References of "Experimental Neurology"
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See detailEffect of systemic kynurenine on cortical spreading depression and its modulation by sex hormones in rat.
Chauvel, Virginie ULg; Vamos, Eniko; Pardutz, Arpad et al

in Experimental Neurology (2012), 236(2), 207-14

BACKGROUND: The aura symptoms in migraine are most likely due to cortical spreading depression (CSD). CSD is favored by NMDA receptor activation and increased cortical excitability. The latter probably ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The aura symptoms in migraine are most likely due to cortical spreading depression (CSD). CSD is favored by NMDA receptor activation and increased cortical excitability. The latter probably explains why migraine with aura may appear when estrogen levels are high, like during pregnancy. Kynurenic acid, a derivative of tryptophan metabolism, is an endogenous NMDA receptor antagonist whose cerebral concentrations can be augmented by systemic administration of its precursor l-kynurenine. OBJECTIVE: To determine if exogenous administration of l-kynurenine is able to influence KCl-induced CSD in rat, if the effect is sex-dependent and if it differs in females between the phases of the estrous cycle. METHODS: Adult Sprague-Dawley rats (n=8/group) received intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of l-kynurenine (L-KYN, 300mg/kg), L-KYN combined with probenecid (L-KYN+PROB) that increases cortical concentration of KYNA by blocking its excretion from the central nervous system, probenecid alone (PROB, 200mg/kg) or NaCl. Cortical kynurenic acid concentrations were determined by HPLC (n=7). Thirty minutes after the injections, CSDs were elicited by application of 1M KCl over the occipital cortex and recorded by DC electrocorticogram. In NaCl and L-KYN groups, supplementary females were added and CSD frequency was analyzed respective to the phases of the estrous cycle determined by vaginal smears. RESULTS: In both sexes, PROB, L-KYN and L-KYN+PROB increased cortical kynurenic acid level. PROB, L-KYN and L-KYN+PROB with increasing potency decreased CSD frequency in female rats, while in males such an effect was significant only for L-KYN+PROB. The inhibitory effect of L-KYN on CSD frequency in females was most potent in diestrus. CONCLUSION: l-Kynurenine administration suppresses CSD, most likely by increasing kynurenic acid levels in the cortex. Females are more sensitive to this suppressive effect of l-kynurenine than males. These results emphasize the role of sex hormones in migraine and open interesting novel perspectives for its preventive treatment. [less ▲]

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See detailNCX3 knockout mice exhibit increased hippocampal CA1 and CA2 neuronal damage compared to wild-type mice following global cerebral ischemia
Jeffs, G. J.; Meloni, B.; Sokolow, S. et al

in Experimental Neurology (2008), 210

There is uncertainty as to whether the plasma membrane Na(+)/Ca(2+)exchanger (NCX) has a neuroprotective or neurodamaging role following cerebral ischemia. To address this issue we compared hippocampal ... [more ▼]

There is uncertainty as to whether the plasma membrane Na(+)/Ca(2+)exchanger (NCX) has a neuroprotective or neurodamaging role following cerebral ischemia. To address this issue we compared hippocampal neuronal injury in NCX3 knockout mice (Ncx3(-/-)) and wild-type mice (Ncx3(+/+)) following global cerebral ischemia. Using a bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) model of global ischemia we subjected NCX3 knockout and wild-type mice to 17 and 15 minutes of ischemia. Following the 17 minute period of ischemia, wild-type mice exhibited approximately 80% CA1 neuronal loss and approximately 40% CA2 neuronal loss. In contrast, NCX3 knockout mice displayed >95% CA1 neuronal loss and approximately 95% CA2 neuronal loss. Following the 15 minute period of ischemia, wild-type mice did not exhibit any significant hippocampal neuronal loss. In contrast, NCX3 knockout mice displayed approximately 45% CA1 neuronal loss and approximately 25% CA2 neuronal loss. The results clearly demonstrate that mice deficient in the NCX3 protein are more susceptible to global cerebral ischemia than wild-type mice. Our findings suggest NCX3 has a positive role in maintaining neuronal intracellular calcium homeostasis following ischemia, and that when exchanger function is compromised neurons are more susceptible to calcium deregulation and cell death [less ▲]

