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See detailInternal particle size distribution of biofuel pellets
Daugbjerg Jensen, Peter; Temmerman, Michaël ULg; Westborg, Suzanne

in Fuel (2006)

Several methods for disintegration of biofuel pellets were tested and compared for their ability to break up the pellets into the original particles of the raw material. Analyses performed on softwood ... [more ▼]

Several methods for disintegration of biofuel pellets were tested and compared for their ability to break up the pellets into the original particles of the raw material. Analyses performed on softwood pellets and straw pellets concluded that wet disintegration in water at ambient temperature is insufficient for a determination of the internal particle size distribution of wood- and straw pellets. When the wet disintegration was performed with water heated to the boiling point and coupled with mechanical disintegration in terms of stirring a more complete disintegration of the pellets was obtained. Based on the results obtained in the initial study a round robin was set up including six European laboratories where the selected method was tested. In the round robin test the method combining heated water and stirring of the slurry was tested on solid biofuel pellets produced of comminute straw, deciduous wood and coniferous wood respectively. With the method a satisfactory disintegration was obtained of all three types of pellets. Further wet disintegration of coniferous pellets was compared to a dry disintegration using a hammer mill. The dry disintegration of the coniferous pellets resulted in smaller particle sizes compared to the wet disintegration using heated water and stirring of the slurry indicating a further disintegration of the original particles in the hammer mill process. Overall the wet disintegration combined with mechanical impact was found to be the most suitable method for disintegration of solid biofuel pellets. Combined with sieving analysis the method gives realistic image of the internal particle size distribution of solid biofuel pellets. [less ▲]

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See detailReduced chemical reaction mechanisms: experimental and HCCI modelling investigations of autoignition processes of iso-octane in internal combustion engines
Machrafi, Hatim ULg; Lombaert, K.; Cavadias, S. et al

in Fuel (2005), 84(18), 2330-2340

A semi-reduced (70 species, 210 reactions) and a skeletal (27 species, 29 reactions) chemical reaction mechanism for iso-octane are constructed from a semi-detailed iso-octane mechanism (84 species, 412 ... [more ▼]

A semi-reduced (70 species, 210 reactions) and a skeletal (27 species, 29 reactions) chemical reaction mechanism for iso-octane are constructed from a semi-detailed iso-octane mechanism (84 species, 412 reactions) of the Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden. The construction of the reduced mechanisms is performed by using reduction methods such as the quasi-steady-state assumption and the partial equilibrium assumption. The obtained reduced iso-octane mechanisms show, at the mentioned conditions, a perfect coherence with another more detailed iso-octane mechanism of ENSIC-CNRS (2411 reactions and 473 species) and the semi-detailed iso-octane mechanism of Chalmers. The validity of this mechanism with regard to the ignition delay is determined for several engine parameters adhering to HCCI conditions: inlet temperature (303-363 K), equivalence ratio (0.2-0.7) and compression ratio (10-16). The ignition delay is found to be decreased by an increase in the inlet temperature, a decrease in the equivalence ratio and an increase in the compression ratio. In order to validate the effects of the inlet temperature, compression ratio on the auto-ignition delay, experiments are performed on a CFR engine. A good agreement is obtained between experimental results and calculations. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailResults of the tracer tests during the El Tremedal underground coal gasification at great depth
Pirard, Jean-Paul ULg; Brasseur, Alain; Coeme, Antoinette et al

in Fuel (2000), 79(5), 471-478

During the underground coal gasification (UCG) experiments at Alcorisa, Spain, a series of helium tracer tests were carried out to follow the underground cavity growth. The volume of the cavity increases ... [more ▼]

During the underground coal gasification (UCG) experiments at Alcorisa, Spain, a series of helium tracer tests were carried out to follow the underground cavity growth. The volume of the cavity increases progressively with the cumulated quantity of oxygen injected. Models based on exchange of matter between the flowing fluid and a transverse dead zone were used. Results indicate that the gasifier behaves almost like a small number of stirred tanks in series with a high level of back mixing. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailHeavy water tracing test in the underground coal gasification process at Thulin (Belgium)
Dufaux, Anne; Gaveau, Bénédicte; Létolle, René et al

in Fuel (1990), 69

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See detailModelling of the underground coal gasification process at Thulin on the basis of thermodynamical equilibria and isotopic measurements
Dufaux, Anne; Gaveau, Bénédicte; Létolle, René et al

in Fuel (1990), 69

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See detailCoal gasification at pressure by mixtures of carbone dioxide and oxygen
Marcourt, Marcel; Paquay, Victor; Piel, Albert et al

in Fuel (1983), 62

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