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See detailEcosystem services of mixed species forest stands and monocultures: comparing practitioners' and scientists' perceptions with formal scientific knowledge
Carnol, Monique ULg; Baeten, Lander; Branquart, Etienne et al

in Forestry (2014)

Mixed species stands might contribute to important goals of sustainable forest management, such as higher biological diversity, more resistance and resilience to disturbances and higher carbon storage ... [more ▼]

Mixed species stands might contribute to important goals of sustainable forest management, such as higher biological diversity, more resistance and resilience to disturbances and higher carbon storage. Knowledge of stakeholders' perceptions of such ecosystem services in mixed species stands is required for effective policy development. We showed that practitioners' and scientists' perceptions of ecosystem services in mixed species stands in Belgium differed from formal scientific knowledge derived from a synthesis of published studies. The positive perception of supporting, regulating and cultural services in mixed species stands contrasted with less conclusive results from the literature, where positive, negative and neutral effects were reported. Many respondents also signified a lack of information about regulating services. Furthermore, provisioning services were perceived as equal in mixed species stands and monocultures, in contrast to higher productivity demonstrated in mixed species stands in the literature. The regional (Flanders and Wallonia) ecological and socio-economic context influenced both the perception of ecosystem services and of the importance of management objectives. Our results highlighted the need to address the lack of scientific data, to adapt communication to the ecological and socio-economic context, as well as to improve information flow on regulating services and productivity. [less ▲]

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See detailA review of the characteristics of black alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.) and their implications for silvicultural practices
Claessens, Hugues ULg; Oosterbaan, Anne; Savill, Peter et al

in Forestry (2010), 83(2), 163-175

Black alder is a scattered, widespread and short-lived species that thrives in low-lying damp and riparian places. It has a use in flood control, stabilization of riverbanks and in functioning of the ... [more ▼]

Black alder is a scattered, widespread and short-lived species that thrives in low-lying damp and riparian places. It has a use in flood control, stabilization of riverbanks and in functioning of the river ecosystems. To thrive, precipitation must exceed 1500 mm if access to groundwater is not possible. Alders are unusual among European trees in that they fix nitrogen. To regenerate naturally, alder requires high levels of both light and moisture, usually achievable only on disturbed sites. Growth rates up to ages 7–10 are very fast but then slow rapidly. Sixty to seventy years is the maximum rotation for growing timber if heart rot is to be avoided. Maximum mean annual increments range from 4 to 14 m3 ha21 year21. Alder wood is used for energy, as fibre for paper and particle board and, most profitably, in joinery as solid wood or veneer. Logs must be at least 3 m long and ideally 50–60 cm diameter. Aspects of plantation silviculture are discussed with emphasis on thinning, which needs to be started early and to be heavy and frequent around selected final crop trees to achieve marketable timber before heart rot sets in. [less ▲]

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See detailGrowing scattered broadleaved tree species in Europe in a changing climate: a review of risks and opportunities
Hemery, G. E.; Clark, J. R.; Aldinger, E. et al

in Forestry (2009)

Scattered broadleaved tree species such as ashes ( Fraxinus excelsior L. and Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl.), black alder ( Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.), birches ( Betula pendula Roth. and Betula pubescens ... [more ▼]

Scattered broadleaved tree species such as ashes ( Fraxinus excelsior L. and Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl.), black alder ( Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.), birches ( Betula pendula Roth. and Betula pubescens Ehrh.), elms ( Ulmus glabra Huds., Ulmus laevis Pall. and Ulmus minor Mill.), limes ( Tilia cordata Mill. and Tilia platyphyllos Scop.), maples ( Acer campestre L., Acer platanoides L. and Acer pseudoplatanus L.), wild service tree ( Sorbus domestica L. and Sorbus torminalis L. Crantz), walnuts ( Juglans regia L., Juglans nigra L. and hybrids) and wild cherry ( Prunus avium L.) are important components of European forests. Many species have high economic, environmental and social values. Their scattered distributions, exacerbated in many cases by human activity, may make them more vulnerable to climate change. They are likely to have less ability to reproduce or adapt to shifting climate space than more widespread species. The general impacts of climate change on these scattered species are reviewed. Some specific risks and opportunities are highlighted for each species, although there is considerable uncertainty and therefore, difficulty in quantifying many specific risks and/or impacts on scattered broadleaved tree species. [less ▲]

