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See detailDevelopment of a generic micellar electrokinetic chromatography method for the separation of 15 antimalarial drugs as a tool to detect medicine counterfeiting
Lamalle, Caroline ULg; Marini Djang'Eing'A, Roland ULg; Debrus, Benjamin ULg et al

in Electrophoresis (2012), 33

Since antimalarial drugs counterfeiting is dramatically present on the African market, the development of simple analytical methods for their quality control is of great importance. This work consists in ... [more ▼]

Since antimalarial drugs counterfeiting is dramatically present on the African market, the development of simple analytical methods for their quality control is of great importance. This work consists in the CE analysis of 15 antimalarials (artesunate, artemether, amodiaquine, chloroquine, piperaquine, primaquine, quinine, cinchonine, mefloquine, halofantrine, sulfadoxine, sulfalen, atovaquone, proguanil, and pyrimethamine). Since all these molecules cannot be ionized at the same pH, MEKC was preferred because it also allows separation of neutral compounds. Preliminary experiments were first carried out to select the most crucial factors affecting the antimalarials separation. Several conditions were tested and four parameters as well as their investigation domain were chosen: pH (5–10), SDS concentration (20–90 mM), ACN proportion (10–40%), and temperature (20–35°C). Then, the experimental design methodology was used and a central composite design was selected. Mathematical modeling of the migration times allowed the prediction of optimal conditions (29°C, pH 6.6, 29 mM SDS, 36% ACN) regarding analyte separation. The prediction at this optimum was verified experimentally and led to the separation of 13 compounds within 8 min. Finally, the method was successfully applied to the quality control of African antimalarial medicines for their qualitative and quantitative content. [less ▲]

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See detailAssociation of two single-isomer anionic CD in NACE for the chiral and achiral separation of fenbendazole, its sulphoxide and sulphone metabolites: Application to their determination after in vitro metabolism
Rousseau, Anne ULg; Gillotin, Florian; Chiap, Patrice ULg et al

in Electrophoresis (2010), 31

A NACE method was developed for the separation of fenbendazole (FBZ), a prochiral drug giving rise to chiral (oxfendazole or OFZ) and nonchiral (FBZ sulphone or FBZSO2) metabolites. First, the effect of ... [more ▼]

A NACE method was developed for the separation of fenbendazole (FBZ), a prochiral drug giving rise to chiral (oxfendazole or OFZ) and nonchiral (FBZ sulphone or FBZSO2) metabolites. First, the effect of the nature and the concentration of CD as well as that of the acidic BGE on the enantiomeric separation of OFZ were studied. OFZ enantiomers were completely resolved using a BGE made up of 10 mM ammonium formate and 0.5 M TFA in methanol containing 10 mM heptakis(2,3-di-O-acetyl-6-O-sulfo)-beta-CD and 10 mM heptakis(2,3-di-O-methyl-6-O-sulfo)-beta-CD. Moreover, the NACE method was found to be particularly well suited to the simultaneous determination of FBZ, OFZ enantiomers, and FBZSO2. Thiabendazole was selected as an internal standard. The CD-NACE potential was then evaluated for in vitro metabolism studies using FBZ as a model case. The OFZ enantiomers and FBZSO2 could be detected after incubation of FBZ in the phenobarbital-induced male rat liver microsomes systems. [less ▲]

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See detailSeparation of propranolol enantiomers by CE using sulfated beta-CD derivatives in aqueous and non-aqueous electrolytes: Comparative CE and NMR study.
Servais, Anne-Catherine ULg; Rousseau, Anne ULg; Fillet, Marianne ULg et al

in Electrophoresis (2010), 31

Separations using CE employing non-aqueous BGE are already as well established as separations in aqueous buffers. The separation mechanisms in achiral CE with non-aqueous BGEs are most likely similar to ... [more ▼]

