagenko, Nicolas ULg; Degeye, Jean-Noel; Etienne, Grégory et al

in International Journal of Food Microbiology (2006), 108(2), 246-254

Relevance of a Salmonella serological detection technique was studied from complete results obtained from 9 pigs fattening units. Feces and overshoes were sampled at different periods after starting ... [more ▼]

Relevance of a Salmonella serological detection technique was studied from complete results obtained from 9 pigs fattening units. Feces and overshoes were sampled at different periods after starting fattening (2, 3 and 4 months) while caecal contents were taken on the slaughter line. The bacteriological technique used was based on a Diasalm enrichment and a commercial test was used for serology on an average of ten animals per batch. The aim of this work was to establish a correlation between serological results obtained at slaughter (10 samples/batch) and bacteriological results. In this context, two types of logistic regression models were tested by considering alternatively serology and Salmonella detection in caecal contents as the dependent variables. Firstly, beside the fact that all logistic regression models show weak correlations, the first finding was that positive results in overshoes taken at 2 and 3 months are slightly correlated with serological status of herds (odds-ratios of 4.96 and 2.55). Secondly, when batches were characterized as positive on the basis of serological results, the probability of Salmonella recovery in caecal contents was higher than when the batches were considered as negative (odds-ratios comprised between 4.36 and 5.81). A major conclusion is that serology can be used to follow the improvement of an integrated pig production system, but is not the unique solution for assessing risk of Salmonella shedding from specific herds. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailStudying And Modelling The Combined Effect Of Temperature And Water Activity On The Growth Rate Of P. Expansum
Lahlali, Rachid; Serrhini, Mn.; Jijakli, Mohamed ULg

in International Journal of Food Microbiology (2005), 103(3), 315-322

The effect of solutes, water activity (aw, 0.890–0.980) and temperature (5–25 8C) on the mycelial growth rate of Penicillium expansum was evaluated. The growth rate dropped as the temperature and aw of ... [more ▼]

The effect of solutes, water activity (aw, 0.890–0.980) and temperature (5–25 8C) on the mycelial growth rate of Penicillium expansum was evaluated. The growth rate dropped as the temperature and aw of the medium decreased. NaCl was the solute causing the greatest growth rate reduction, followed by glucose, glycerol and sorbitol. Statistical analysis of the results showed a significant effect of solute, aw, temperature and combinations of two or three of these factors ( P b0.0001). Whatever the solutes and aw values, the initiation of colony growth required an additional day at 15 8C and 5 8C as compared to initiation at 25 8C. Growth models based on the results obtained with sorbitol and glycerol differed only slightly, with R2 values of 97.00% and 97.95%, respectively. The response surfaces of both quadratic polynomial models showed that P. expansum should be able to grow at low aw (0.890) and that growth at 25 8C should be fastest at aw values ranging from 0.960 to 0.980. Both models presented a good fit between predicted and observed values. [less ▲]

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