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See detailSite Index Curves For Alnus Glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. In Southern Belgium: Effect Of Site On Curve Shape
Thibaut, André; Claessens, Hugues ULg; Rondeux, Jacques ULg

in Forestry (2004), 77(2), 157-171

Site index curves were developed for Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. in southern Belgium. Five models of Duplat and Tran-Ha were fitted to a data set of 15 stem analyses divided into two data subsets clearly ... [more ▼]

Site index curves were developed for Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. in southern Belgium. Five models of Duplat and Tran-Ha were fitted to a data set of 15 stem analyses divided into two data subsets clearly characterized by different height growth patterns. Model III was found to fit data sets best, both separately and combined. Various statistical comparisons made between the two curve sets underline shape variations corresponding to different soil conditions. A comparison between Belgian and other European curves highlights the effect of the soil on growth curve shape, which is at least as important as that of climatic factors. However, for practical reasons, the use of a general global model, which does not specifically take into account differences in height growth patterns, is satisfactory for productivity evaluation and is recommended for forest management. [less ▲]

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See detailVolume tables for small trees of larch (Larix sp.) in the southern part of Belgium
Rondeux, Jacques ULg; Pauwels, D.

in Forestry (2000), 73(1), 91-93

Volume tables have been constructed for European larch (Larix decidua Mill.), Japanese larch (Larix kaempferi (Lamb.) Carr.) and hybrid larch (Larix X eurolepis Henry) trees in the Ardenne (southern part ... [more ▼]

Volume tables have been constructed for European larch (Larix decidua Mill.), Japanese larch (Larix kaempferi (Lamb.) Carr.) and hybrid larch (Larix X eurolepis Henry) trees in the Ardenne (southern part of Belgium), which is a natural region located at elevations ranging from 340 to 550 m on mainly siliceous rocks. The application of the proposed tables is only for trees whose diameters (d.b.h.) are less than 22 cm over bark at 1.3 m above ground level. They are particularly useful for estimating total tree volume of trees (excluding branches) of early thinnings and volume increment of small-sized trees in genetic improvement experiments. The volume equations are based on data collected over a wide range of site conditions. In these regional volume tables, the volumes (total volume of the stem and volume to an upper diameter limit of 7 cm) are correlated with both d.b.h. and total height. [less ▲]

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See detailSite index curves and autecology of ash, sycamore and cherry in Wallonia (Southern Belgium)
Claessens, Hugues ULg; Pauwels, Dominique; Thibaut, André et al

in Forestry (1999), 72(3), 171-182

The work described in this article forms part of an exploratory study whose aim was to determine the main aspects of the autecology of ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.), sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) and ... [more ▼]

The work described in this article forms part of an exploratory study whose aim was to determine the main aspects of the autecology of ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.), sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) and cherry (Prunus avium L.) in Wallonia (Southern Belgium). The potential productivity of these species was studied using the site index approach (the height a crop achieves at a given age) which is the most widely accepted means for estimating site quality. As a first step, a set of site index curves were constructed from stem analysis and semi-permanent plots data using the Johnson (1935) and Schumacher (1939) model for ash and the Duplat and Tran-Ha (1986) model II for sycamore and cherry. For ash, dominant height achieved at age 50 is related to various soil-site characters (through adequate multiple regression analysis) in order to make the predictions of site quality applicable to both forested and non-forested land. Furthermore the sites expressed through soil attributes are classified in 'a site catalogue' for each species according to their productivity level. [less ▲]

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