References of "Dermatology : International Journal for Clinical & Investigative Dermatology"
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See detailFunctionally active macrophage-derived myeloperoxidase in the skin of drug-induced toxic epidermal necrolysis.
Paquet, Philippe ULg; De Groote, Donat; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Dermatology : International Journal for Clinical & Investigative Dermatology (2010), 220(3), 201-7

BACKGROUND: Drug-induced toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) probably results from a complex and specific immune cell reaction involving lymphocytes and macrophages. OBJECTIVE: To assess the functional role ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Drug-induced toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) probably results from a complex and specific immune cell reaction involving lymphocytes and macrophages. OBJECTIVE: To assess the functional role of macrophages in TEN. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was performed on biopsies from early blisters developed in 9 TEN patients. The amount of extracellular myeloperoxidase (MPO) was measured by ELISA in TEN blister fluid and serum. Controls were blister fluids taken from 9 second-degree burns. In addition, 3-chlorotyrosine (a specific marker of MPO activity) was searched for using liquid mass chromatography both in TEN and burn blister fluids. RESULTS: Immunohistochemistry revealed numerous CD68+ macrophages in 8/9 TEN patients; 5-20% of these cells and rare CD15+ neutrophils exhibited MPO immunoreactivity, while keratinocytes were negative. The amount of MPO was significantly higher in TEN blister fluid than in TEN serum, suggesting macrophage production of MPO in the skin. In addition, MPO was significantly more abundant in TEN blister fluid than in burn blister fluid. 3-Chlorotyrosine was detected in 7/9 TEN blister fluids, but in only 2/9 burn blister fluids. DISCUSSION: MPO produced by macrophages was functionally active in most TEN patients, leading to the production of hypochlorous acid, a potent oxidative compound that alters keratinocytes. [less ▲]

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See detailPerivascular cuff and spread of Treponema pallidum.
Quatresooz, Pascale ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Dermatology : International Journal for Clinical & Investigative Dermatology (2009), 219(3), 259-62

BACKGROUND: The incidence of syphilis is on the rise in many cities worldwide. Both the clinical and histopathological changes do not always fulfil the typical diagnostic criteria. Immunohistochemistry is ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The incidence of syphilis is on the rise in many cities worldwide. Both the clinical and histopathological changes do not always fulfil the typical diagnostic criteria. Immunohistochemistry is available to identify and localize Treponema pallidum. Two main patterns of T. pallidum distribution were described in the skin, namely heavy intraepidermal infiltration and scattered pattern inside the lichenoid cell infiltrate. OBJECTIVE: To search for a third pattern consistent with dissemination of the disease. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry using an antispirochete (T. pallidum and Borrelia) antibody was used in all cases of syphilis submitted to our laboratory. In addition, deposits of immunoglobulins and complement indicative of immune complexes were searched for. RESULTS: According to the cases, T. pallidum was disclosed in a combination of three patterns. The previously described epidermal and lichenoid patterns were confirmed, and a third pattern predominating in a perivascular location throughout the dermis was clearly identified in primary syphilis. The microorganisms were abundant in extracellular and intracellular locations, particularly inside endothelial cells. No deposits of immunoglobulins and complement were disclosed. CONCLUSION: The perivascular cuff of T. pallidum throughout the dermis might be representative of the dissemination phase of T. pallidum. [less ▲]

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See detailSpace-time clustering and seasonality in diagnosing skin cancers in Wallonia (south-east Belgium).
Quatresooz, Pascale ULg; Pierard, Claudine ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Dermatology : International Journal for Clinical & Investigative Dermatology (2008), 217(1), 48-51