Separations using CE employing non-aqueous BGE are already as well established as separations in aqueous buffers. The separation mechanisms in achiral CE with non-aqueous BGEs are most likely similar to those in aqueous buffers. However, for the separation of enantiomers involving their interaction with chiral buffer additives, the interaction mechanisms might be very different in aqueous and non-aqueous BGEs. While the hypothesis regarding distinct mechanisms of enantiomer separations in aqueous and non-aqueous BGEs has been mentioned in several papers, no direct proof of this hypothesis has been reported to date. In the present study, the enantiomers of propranolol were resolved using CE in aqueous and non-aqueous methanolic BGEs with two single isomer sulfated derivatives of beta-CD, namely heptakis (2,3-diacetyl-6-sulfo)-beta-CD and heptakis (2,3-dimethyl-6-sulfo)-beta-CD. The enantiomer migration order of propranolol was inverted when an aqueous BGE was replaced with non-aqueous BGE in the case of heptakis (2,3-dimethyl-6-sulfo)-beta-CD but remained the same in the case of heptakis (2,3-diacetyl-6-sulfo)-beta-CD. The possible molecular mechanisms leading to this reversal of enantiomer migration order were studied by using nuclear overhauser effect spectroscopy in both aqueous and non-aqueous BGEs. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of the BGE composition on analyte response in CD-mediated NACE-MS
Servais, Anne-Catherine ULg; Fillet, Marianne ULg; Mol, Roelof et al

in Electrophoresis (2010), 31(7), 1157-1161

The influence of the BGE composition, including the addition of a single-isomer sulfated beta-CD derivative, on the ionization performance of the model compound carvedilol in NACE-ESI-MS was studied using ... [more ▼]

The influence of the BGE composition, including the addition of a single-isomer sulfated beta-CD derivative, on the ionization performance of the model compound carvedilol in NACE-ESI-MS was studied using an alternative infusion method. This approach employs voltage-induced infusion of the BGE containing the analyte, and takes into account the effects of variations in EOF and effective analyte mobility on the ESI-MS intensity. First, the optimal composition of the sheath liquid for CE-MS in terms of signal abundance and stability was determined. The BGE ammonium formate, acetate, and camphorsulfonate were found to have similar effects on analyte ionization. Addition of single-isomer sulfated beta-CD derivatives (available as sodium salt) to the BGE revealed that the anionic CD derivatives did not give rise to the same ionization suppression effect. This result can be attributed to differences in the dissociation state of these sodium salts. Finally, it is shown that information about chiral selectivity can also be obtained with the applied infusion method. [less ▲]

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See detailCE-MS method development for peptides analysis, especially hepcidin, an iron metabolism marker.
Martin, Gaëlle ULg; Mansion, François ULg; Servais, Anne-Catherine ULg et al

in Electrophoresis (2009), 30(15), 2624-31

A method for the resolution of a peptides mixture including hepcidin-25, an iron metabolism marker, was developed by CE-ESI-MS. Several strategies were tested to optimize peptide separation, such as the ... [more ▼]

A method for the resolution of a peptides mixture including hepcidin-25, an iron metabolism marker, was developed by CE-ESI-MS. Several strategies were tested to optimize peptide separation, such as the addition of cyclodextrins or organic solvents in the BGE or the use of coated capillaries. Best results in terms of resolution, symmetry and efficiency were obtained with a BGE made of 500 mM ammonium acetate pH 4.5/ACN 70:30 v/v. Using the methodology of experimental design, BGE concentration, sheath liquid composition and MS-coupling parameters were then optimized in order to obtain the best signal intensity for hepcidin. Finally, a 225 mM BGE and a sheath liquid composed of isopropanol/water 80:20 v/v containing 0.5% v/v formic acid were selected as it constitutes the best compromise for selectivity, peak shape and sensitivity. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of the nature of the single-isomer anionic CD and the BGE composition on the enantiomeric separation of beta-blockers in NACE.
Rousseau, Anne ULg; Chiap, Patrice ULg; Oprean, Radu et al

in Electrophoresis (2009), 30(16), 2862-8

The separation of ten beta-blockers has been investigated in NACE systems using heptakis(2,3-di-O-methyl-6-O-sulfo)-beta-CD (HDMS-beta-CD) and heptakis(2,3-di-O-acetyl-6-O-sulfo)-beta-CD (HDAS-beta-CD ... [more ▼]