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See detailOlfactory ensheathing cells, olfactory nerve fibroblasts and biomatrices to promote long-distance axon regrowth and functional recovery in the dorsally hemisected adult rat spinal cord
Deumens, R.; Koopmans, G. C.; Honig, W. M. M. et al

in Experimental Neurology (2006), 200(1), 89-103

Cellular transplantation, including olfactory ensheathing cells (OEC) and olfactory nerve fibroblasts (ONF), after experimental spinal cord injury in the rat has previously resulted in regrowth of severed ... [more ▼]

Cellular transplantation, including olfactory ensheathing cells (OEC) and olfactory nerve fibroblasts (ONF), after experimental spinal cord injury in the rat has previously resulted in regrowth of severed corticospinal (CS) axons across small lesion gaps and partial functional recovery. In order to stimulate CS axon regrowth across large lesion gaps, we used a multifactorial transplantation strategy to create an OEC/ONF continuum in spinal cords with a 2-mm-long dorsal hemisection lesion gap. This strategy involved the use of aligned OEG/ONF-poly(D,L)-lactide biomatrix bridges within the lesion gap and OEC/ONF injections at I mm rostral and caudal to the lesion gap. In order to test the effects of this complete strategy, control animals only received injections with culture medium rostral and caudal to the lesion gap. Anatomically, our multifactorial intervention resulted in an enhanced presence of injured CS axons directly rostral to the lesion gap (65.0 +/- 12.8% in transplanted animals versus 13.1 +/- 3.9% in control animals). No regrowth of these axons was observed through the lesion site, which may be related to a lack of OEC/ONF survival on the biomatrices. Furthermore, a 10-fold increase of neurofilament-positive axon ingrowth into the lesion site as compared to untreated control animals was observed. With the use of quantitative gait analysis, a modest recovery in stride length and swing speed of the hind limbs was observed. Although multifactorial strategies may be needed to stimulate repair of large spinal lesion gaps, we conclude that the combined use of OEC/ONF and poly(D,L)-lactide biomatrices is rather limited. [less ▲]

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See detailIncreased Expression of mRNA Encoding Ferritin Heavy Chain in Brain Structures of a Rat Model of Absence Epilepsy
Lakaye, Bernard ULg; de Borman, B.; Minet, Arlette ULg et al

in Experimental Neurology (2000), 162(1), 112-20

Differential mRNA display was carried out to find genes that are differentially regulated in the brain of a rat strain with absence epilepsy, the genetic absence epilepsy rats from Strasbourg (GAERS ... [more ▼]

Differential mRNA display was carried out to find genes that are differentially regulated in the brain of a rat strain with absence epilepsy, the genetic absence epilepsy rats from Strasbourg (GAERS). Among the 32 differentially displayed cDNA fragments actually cloned and sequenced, one shows 100% identity with the rat heavy chain ferritin (H-ferritin) mRNA. Northern blot analysis confirmed the up-regulation of the H-ferritin mRNA. Using dot blotting, a 40% increase in expression was reported in the subcortical forebrain of the adult GAERS, while cortex, brain stem, and cerebellum appeared unmodified. This change was not observed in the brain of 25-day-old rats, an age at which the epileptic phenotype is not present. By in situ hybridization, the enhanced expression was localized in the hippocampus. The increase in mRNA encoding H-ferritin was not immunodetected at the protein level by Western blotting. These results are not apparently related to the neural substrate of SWD or to the distribution of local increase in glucose metabolism previously described in the GAERS. It is hypothesized that the up-regulation of the H-ferritin mRNA is part of a mechanism protecting the hippocampus, a seizure-prone area, against a possible overactivation during absence seizures. [less ▲]

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See detailInduction of the 27-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp27) in the rat medulla oblongata after vagus nerve injury.
Hopkins, D. A.; Plumier, Jean-Christophe ULg; Currie, R. W.

in Experimental Neurology (1998), 153(2), 173-83

The 27-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp27) is constitutively expressed in motor and sensory neurons of the brainstem. Hsp27 is also rapidly induced in the nervous system following oxidative and cellular ... [more ▼]

