What are subcutaneous adipocytes really good for...?
; ; et al
in Experimental Dermatology (2007), 16(1), 45-70
Our acute awareness of the cosmetic, psychosocial and sexual importance of subcutaneous adipose tissue contrasts dramatically with how poorly we have understood the biology of this massive, enigmatic ... [more ▼]
Our acute awareness of the cosmetic, psychosocial and sexual importance of subcutaneous adipose tissue contrasts dramatically with how poorly we have understood the biology of this massive, enigmatic, often ignored and much-abused skin compartment. Therefore, it is timely to recall the exciting, steadily growing, yet underappreciated body of evidence that subcutaneous adipocytes are so much more than just 'fat guys', hanging around passively to conspire, at most, against your desperate attempts to maintain ideal weight. Although the subcutis, quantitatively, tends to represent the dominant architectural component of human skin, conventional wisdom confines its biological key functions to those of energy storage, physical buffer, thermoregulation and thermoinsulation. However, already the distribution of human superficial adipose tissue, by itself, questions how justified the popular belief is that 'skin fat' (which actually may be more diverse than often assumed) serves primarily thermoinsulatory purposes. And although the metabolic complications of obesity are well appreciated, our understanding of how exactly subcutaneous adipocytes contribute to extracutaneous disease - and even influence important immune and brain functions! - is far from complete. The increasing insights recently won into subcutaneous adipose tissue as a cytokine depot that regulates innate immunity and cell growth exemplarily serve to illustrate the vast open research expanses that remain to be fully explored in the subcutis. The following public debate carries you from the evolutionary origins and the key functional purposes of adipose tissue, via adipose-derived stem cells and adipokines straight to the neuroendocrine, immunomodulatory and central nervous effects of signals that originate in the subcutis - perhaps, the most underestimated tissue of the human body. The editors are confident that, at the end, you shall agree: No basic scientist and no doctor with a serious interest in skin, and hardly anyone else in the life sciences, can afford to ignore the subcutaneous adipocyte - beyond its ample impact on beauty, benessence and body mass. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 10 (1 ULg)
Skin immunoglobulin deposition following intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in toxic epidermal necrolysis.
Paquet, Philippe ; ; et al
in Experimental Dermatology (2006), 15(5), 381-6
Human intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg) which contain anti-CD95 antibodies have been proposed to treat toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). Presently, there is no evidence that IVIg reach the keratinocytes ... [more ▼]
Human intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg) which contain anti-CD95 antibodies have been proposed to treat toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). Presently, there is no evidence that IVIg reach the keratinocytes in TEN patients. The aim of this study was to assess the Ig distribution in the serum, blister fluid and skin of six consecutive TEN patients treated with IVIg (1 g/kg/day) for 3 days. They were compared with five TEN patients who only received supportive therapy. In all patients, IgA, IgM and IgG concentrations were measured in the serum and blister fluid using an immuno-nephelometric method. Immunohistochemistry was performed on skin biopsies taken from both TEN clinically involved and uninvolved skin to search for IgG deposits. On admission, the IgG concentrations were significantly higher in both TEN serum and TEN blister fluid compared with their respective IgA and IgM contents. The IgG, IgA and IgM concentrations in blister fluid were significantly lower than their respective serum concentrations. The serum and blister fluid IgG concentrations, but not that of IgA and IgM, were markedly increased at the completion of the IVIg treatment. By contrast, they remained unchanged in the TEN patients that were untreated with IVIg. In the IVIg-treated patients, the IgG intraepidermal deposits raised markedly in both TEN-involved and uninvolved skin. This was not the case in patients who did not receive IVIg. These results suggest that IVIg perfusions brought a prominent increase in IgG concentration in the serum, blister fluid and epidermis of both TEN-involved and clinically uninvolved skin. The presence of potentially protective IgG in TEN epidermis following IVIg treatment could help limiting the disease progression. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 18 (1 ULg)
Production of large numbers of Langerhans' cells with intraepithelial migration ability in vitro
Hubert, Pascale ; ; Greimers, Roland et al
in Experimental Dermatology (2005), 14(6), 469-477Detailed reference viewed: 19 (5 ULg)
Topical ascorbic acid on photoaged skin. Clinical, topographical and ultrastructural evaluation: double-blind study vs. placebo.
; ; et al
in Experimental Dermatology (2003), 12(3), 237-44
Vitamin C is known for its antioxidant potential and activity in the collagen biosynthetic pathway. Photoprotective properties of topically applied vitamin C have also been demonstrated, placing this ... [more ▼]
Vitamin C is known for its antioxidant potential and activity in the collagen biosynthetic pathway. Photoprotective properties of topically applied vitamin C have also been demonstrated, placing this molecule as a potential candidate for use in the prevention and treatment of skin ageing. A topically applied cream containing 5% vitamin C and its excipient were tested on healthy female volunteers presenting with photoaged skin on their low-neck and arms in view to evaluate efficacy and safety of such treatment. A double-blind, randomized trial was performed over a 6-month period, comparing the action of the vitamin C cream vs. excipient on photoaged skin. Clinical assessments included evaluation at the beginning and after 3 and 6 months of daily treatment. They were performed by the investigator and compared with the volunteer self assessment. Skin relief parameters were determined on silicone rubber replicas performed at the same time-points. Cutaneous biopsies were obtained at the end of the trial and investigated using immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Clinical examination by a dermatologist as well as self-assessment by the volunteers disclosed a significant improvement, in terms of the 'global score', on the vitamin C-treated side compared with the control. A highly significant increase in the density of skin microrelief and a decrease of the deep furrows were demonstrated. Ultrastructural evidence of the elastic tissue repair was also obtained and well corroborated the favorable results of the clinical and skin surface examinations. Topical application of 5% vitamin C cream was an effective and well-tolerated treatment. It led to a clinically apparent improvement of the photodamaged skin and induced modifications of skin relief and ultrastructure, suggesting a positive influence of topical vitamin C on parameters characteristic for sun-induced skin ageing. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 34 (1 ULg)