BACKGROUND: In Westernized populations, the number of diagnosed cases of primary cutaneous cancers, particularly malignant melanomas and basal cell carcinomas (BCC), has been previously shown to fluctuate ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: In Westernized populations, the number of diagnosed cases of primary cutaneous cancers, particularly malignant melanomas and basal cell carcinomas (BCC), has been previously shown to fluctuate during specific periods of the year. OBJECTIVE AND METHOD: The aim of the present 6-year study was to explore the seasonality if any in skin cancer detection in Wallonia (south-east Belgium). RESULTS: For both malignant melanomas and BCC late spring/early summer and mid-autumn were the periods of highest diagnosis prevalence irrespective of gender. The amplitude of this bimodal evolution remained within the range of 2 standard deviations around the monthly means. Similar seasonal variations were also found in non-neoplastic controls consisting of laboratory samplings of onychomycoses and non-infectious onychodystrophies. CONCLUSION: There is reason to believe that this timing and rhythm is unrelated to any specific cancer chronomics. Rather, the present findings suggest unspecific seasonality in diagnosing skin disorders including malignancies. A variable patient awareness of changing aspects of the skin according to seasons probably represents the major influence of the described space-time clustering of skin cancer diagnosis. [less ▲]

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See detailDew point effect of cooled hydrogel pads on human stratum corneum biosurface.
Xhauflaire, Emmanuelle ULg; Paquet, Philippe ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Dermatology : International Journal for Clinical & Investigative Dermatology (2008), 216(1), 37-9

BACKGROUND: Cooled hydrogel pads are used to prevent overheating effects of laser therapy. They do not induce cold injuries to the skin, but their more subtle physiological effects have not been ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Cooled hydrogel pads are used to prevent overheating effects of laser therapy. They do not induce cold injuries to the skin, but their more subtle physiological effects have not been thoroughly studied. PURPOSE: To describe the changes in transepidermal water loss and electrometric properties of the skin surface following application of cooled hydrogel pads. Measurements were performed on normal forearm skin of 27 healthy volunteers and on freshly excised skin from abdominoplasty. METHODS: LaserAid hydrogel pads cooled to 4 degrees C were placed for 15 min on the forearm skin. Measurements of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and electrometric properties (Corneometer, Nova DPM 900) were performed before application and after removal of the cooled pads. RESULTS: A consistent increase in corneometer units, dermal phase meter (DPM) values and TEWL were recorded at removal of the cooled hydrogel pads. Both the in vivo and in vitro assessments brought similar information. DISCUSSION: The similar changes disclosed in vitro and in vivo suggest that a common physical process is operating in these conditions. The observed phenomenon is opposite to the predicted events given by the Arrhenius law probably because of the combination of cooling and occlusion by the pads. A dew point effect (air temperature at which relative humidity is maximal) is likely involved in the moisture content of the stratum corneum. Thus, the biological impact of using cooling hydrogel pads during laser therapy is different from the effect of a cryogenic spray cooling procedure. The better preservation of the water balance in the stratum corneum by the cooled hydrogel pads could have a beneficial esthetic effect on laser treated areas. [less ▲]

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See detailEtoricoxib-induced erythema-multiforme-like eruption.
Thirion, Laurence; Nikkels, Arjen ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Dermatology : International Journal for Clinical & Investigative Dermatology (2007), 216(3), 227-228

Etoricoxib is a new, highly selective cyclooxygenase (COX) 2 inhibitor, reported to have an increased cutaneous and systemic safety profile compared to the previous COX-2 inhibitors, including celecoxib ... [more ▼]

Etoricoxib is a new, highly selective cyclooxygenase (COX) 2 inhibitor, reported to have an increased cutaneous and systemic safety profile compared to the previous COX-2 inhibitors, including celecoxib, rofecoxib and valdecoxib. To the best of our knowledge, the present case of etoricoxib-induced erythema-multiforme-like eruption is the first reported in the literature. [less ▲]

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See detailA pilot study on seborrheic dermatitis using pramiconazole as a potent oral anti-Malassezia agent.
Pierard, Gérald ULg; Ausma, Jannie; Henry, Frédérique ULg et al

in Dermatology : International Journal for Clinical & Investigative Dermatology (2007), 214(2), 162-9