The 27-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp27) is constitutively expressed in motor and sensory neurons of the brainstem. Hsp27 is also rapidly induced in the nervous system following oxidative and cellular metabolic stress. In this study, we examined the distribution of Hsp27 in the rat medulla oblongata by means of immunohistochemistry after the vagus nerve was cut or crushed. After vagal injury, rats were allowed to survive for 6, 12, 24 h, 2, 4, 7, 10, 14, 30, or 90 days. Vagus nerve lesions resulted in a time-dependent up-regulation of Hsp27 in vagal motor and nodose ganglion sensory neurons that expressed Hsp27 constitutively and de novo induction in neurons that did not express Hsp27 constitutively. In the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve (DMV) and nucleus ambiguus, the levels of Hsp27 in motor neurons were elevated within 24 h of injury and persisted for up to 90 days. Vagal afferents to the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) and area postrema showed increases in Hsp27 levels within 4 days that were still present 90 days postinjury. In addition, increases in Hsp27 staining of axons in the NTS and DMV suggest that vagus nerve injury resulted in sprouting of afferent axons and spread into areas of the dorsal vagal complex not normally innervated by the vagus. Our observations are consistent with the possibility that Hsp27 plays a role in long-term survival of distinct subpopulations of injured vagal motor and sensory neurons. [less ▲]

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See detailPredegenerated Nerve Allografts Versus Fresh Nerve Allografts in Nerve Repair
Dubuisson, A. S.; Foidart-Dessalle, Marguerite ULg; Reznik, Michel ULg et al

in Experimental Neurology (1997), 148(1), 378-87

This study reevaluated the possibility of using predegenerated nerves as donor nerve allografts for nerve repair and compared the results of functional recovery to those obtained after standard, fresh ... [more ▼]

This study reevaluated the possibility of using predegenerated nerves as donor nerve allografts for nerve repair and compared the results of functional recovery to those obtained after standard, fresh nerve allograft repair. Twenty donor rats underwent a ligature/ section of the left sciatic nerve 4 weeks before nerve graft harvesting. Forty recipient rats underwent severing of the left sciatic nerve leaving a 15-mm gap between the nerve stumps. Graft repair was undertaken using either the predegenerated left sciatic nerve of the 20 donor rats (predegenerated group, 20 recipient rats) or the normal right sciatic nerve of the 20 donor rats (fresh group, 20 recipient rats). Recovery of function was assessed by gait analysis, electrophysiologic testing and histologic studies. Walking tracks measurements at 2 and 3 months, electromyography parameters at 2 and 3 months, peroperative nerve conduction velocity and nerve action potential amplitude measurements at 3 months, as well as assessments of myelinated nerve fiber density and surface of myelination showed that fresh and predegenerated nerve grafts induced a comparable return of function although there was some trend in higher electrophysiologic values in the predegenerated group. The only slight but significant difference was a larger mean nerve fiber diameter in the nerve segment distal to a predegenerated nerve graft compared to a fresh nerve graft. Although our study does not show a dramatic long-term advantage for predegenerated nerve grafts compared to fresh nerve grafts, their use as prosthetic material is encouraging. [less ▲]

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See detailSciatic Nerve Regeneration through Venous or Nervous Grafts in the Rat
Foidart-Dessalle, Marguerite ULg; Dubuisson, Annie ULg; Lejeune, André ULg et al

in Experimental Neurology (1997), 148(1), 236-46

This study analyses the interest of isologous venous grafts filled with saline or with Schwann cells versus nerve grafts as guides for regeneration of the sciatic nerve in 35 Wistar rats ... [more ▼]

This study analyses the interest of isologous venous grafts filled with saline or with Schwann cells versus nerve grafts as guides for regeneration of the sciatic nerve in 35 Wistar rats. Electrophysiological parameters (conduction velocities and distal latencies of motor responses) and the functional index of De Medinacelli were measured several times from 1 month to 1 year after surgery. An histological analysis was performed on 2 control rats and on 3 rats killed 6 or 12 months after surgery: the total number of fibers was counted on a montage photoprint of the whole nerve, and the diameters of axons and the thickness of the myelin sheath were measured on digitized images. With a portion of nerve as guide, the regeneration is faster than with a vein. However, regeneration after 6 months is at least as good with a venous graft filled with Schwann cells, as assessed by electrophysiological, functional, and histological analysis. The addition of Schwann cells in grafted veins allows the nerve to regenerate through longer gaps than previously described (25 vs 15 mm). In order to assess the quality of nerve regeneration, functional, electrophysiological, and histological analysis are complementary. [less ▲]

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See detailReinforcement of reciprocal inhibition by contralateral movements in man
Delwaide, Paul ULg; Sabatino, Mike; PEPIN, Jean-Louis ULg et al

in Experimental Neurology (1988), 99

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