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See detailBioactive Intraocular Lens – A Strategy to Control Secondary Cataract
Huang, Yi-Shiang ULg; Bertrand, Virginie ULg; Bozukova, Dimitriya et al

in IFMBE Proceedings (2014), 41

Cataract is the opacity of the lens, causing impairment of vision or even blindness. Today, a surgery is still the only available treatment. The intraocular lens (IOL) is a polymer implant designed to ... [more ▼]

Cataract is the opacity of the lens, causing impairment of vision or even blindness. Today, a surgery is still the only available treatment. The intraocular lens (IOL) is a polymer implant designed to replace the natural lens in the cataract surgery. However, the bioinert materials could not satisfy the unmet need in the secondary cataract control. Posterior capsular opacification (PCO, or Secondary Cataract), characterized by a thick and cloudy layer of lens epithelial cells (LECs), is the most common postoperative complication. In our research, a bioactive molecule is immobilized onto the conventional acrylic hydrophilic polymer pHEMA (Poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)) using oxygen plasma treatment followed by deposition. The RGD peptide sequence, being well-known for its ability to promote cellular attachment by binding to integrin receptors, is designed to stimulate the adhesion of LECs on the IOL. Our data show the peptide immobilized biomaterial not only exhibits similar optical property, but also reveals enhanced biological properties in cell adhesion and cell morphology maintenance. By means of surface functionalization of IOL to stimulate LECs adhesion, the secondary cataract could be controlled. [less ▲]

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See detailAutomated, High-Throughput, Multi-scale Assessment of Bone Morphology and Bone Competence
Mader, K.; Schneider, P.; Ruffoni, Davide ULg et al

in IFMBE Proceedings (2010), 31

Osteoporosis, the most prevalent degenerative disease in western societies, is characterized by a reduction in bone mass and altered architectural arrangement of bone tissue; however, how bone morphology ... [more ▼]

Osteoporosis, the most prevalent degenerative disease in western societies, is characterized by a reduction in bone mass and altered architectural arrangement of bone tissue; however, how bone morphology on different length scales contributes to overall bone strength and how mechanical stresses are translated into biochemical signals is still poorly understood. This study aims to establish a framework for the automated high-throughput assessment of bone morphology and bone competence on length scales ranging from cellular to organ. We developed automation tools to enable measurement, quantitative morphological analysis, and finite element (FE) modeling for murine femora that will be used on two inbred strains of mice and their respective crossings (> 2000 samples). Two separate 3D x-ray tomography measurements are made, one at low (mu CT) and one at high resolution (Syncrotron Radiation CT). From the low-resolution scans organ-scale characteristics are extracted and from the high-resolution, ultrastructural morphology. The former provides information on macroscopic bone structures and is used for FE modeling. The later provides the canal network and osteocyte lacunae phenotypes. We devised and implemented new morphometric measures to quantify individual shape parameters for these phenotypes, such as orientation, radial distribution, anisotropy, and point density. To integrate the results, we developed a set of software tools to register the different resolutions to each other and a database infrastructure to enable easy management and analysis of such a large volume of data. This database and web-based interface provides a platform for sharing results greatly simplifying the creation of future studies. The presented automated high-throughput assessment of bone morphology at different length scales (whole bone and cell level) provides the prerequisites for direct comparisons between the ultrastructure, whole bone geometry, and mechanical bone competence. In future studies, this will allow investigating how individual ultrastructural bone properties relate to the local stress/strain environment computed by FE. We aim to establish a true phenomics approach, by linking back these phenotypes to the different genotypes of the distinct mouse strains to isolate the genetic contribution for these phenotypes, which are relevant for skeletal integrity. In conclusion, we established a multi-scale framework for quantitative, genetic, high-throughput studies to explore 3D structure-function relationships from cell to organ using computed tomography and computational modeling. The database comprising these results will provide the complete picture of natural differences in healthy bone and provide a starting point for analyzing structurally caused variations in bone strength. At the same time, it will serve as a frame of reference for quantitatively investigating changes that occur in conditions of bone diseases such as osteoporosis. [less ▲]

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See detailThe impact of model-based therapeutics on glucose control in an intensive care unit
Hann, C. E.; Chase, J. G.; Desaive, Thomas ULg et al

in IFMBE Proceedings (2008), 22

This paper investigates the impact of fast parameter identification methods, which do not require any forward simulations, on model-based glucose control, using retrospective data in the Christchurch ... [more ▼]

This paper investigates the impact of fast parameter identification methods, which do not require any forward simulations, on model-based glucose control, using retrospective data in the Christchurch Hospital Intensive Care Unit. The integral-based identification method has been previously clinically validated and extensively applied in a number of biomedical applications; and is a crucial element in the presented model-based therapeutics approach. Common non-linear regression and gradient descent approaches are too computationally intense and not suitable for the glucose control applications presented. The main focus in this paper is on better characterizing and understanding the importance of the integral in the formulation and the effect it has on model-based drug therapy control. As a comparison, a potentially more natural derivative formulation which has the same computation speed advantages is investigated, and is shown to go unstable with respect to modelling error which is always present clinically. The integral method remains robust. © 2009 Springer Berlin Heidelberg. [less ▲]

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