BACKGROUND: Seborrheic dermatitis is considered to be a Malassezia-driven disease. Little objective information is available so far from biometrological quantitative assessments of this skin condition ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Seborrheic dermatitis is considered to be a Malassezia-driven disease. Little objective information is available so far from biometrological quantitative assessments of this skin condition. Pramiconazole is a novel triazole with potent in vitro antifungal activity, especially against Malassezia spp. OBJECTIVE: To study the sequential effects of pramiconazole on Malassezia, inflammation and epidermal changes. METHOD:This study was performed in 2 groups of subjects suffering from seborrheic dermatitis. The first group (n = 17) remained untreated and was used as control. Clinical, mycological and biometrological assessments were performed at inclusion and during the following 2 weeks. The second group of subjects (n = 10) received a single 200-mg oral dose of pramiconazole at inclusion. Clinical, mycological and biometrological evaluations were performed before and during 1 month following the single antifungal intake. For both parts of the study, several parameters were assessed including yeast density, desquamation, erythema, itching and sebum excretion. RESULTS: In the control group, no significant changes were observed in any of the parameters during the observation period. The findings were markedly different in the pramiconazole-treated subjects. The yeast density was significantly improved on days 3, 7 and 28. Desquamation, erythema, itching, and the global clinical evaluation as assessed by the patients and investigators became significantly improved on days 7 and 28. A trend in decrease of scaliness was noted. No effect on sebum excretion was evidenced. In conclusion, a single 200-mg dose of pramiconazole exhibitsin vivo efficacy in controlling some important clinical aspects of seborrheic dermatitis. Following a reduction in the number of yeasts on day 3, a decrease in the severity of clinical signs and symptoms occurred from day 7 onwards. Sebum excretion appeared uninvolved in the clearing process of seborrheic dermatitis. CONCLUSION: A single 200-mg dose of pramiconazole appears to abate seborrheic dermatitis. The density in Malassezia present on lesional skin is first decreased, followed by clearing of the clinical signs. [less ▲]

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See detailComparative effect of tacrolimus and betamethasone valerate on the passive sustainable hydration of the stratum corneum in atopic dermatitis.
Xhauflaire, Emmanuelle ULg; Thirion, L.; Pierard, Claudine ULg et al

in Dermatology : International Journal for Clinical & Investigative Dermatology (2007), 214(4), 328-32

BACKGROUND: There is ample evidence that the skin barrier function is altered in atopic dermatitis. Little information is available about the effect of topical corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: There is ample evidence that the skin barrier function is altered in atopic dermatitis. Little information is available about the effect of topical corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors on this function. PURPOSE: To assess the water content and its rate of accumulation in the stratum corneum of atopic patients using an indirect electrometric method while on tacrolimus or betamethasone valerate treatment. METHOD: Twenty-one patients with moderate atopic dermatitis affecting both forearms completed this double-blind randomized study. One forearm was treated twice daily for 3 weeks with 0.1% tacrolimus ointment. The other forearm was similarly treated with 0.12% betamethasone valerate ointment. Electrometric measurements were made under continuous occlusion secured by a Nova Dermal Phase Meter sensor probe. Assessments were performed at inclusion, after the 3-week treatment and after a further 3-week follow-up out of treatment. RESULTS: During treatment, both compounds yielded a similar improvement in skin barrier function. Indeed, under probe occlusion, the rate of water accumulation was significantly decreased. This improvement was sustained after stopping the tacrolimus treatment. By contrast, the benefit was in part lost at the site that had been treated by betamethasone valerate. CONCLUSION: The difference in the effect of the 2 compounds may be due to the negative influence of betamethasone valerate on the epidermal metabolism leading to progressive atrophy of the tissue. The better preservation of the skin barrier function after stopping tacrolimus treatment may help retarding relapses of atopic dermatitis. [less ▲]

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See detailWhat do you mean by eczema craquele?
Pierard, Gérald ULg; Quatresooz, Pascale ULg

in Dermatology : International Journal for Clinical & Investigative Dermatology (2007), 215(1), 3-4

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See detailFungal thigmotropism in onychomycosis and in a clear hydrogel pad model.
Pierard, Gérald ULg; Pierard, Claudine ULg; Quatresooz, Pascale ULg

in Dermatology : International Journal for Clinical & Investigative Dermatology (2007), 215(2), 107-13