The separation of ten beta-blockers has been investigated in NACE systems using heptakis(2,3-di-O-methyl-6-O-sulfo)-beta-CD (HDMS-beta-CD) and heptakis(2,3-di-O-acetyl-6-O-sulfo)-beta-CD (HDAS-beta-CD). The influence on enantioresolution, mobility difference and selectivity of the nature of both anionic CD and BGE anion as well as their concentrations were studied by means of a multivariate approach. A D-optimal design with 25 experimental points was applied. For all studied analytes, the enantiomeric resolution was shown to be significantly influenced by both CD nature and concentration. Except for two compounds, HDAS-beta-CD was found to give higher enantioresolution values than HDMS-beta-CD. The best enantioseparation for all compounds was achieved in the presence of a high chiral selector concentration and for most of them at a low BGE anion concentration. For each investigated compound, operating conditions leading to the best enantiomeric resolution were deduced. A generic NACE system was then recommended, namely 10 mM ammonium acetate and 40 mM HDAS-beta-CD in methanol acidified with 0.75 M formic acid. This generic system was able to completely resolve the enantiomers of all beta-blockers, with a R(s) value of at least 4. Finally, the optimal conditions obtained modelling resolution, mobility difference and selectivity were compared. [less ▲]

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See detailDetermination of flurbiprofen enantiomers in plasma using a single-isomer amino cyclodextrin derivative in nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis.
Rousseau, Anne ULg; Pedrini, Matteo; Chiap, Patrice ULg et al

in Electrophoresis (2008), 29(17), 3641-8

A nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis (NACE) assay was developed for the separation and determination of flurbiprofen enantiomers in plasma samples using 6-monodeoxy-6-mono(3-hydroxy)propylamino-beta ... [more ▼]

A nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis (NACE) assay was developed for the separation and determination of flurbiprofen enantiomers in plasma samples using 6-monodeoxy-6-mono(3-hydroxy)propylamino-beta-cyclodextrin as chiral selector. The nonaqueous background electrolyte was made up of 40 mM ammonium acetate in methanol (MeOH), and flufenamic acid was employed as internal standard. Solid-phase extraction was used for sample cleanup prior to the NACE separation.The NACE method reproducibility was optimized by evaluating different capillary washing sequences between runs. After having tested various conditions, trifluoroacetic acid (1 M) in MeOH was finally selected. Concerning the solid-phase extraction procedure, good and reproducible analyte recoveries were obtained using MeOH for protein denaturation and a polymeric phase combining hydrophobic interactions with anion exchange properties (Oasis) MAX) was selected as extraction sorbent. The method selectivity was not only demonstrated toward a blank plasma sample but also toward other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The method was then successfully validated with respect to response function, trueness, precision, accuracy, linearity and limit of quantification. [less ▲]

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See detailEnantiomeric separation of acidic compounds using single-isomer amino cyclodextrin derivatives in nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis
Fradi, Inès; Servais, Anne-Catherine ULg; Pedrini, Matteo et al

in Electrophoresis (2006), 27(17), 3434-3442

The enantiomeric separation of a series of acidic pharmaceuticals (mostly nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) has been investigated in NACE systems using single-isomer amino beta-CD derivatives. The ... [more ▼]

