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See detailPharmacological management of type 2 diabetes: what's new in 2017?
Scheen, André ULiege

in Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology (2017)

INTRODUCTION: Novelties in the management of type 2 diabetes are dominated by the commercialisation of new glucose-lowering agents, which offer alternatives to older antidiabetic medications, and by the ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION: Novelties in the management of type 2 diabetes are dominated by the commercialisation of new glucose-lowering agents, which offer alternatives to older antidiabetic medications, and by the publication of several prospective placebo-controlled outcome trials, which demonstrated not only cardiovascular safety but also cardiovascular and renal protection with some new medications. Areas covered: Updates regarding the use of glucose-lowering agents are discussed from a clinical point of view. Some new viewpoints concern older antidiabetic agents such as metformin, sulfonylureas and glitazones whose benefit-risk balance has been revisited, especially in high risk patients. The recent data regarding DPP-4 inhibitors (gliptins) focused on the safety profile of this pharmacological class, including in patients with impaired renal function. The highlight concerns the cardiovascular (and renal) protection by some GLP-1 receptor agonists (liraglutide, semaglutide) and SGLT2 inhibitors (empagliflozin, canagliflozin) in patients with high cardiovascular risk. Finally, efficacy and safety of new combinations and advances in insulin therapy will be briefly discussed. Expert commentary: The recent data from randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses and observational real-life studies should trigger a revision of the algorithm for the treatment of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes, especially in patients with high cardiovascular and/or renal risk. [less ▲]

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See detailDapagliflozin and saxagliptin tablets for adults with type 2 diabetes.
Scheen, André ULiege

in Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology (2017)

INTRODUCTION: Saxagliptin (a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, DPP-4i) and dapagliflozin (a sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 inhibitor, SGLT2i) improve glucose control in type 2 diabetes (T2D) through ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION: Saxagliptin (a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, DPP-4i) and dapagliflozin (a sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 inhibitor, SGLT2i) improve glucose control in type 2 diabetes (T2D) through different potentially complementary mechanisms, thus offering the opportunity for a combined therapy. Area covered: The characteristics of the saxagliptin/dapagliflozin combination are analysed, focusing on: 1) pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties; 2) efficacy and safety in phase III trials with concurrent and sequential add-on therapy; and 3) potential use in clinical practice, including in special populations (cardiovascular disease, heart failure, chronic kidney disease, elderly). Expert commentary: Conclusions drawn from clinical trials investigating combination with the separate drugs are considered to apply to the fixed-dose combination (FDC) that demonstrates bioequivalence. Dual saxagliptin/dapagliflozin therapy is more potent than either monotherapy and can be used as an initial combination or a stepwise sequential approach. Dual therapy is generally well tolerated and may be used in special populations, with some limitations because of the presence of dapagliflozin. However, the latter may offer some advantages because of multiple effects attributed to SGLT2i. The best place of this dual combination for the management of T2D and the profile of patients who will make the most of this combined therapy remains to be defined. [less ▲]

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See detailDulaglutide (LY-2189265) for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
Scheen, André ULiege

in Expert review of clinical pharmacology (2016), 9(3), 385-99

Dulaglutide is a new once-weekly glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist for the management of hyperglycemia in adult patients with type 2 diabetes. It stimulates dose-dependent insulin secretion and ... [more ▼]

Dulaglutide is a new once-weekly glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist for the management of hyperglycemia in adult patients with type 2 diabetes. It stimulates dose-dependent insulin secretion and reduces glucagon secretion, both in a glucose-dependent manner. Efficacy on blood glucose control and safety were demonstrated in the large AWARD program in type 2 diabetic patients treated with diet, metformin, dual oral therapy or insulin lispro with or without metformin, confirming findings of pilot studies in Caucasian patients and data in Japanese patients. Dulaglutide 1.5 mg once weekly was superior to metformin, sitagliptin, insulin glargine and exenatide twice daily, and non-inferior to liraglutide 1.8 mg once daily regarding the reduction in glycated hemoglobin. A modest but significant weight loss was consistently observed. Most frequent adverse events were transient and generally mild gastrointestinal disturbances. Clinical outcomes of dulaglutide will not be known until the large prospective cardiovascular outcome trial REWIND is complete. [less ▲]

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See detailAdverse drug reactions to osteoporosis treatments
Rizzoli, R.; Reginster, Jean-Yves ULiege

in Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology (2011), 4(5), 593-604

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