Sirt1 Controls Endothelial Angiogenic Functions During Vascular Growth
; ; et al
in Genes & Development (2007), 21(20),
The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+))-dependent histone deacetylase Sir2 regulates life-span in various species. Mammalian homologs of Sir2 are called sirtuins (SIRT1-SIRT7). In an effort to ... [more ▼]
The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+))-dependent histone deacetylase Sir2 regulates life-span in various species. Mammalian homologs of Sir2 are called sirtuins (SIRT1-SIRT7). In an effort to define the role of sirtuins in vascular homeostasis, we found that among the SIRT family, SIRT1 uniquely regulates angiogenesis signaling. We show that SIRT1 is highly expressed in the vasculature during blood vessel growth, where it controls the angiogenic activity of endothelial cells. Loss of SIRT1 function blocks sprouting angiogenesis and branching morphogenesis of endothelial cells with consequent down-regulation of genes involved in blood vessel development and vascular remodeling. Disruption of SIRT1 gene expression in zebrafish and mice results in defective blood vessel formation and blunts ischemia-induced neovascularization. Through gain- and loss-of-function approaches, we show that SIRT1 associates with and deacetylates the forkhead transcription factor Foxo1, an essential negative regulator of blood vessel development to restrain its anti-angiogenic activity. These findings uncover a novel and unexpected role for SIRT1 as a critical modulator of endothelial gene expression governing postnatal vascular growth. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 18 (2 ULg)
p27kip1 independently promotes neuronal differentiation and migration in the cerebral cortex.
Nguyen, Laurent ; ; et al
in Genes & Development (2006), 20(11), 1511-24
The generation of neurons by progenitor cells involves the tight coordination of multiple cellular activities, including cell cycle exit, initiation of neuronal differentiation, and cell migration. The ... [more ▼]
The generation of neurons by progenitor cells involves the tight coordination of multiple cellular activities, including cell cycle exit, initiation of neuronal differentiation, and cell migration. The mechanisms that integrate these different events into a coherent developmental program are not well understood. Here we show that the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(Kip1) plays an important role in neurogenesis in the mouse cerebral cortex by promoting the differentiation and radial migration of cortical projection neurons. Importantly, these two functions of p27(Kip1) involve distinct activities, which are independent of its role in cell cycle regulation. p27(Kip1) promotes neuronal differentiation by stabilizing Neurogenin2 protein, an activity carried by the N-terminal half of the protein. p27(Kip1) promotes neuronal migration by blocking RhoA signaling, an activity that resides in its C-terminal half. Thus, p27(Kip1) plays a key role in cortical development, acting as a modular protein that independently regulates and couples multiple cellular pathways contributing to neurogenesis. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 45 (4 ULg)
Activation of the HIV-1 enhancer by the LEF-1 HMG protein on nucleosome-assembled DNA in vitro.
; ; et al
in Genes & Development (1995), 9(17), 2090-104
Lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 (LEF-1) is a regulatory high mobility group (HMG) protein that activates the T cell receptor alpha (TCR alpha) enhancer in a context-restricted manner in T cells. In ... [more ▼]
Lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 (LEF-1) is a regulatory high mobility group (HMG) protein that activates the T cell receptor alpha (TCR alpha) enhancer in a context-restricted manner in T cells. In this paper we demonstrate that the distal region of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) enhancer, which contains DNA-binding sites for LEF-1 and Ets-1, also provides a functional context for activation by LEF-1. First, we show that mutations in the LEF-1-binding site inhibit the activity of multimerized copies of the HIV-1 enhancer in Jurkat T cells, and that LEF-1/GAL4 can activate a GAL4-substituted HIV-1 enhancer 80- to 100-fold in vivo. Second, recombinant LEF-1 is shown to activate HIV-1 transcription on chromatin-assembled DNA in vitro. By using a nucleosome-assembly system derived from Drosophila embryos, we find that the packaging of DNA into chromatin in vitro strongly represses HIV-1 transcription and that repression can be counteracted efficiently by preincubation of the DNA with LEF-1 (or LEF-1 and Ets-1) supplemented with fractions containing the promoter-binding protein, Sp1. Addition of TFE-3, which binds to an E-box motif upstream of the LEF-1 and Ets-1 sites, further augments transcription in this system. Individually or collectively, none of the three enhancer-binding proteins (LEF-1, Ets-1, and TFE-3) could activate transcription in the absence of Sp1. A truncation mutant of LEF-1 (HMG-88), which contains the HMG box but lacks the trans-activation domain, did not activate transcription from nucleosomal DNA, indicating that bending of DNA by the HMG domain is not sufficient to activate transcription in vitro. We conclude that transcription activation by LEF-1 in vitro is a chromatin-dependent process that requires a functional trans-activation domain in addition to the HMG domain. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 2 (0 ULg)