The enantiomeric separation of a series of acidic pharmaceuticals (mostly nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) has been investigated in NACE systems using single-isomer amino beta-CD derivatives. The first part of this study consisted of the selection of the basic experimental conditions to separate efficiently the enantiomers of acidic drugs. Several parameters, such as the nature of the ionic BGE components, were studied and a methanolic solution of ammonium acetate containing the cationic CD was selected as BGE. A D-optimal design with 20 experimental points was then applied and the nature and concentration of the CD were found to have a significant effect on the enantiomeric resolution for all studied compounds. Resolution (R(s)) values were always higher with 6-monodeoxy-6-mono(3-hydroxy)propylamino-beta-CD (PA-beta-CD) compared to those obtained with 6-monodeoxy-6-mono(2-hydroxy)propylamino-beta-CD (IPA-beta-CD). However, the latter led to shorter migration times. Generic NACE conditions were then selected by means of the multivariate approach in order to obtain the highest R(s) values in a minimum amount of time. Finally, dependence of separation selectivity, resolution, as well as mobility difference on chiral selector concentration was discussed and binding constants with PA-beta-CD were estimated for the two enantiomers of one of the model compounds, suprofen in these NACE systems. [less ▲]

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See detailCapillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry, an attractive tool for drug bioanalysis and biomarker discovery
Servais, Anne-Catherine ULg; Crommen, Jacques ULg; Fillet, Marianne ULg

in Electrophoresis (2006), 27(13), 2616-2629

The coupling of CE with MS detection, a relatively recent hyphenated technique, has gained increasing respect in the field of bioanalytical applications over the past few years. The first part of this ... [more ▼]

The coupling of CE with MS detection, a relatively recent hyphenated technique, has gained increasing respect in the field of bioanalytical applications over the past few years. The first part of this review presents CE-MS applications dealing with drug bioanalysis, including forensic analysis and metabolism studies. Practical considerations to achieve a robust and sensitive CE-MS coupling are also presented. It is indeed essential to strictly control some critical electrospray parameters, such as the sheath liquid composition and flow rate, the nebulizing gas pressure as well as the capillary outlet position. The second part of the review critically describes the applications of CE coupled on-line to MS for the identification of biomarkers in body fluids for diagnostic purposes. Since the sample preparation procedures strongly differ according to the intended use (drug bioanalysis or biomarker discovery), they are discussed separately, taking into account the particular properties of plasma and urine matrices. [less ▲]

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See detailInterlaboratory study of a NACE method for the determination of R-timolol content in S-timolol maleate: assessment of uncertainty.
Marini Djang'Eing'A, Roland ULg; Groom, Carl; Doucet, Francois R et al

in Electrophoresis (2006), 27(12), 2386-99

Analyses of statistical variance were applied to evaluate the precision and practicality of a CD-based NACE assay for R-timolol after enantiomeric separation of R- and S-timolol. Data were collected in an ... [more ▼]

Analyses of statistical variance were applied to evaluate the precision and practicality of a CD-based NACE assay for R-timolol after enantiomeric separation of R- and S-timolol. Data were collected in an interlaboratory study by 11 participating laboratories located in Europe and North America. General qualitative method performance was examined using suitability descriptors (i.e. resolution, selectivity, migration times and S/N), while precision was determined by quantification of variances in the determination of R-timolol at four different impurity levels in S-timolol maleate samples. The interlaboratory trials were designed in accordance with the ISO guideline 5725-2. This allowed estimating for each sample, the different variances, i.e. between-laboratory (s2(Laboratories)), between-day (s2(Days)) and between-replicate (s2(Replicates)). The variances of repeatability (s2r) and reproducibility (s2R) were then calculated. The estimated uncertainty, derived from the precision estimates, seems to be concentration-dependent above a given threshold. This example of R-timolol illustrates how a laboratory can evaluate uncertainty in general. [less ▲]

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See detailHigh-sensitivity staining of proteins for one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis using post migration covalent staining with a ruthenium fluorophore.
Tokarski, Caroline; Cren-Olive, Cecile; Fillet, Marianne ULg et al

in Electrophoresis (2006), 27(7), 1407-16

This paper describes the use of a ruthenium complex ((bis(2,2'-bipyridine)-4'-methyl-4-carboxybipyridine-ruthenium-N-succidimyl ester-bis(hexafluorophosphate), abbreviated below as ASCQ_Ru) commercially ... [more ▼]

