References of "Fuel Processing Technology"
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See detailDrying recycled fiber rejects in a bench-scale cyclone: Influence of device geometry and operational parameters on drying mechanisms
Grimm, Alejandro; Elustondo, Diego; Mäkelä, Mikko et al

in Fuel Processing Technology (2017), 167

Abstract Significant amounts of waste sludge and rejects are generated by pulp and paper mills, and stricter environmental regulations have made waste handling a global challenge. Thermochemical ... [more ▼]

Abstract Significant amounts of waste sludge and rejects are generated by pulp and paper mills, and stricter environmental regulations have made waste handling a global challenge. Thermochemical conversion of mechanically dewatered by-products is expensive and inefficient due to their high moisture content; therefore drying is a vital unit operation in waste management. This paper reports results from drying of light coarse fiber reject in a bench-scale cyclone that allows changes in geometry. For the sake of comparison, convective fixed-bed drying tests were also performed. The results showed that the drying rate in the cyclone was hundreds of times higher than in the fixed-bed. For cyclone drying, the inlet air velocity was the most important factor in both determining the drying rate and residence time of the material. This led to the hypothesis that grinding of the reject particles due to particle-wall and particle-particle collisions play a crucial role in enhancing the efficiency of heat and mass transfer. In addition to inlet air velocity, cyclone geometry was the main factor that determined particle residence time, as drying air temperature mainly determined drying rate. [less ▲]

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See detailThe development and experimental validation of a reduced ternary kinetic mechanism for the auto-ignition at HCCI conditions, proposing a global reaction path for ternary gasoline surrogates
Machrafi, Hatim ULiege; Cavadias, Simeon; Amouroux, Jacques

in Fuel Processing Technology (2009), 90(2), 247-263

To acquire a high amount of information of the behaviour of the Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) auto-ignition process, a reduced surrogate mechanism has been composed out of reduced n ... [more ▼]

To acquire a high amount of information of the behaviour of the Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) auto-ignition process, a reduced surrogate mechanism has been composed out of reduced n-heptane, iso-octane and toluene mechanisms, containing 62 reactions and 49 species. This mechanism has been validated numerically in a OD HCCI engine code against more detailed mechanisms (inlet temperature varying from 290 to 500 K, the equivalence ratio from 0.2 to 0.7 and the compression ratio from 8 to 18) and experimentally against experimental shock tube and rapid compression machine data from the literature at pressures between 9 and 55 bar and temperatures between 700 and 1400 K for several fuels: the pure compounds n-heptane, iso-octane and toluene as well as binary and ternary mixtures of these compounds. For this validation, stoichiometric mixtures and mixtures with an equivalence ratio of 0.5 are used. The experimental validation is extended by comparing the surrogate mechanism to experimental data from an HCCI engine. A global reaction pathway is proposed for the auto-ignition of a surrogate gasoline, using the surrogate mechanism, in order to show the interactions that the three compounds can have with one another during the auto-ignition of a ternary mixture. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailAn experimental and numerical analysis of the HCCI auto-ignition process of primary reference fuels, toluene reference fuels and diesel fuel in an engine, varying the engine parameters
Machrafi, Hatim ULiege; Cavadias, Simeon; Gilbert, Philippe

in Fuel Processing Technology (2008), 89(11), 1007-1016

For a future HCCI engine to operate under conditions that adhere to environmental restrictions, reducing fuel consumption and maintaining or increasing at the same time the engine efficiency, the choice ... [more ▼]

For a future HCCI engine to operate under conditions that adhere to environmental restrictions, reducing fuel consumption and maintaining or increasing at the same time the engine efficiency, the choice of the fuel is crucial. For this purpose, this paper presents an auto-ignition investigation concerning the primary reference fuels, toluene reference fuels and diesel fuel, in order to study the effect of linear alkanes, branched alkanes and aromatics on the auto-ignition. The auto-ignition of these fuels has been studied at inlet temperatures from 25 to 120 degrees C, at equivalence ratios from 0.18 to 0.53 and at compression ratios from 6 to 13.5, in order to extend the range of investigation and to assess the usability of these parameters to control the auto-ignition. It appeared that both iso-octane and toluene delayed the ignition with respect to n-heptane, while toluene has the Strongest effect. This means that aromatics have higher inhibiting effects than branched alkanes. In an increasing order, the inlet temperature, equivalence ratio and compression ratio had a promoting effect on the ignition delays. A previously experimentally validated reduced surrogate mechanism, for mixtures of n-heptane, iso-octane and toluene, has been used to explain observations of the auto-ignition process. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailAn experimental and numerical analysis of the influence of the inlet temperature, equivalence ratio and compression ratio on the HCCI auto-ignition process of Primary Reference Fuels in an engine
Machrafi, Hatim ULiege; Cavadias

in Fuel Processing Technology (2008), 89(11), 1218-1226

In order to understand better the auto-ignition process in an HCCI engine, the influence of some important parameters on the auto-ignition is investigated. The inlet temperature, the equivalence ratio and ... [more ▼]

In order to understand better the auto-ignition process in an HCCI engine, the influence of some important parameters on the auto-ignition is investigated. The inlet temperature, the equivalence ratio and the compression ratio were varied and their influence on the pressure, the heat release and the ignition delays were measured, The inlet temperature was changed from 25 to 70 degrees C and the equivalence ratio from 0.18 to 0.41, while the compression ratio varied from 6 to 13.5. The fuels that were investigated were PRF40 and n-heptane. These three parameters appeared to decrease the ignition delays, with the inlet temperature having the least influence and the compression ratio the most. A previously experimentally validated reduced surrogate mechanism, for mixtures of n-heptane, iso-octane and toluene, has been used to explain observations of the auto-ignition process. The same kinetic mechanism is used to better understand the underlying chemical and physical phenomena that make the influence of a certain parameter change according to the operating conditions. This can be useful for the control of the auto-ignition process in an HCCI engine. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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