This paper describes the use of a ruthenium complex ((bis(2,2'-bipyridine)-4'-methyl-4-carboxybipyridine-ruthenium-N-succidimyl ester-bis(hexafluorophosphate), abbreviated below as ASCQ_Ru) commercially available and chemically pure. This new ruthenium complex ASCQ_Ru brings an activated ester, allowing the selective acylation of amino acid side chain amines for the post migration staining of proteins separated in 1-DE and 2-DE. The protocol used is a simple three-step protocol fixing the proteins in the gel, staining and then washing, as no lengthy destaining step is required. First the critical staining step was optimized. Although in solution the best described pH for acylating proteins with this reagent is phosphate buffer at pH 7.0, we found that best medium for in-gel staining is unbuffered ACN/water solution (20/80 v/v). The two other steps are less critical and classical conditions are satisfactory: fixing with 7% acetic acid/10% ethanol solution and washing four times for 10 min with water. Sensitivity tests were performed using 1-DE on protein molecular weight markers. We obtained a higher sensitivity than SYPRO Ruby with a detection limit of 80 pg of protein per well. However, contrary to SYPRO Ruby, ASCQ_Ru exhibits a logarithmic dependency on the amount of protein. The dynamic range is similar to SYPRO Ruby and is estimated between three and four orders of magnitude. Finally, the efficiency of the post migration ASCQ_Ru staining for 2-D gel separation is demonstrated on the whole protein extract from human colon carcinoma cells lines HCT 116. ASCQ_Ru gave the highest number of spot detected compared to other common stains Colloidal CBB, SYPRO Ruby and Deep Purple. [less ▲]

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See detailPrecision study on capillary electrophoresis methods for metacycline
Do Thi, Thao; Pomponi, Romeo; Gotti, Roberto et al

in Electrophoresis (2006), 27(12), 2317-2329

A CE method for metacycline (MTC) determination was investigated in an inter-laboratory experiment. Many problems were encountered in this study, most of which were related to the transfer of the method ... [more ▼]

A CE method for metacycline (MTC) determination was investigated in an inter-laboratory experiment. Many problems were encountered in this study, most of which were related to the transfer of the method to different CE equipment. The reported problems could be classified into different categories: problems related to the precision, to the parameters in the protocol, and to the MTC peak shape. As the peak shape problem was partially responsible for the poor precision, a new CE method was developed in order to obtain a good MTC peak shape on all equipment. The precision of this new method for MTC determination was examined in an intermediate precision study, where the influence of the factors "time" and "equipment" was investigated. Although the new method could be transferred to different instruments, the precision remained poor mainly due to the contributions of the between-replicate and the between-injection variances. [less ▲]

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See detailEnantiomeric separation of basic compounds usin heptakis(2,3-di-O-methyl-6-O-sulfo)-beta-cyclodextrin in combination with potassium camphorsulfonate in nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis: Optimization by means of an experimental design
Servais, Anne-Catherine ULg; Fillet, Marianne ULg; Chiap, Patrice ULg et al

in Electrophoresis (2004), 25(16), 2701-2710

The enantiomeric separation of a series of basic pharmaceuticals (beta-blockers, local anesthetics, sympathomimetics) has been investigated in nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis (NACE) systems using ... [more ▼]

The enantiomeric separation of a series of basic pharmaceuticals (beta-blockers, local anesthetics, sympathomimetics) has been investigated in nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis (NACE) systems using heptakis(2,3-di-O-methyl-6-O-sulfo)-beta-cyclodextrin (HDMS-P-CD) in combination with potassium camphorsulfonate (camphorSO(3)(-)). For this purpose, a face-centered central composite design with 11 experimental points was applied. The effect of the concentrations of HDMS-beta-CD and camphorSO(3)(-) on enantioresolution was statistically evaluated and depended largely on the considered analyte. The presence of camphorSO(3)(-) was found to be particularly useful for the enantioseparation of compounds with high affinity for the anionic CD. CamphorSO(3)(-) seems to act as a competitor, reducing the affinity for the CD, probably by ion-pair formation with these analytes. For compounds with lower affinity for HDMS-beta-CD, the combination of camphorSO(3)(-) and the CD appeared to have a favorable effect on enantioresolution only if the optimal CD concentration could be reached. On the other hand, for compounds characterized by a very low affinity for the anionic CD, the association of camphorSO(3)(-) and HDMS-beta-CD is always unfavorable. Finally, experimental conditions were selected by means of the multivariate approach in order to obtain the highest resolution (R-s) value for each studied compound. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of methanol on the enantioresolution of antihistamines with carboxymethyl-beta-cyclodextrin in capillary electrophoresis
Van Eeckhaut, A.; Detaevernier, M. R.; Crommen, Jacques ULg et al

in Electrophoresis (2004), 25(16), 2838-2847

According to the model of Wren and Rowe, the separation between two enantiomers in capillary electrophoresis (CE) decreases if an organic modifier is added to the run buffer containing a neutral ... [more ▼]

According to the model of Wren and Rowe, the separation between two enantiomers in capillary electrophoresis (CE) decreases if an organic modifier is added to the run buffer containing a neutral cyclodextrin (CD) in a concentration below its optimal value in a solvent-free system. In previous work, however, it was observed that the addition of methanol to the background electrolyte (BGE) containing not charged carboxymethyl-beta-CD in a concentration below its optimal value, increased the enantioresolution of dimetindene maleate. The enantioresolution decreased when other organic modifiers (ethanol, isopropanol or acetonitrile) were added and/or when other neutral (beta-CD, hydroxypropyl-beta-CD) or chargeable (carboxyethyl-beta- and succinyl-beta-CD) CDs were used. In this CE study further attempts are made to elucidate the observed phenomena through investigating other basic drugs. The effect of organic modifier and CD concentration on the enantioseparation was studied by means of central composite designs. It is shown that obtaining this increase in enantioresolution depends upon the type of CD, the type of organic modifier, and the structure of the analytes. It was also observed that small differences in the structure of the analytes or the CD could have an influence on the enantioresolution. The addition of methanol also resulted in different effects on the resolution of closely related analytes. [less ▲]

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See detailDetermination of salbutamol enantiomers in human urine using heptakis(2,3-di-O-acetyl-6-O-sulfo)-beta-cyclodextrin in nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis
Servais, Anne-Catherine ULg; Chiap, Patrice ULg; Hubert, Philippe ULg et al

in Electrophoresis (2004), 25(10-11), 1632-1640

Nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis (NACE) was successfully applied to the resolution and the determination of salbutamol enantiomers in urine samples using heptakis(2,3-di-O-acetyl-6-O-sulfo)-beta ... [more ▼]

Nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis (NACE) was successfully applied to the resolution and the determination of salbutamol enantiomers in urine samples using heptakis(2,3-di-O-acetyl-6-O-sulfo)-beta-cyclodextrin (HDAS-beta-CD). After optimization of the electrophoretic parameters, namely the background electrolyte (BGE) composition and the HDAS-beta-CD concentration, salbutamol enantiomers were completely resolved using a BGE made up of 10 mm ammonium formate and 15 mm HDAS-beta-CD in methanol acidified with 0.75 M formic acid. Isoprenaline was selected as internal standard. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) was used for sample cleanup prior to the CE separation. Different sorbents involving polar, nonpolar interactions or dual retention mechanisms were evaluated and extraction cartridges containing both nonpolar and strong cation-exchange functionalities were finally selected. Salbutamol enantiomers recoveries from urine samples were determined. The method was then successfully validated using a new approach based on accuracy profiles over a concentration range from 375 to 7500 ng/mL for each enantiomer. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of background electrolyte composition and addition of selectors on separation selectivity in nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis
Fillet, Marianne ULg; Servais, Anne-Catherine ULg; Crommen, Jacques ULg

in Electrophoresis (2003), 24(10), 1499-1507

This review gives a survey of the approaches employed to obtain, enhance and tune selectivity in nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis (NACE). Recent developments in NACE are described and the effects of ... [more ▼]

This review gives a survey of the approaches employed to obtain, enhance and tune selectivity in nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis (NACE). Recent developments in NACE are described and the effects of background electrolyte composition and addition of selectors on separation selectivity are discussed. The use of one organic solvent, a mixture of several organic solvents or the use of additives to tune separation selectivity in NACE is presented and a list of relevant applications is included. [less ▲]

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See detailEnhancement of selectivity and resolution in the enantioseparation of uncharged compounds using mixtures of oppositely charged cyclodextrins in capillary electrophoresis.
Abushoffa, Adel M; Fillet, Marianne ULg; Servais, Anne-Catherine ULg et al

in Electrophoresis (2003), 24(3), 343-50

The enantiomeric separation of some nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) was investigated in capillary electrophoresis (CE) using dual systems with mixtures of charged cyclodextrin (CD ... [more ▼]

The enantiomeric separation of some nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) was investigated in capillary electrophoresis (CE) using dual systems with mixtures of charged cyclodextrin (CD) derivatives. A significant enhancement of selectivity and resolution could be achieved in the enantioseparation of these analytes in their uncharged form by the simultaneous addition of two oppositely charged CD derivatives to the background electrolyte. The combination of the single-isomer cationic CD, permethyl-6-monoamino-6-monodeoxy-beta-CD (PMMAbetaCD) and the single-isomer polyanionic CD, heptakis-6-sulfato-beta-cyclodextrin (HSbetaCD) in a pH 2.5 phosphoric acid-triethanolamine buffer, was designed and employed for the enantioseparation of profens. The improvement in selectivity and resolution can be attributed to the fact that the two CDs, which lead to independent and enantioselective complexation with the analyte enantiomers, have not only opposite effects on the electrophoretic mobility of these compounds but also opposite affinity patterns towards the enantiomers of these compounds. Binding constants for these enantiomers with each CD were determined using linear regression approach, in order to be able to predict the effect of the concentrations of the two CDs on enantiomeric selectivity and resolution in such dual systems. [less ▲]

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See detailSynergistic effects of ion-pairing in the enantiomeric separation of basic compounds with cyclodextrin derivatives in nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis
Servais, Anne-Catherine ULg; Fillet, Marianne ULg; Abushoffa, Adel M. et al

in Electrophoresis (2003), 24(3), 363-369

The enantiomeric separation of various kinds of basic pharmaceuticals has been investigated in nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis (NACE) systems using an ion-pairing reagent in combination with ... [more ▼]

The enantiomeric separation of various kinds of basic pharmaceuticals has been investigated in nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis (NACE) systems using an ion-pairing reagent in combination with cyclodextrins (CDs). The simultaneous addition to the methanolic background electrolyte (BGE) of (+)-S-camphorsulfonate or alkanesulfonates and an anionic beta-cyclodextrin derivative, heptakis(2,3-dimethyl-6-sulfato)-beta-cyclodextrin (HDMS-beta-CD), led to partial or complete enantioresolution in most cases. In the absence of ion-pairing reagent, the enantiomeric resolution obtained with this CD derivative was most often completely lost or strongly reduced, indicating the important role of ion-pairing in the chiral recognition mechanism in these NACE systems. The influence of the nature and concentration of the counterion and the anionic CD derivative on the enantioseparation of basic compounds was studied. Synergistic effects between these two kinds of charged additives were clearly observed. [less ▲]

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