BACKGROUND: Thigmotropism is a biological characteristic corresponding to the directional growth of cells following topographical guidance cues. This behavior has been shown experimentally with fungal ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Thigmotropism is a biological characteristic corresponding to the directional growth of cells following topographical guidance cues. This behavior has been shown experimentally with fungal hyphae of both dermatophytes and nondermatophyte molds, as well as with the mycelial phase of the dimorphic yeast Candida albicans. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: We presently document this phenomenon using histomycology in onychomycoses of various fungal origins. RESULTS: This mechanism is involved in the invasive phase of the pathogen or opportunistic fungi, and it probably governs various clinical aspects of onychomycoses. We incidentally disclosed fungal invasions of hydrogel pads. Conclusion: Thigmotropism can in part explain the diversity of orientations and shapes of fungi invading nail plates. The same phenomenon was disclosed inside hydrogel pads. As this material is transparent and easy to cut for microscopic examination, fungal thigmotropism is conveniently explored by this way. [less ▲]

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See detailThe key role of corneocytes in pityrosporoses.
Pierard, Gérald ULg; Xhauflaire, Emmanuelle ULg; Pierard, Claudine ULg

in Dermatology : International Journal for Clinical & Investigative Dermatology (2006), 212(1), 23-6

Pityrosporoses encompass various Malassezia-driven conditions. Dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis are members of this family of disorders. Their precise pathomechanisms have not been completely elucidated ... [more ▼]

Pityrosporoses encompass various Malassezia-driven conditions. Dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis are members of this family of disorders. Their precise pathomechanisms have not been completely elucidated so far. This review focuses on the role of corneocytes in these disorders. Malassezia yeasts are not evenly distributed at the surface of the stratum corneum. Rather, they are clumped on some corneocytes while other corneocytes in their vicinity are almost free of these microorganisms. The corneocytes heavily coated by yeasts suggest a cell-related defect in the mechanisms controlling the skin biocene including the natural antimicrobial peptides and nitric oxide. Most environmental factors influencing pityrosporoses indeed affect the natural human defenses against certain microorganisms. We frame as a hypothesis that the primary defect in some Malassezia-driven disorders resides in the corneocytes and their precursor keratinocytes. [less ▲]

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See detailContrasted skin capacitance imaging of seborrheic keratoses and melanocytic nevi.
Xhauflaire, Emmanuelle ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Dermatology : International Journal for Clinical & Investigative Dermatology (2006), 212(4), 394-7

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See detailSpores, sporodochia and fomites in onychomycosis.
Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Dermatology : International Journal for Clinical & Investigative Dermatology (2006), 213(2), 169-72

Onychomycosis is a frequent infection. Contagion rarely depends on direct contamination, but rather on environmental propagule dispersion including the intervention of fomites. The potential release of ... [more ▼]

Onychomycosis is a frequent infection. Contagion rarely depends on direct contamination, but rather on environmental propagule dispersion including the intervention of fomites. The potential release of fungal cells in the environment from the affected nails has not been thoroughly studied. Observations made by histomycology suggest that arthroconidia and chlamydoconidia issued from invading fungi can be involved. In addition, the sporodochium, which is an exophytic fungal ball, may be attached underneath the distal free edge of some onychomycoses. It might represent an important source of fungal propagules in patients with poor nail trimming. [less ▲]

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See detailSilicon image sensor technology for in vivo detection of surfactant-induced corneocyte swelling and drying.
Uhoda, Emmanuelle ULg; Leveque, Jean Luc; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Dermatology : International Journal for Clinical & Investigative Dermatology (2005), 210(3), 184-8

BACKGROUND: Several instrumental methods can indirectly assess some specific aspects of cutaneous irritation at the level of the stratum corneum (SC). OBJECTIVE: There is a need for developing more ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Several instrumental methods can indirectly assess some specific aspects of cutaneous irritation at the level of the stratum corneum (SC). OBJECTIVE: There is a need for developing more sensitive approaches in this field. METHODS: We assessed a recently introduced innovative tool (SkinChip) based on capacitive pixel-sensing technology in its potential to detect early discrete manifestations of skin irritation. The sensor generates a detailed non-optical picture corresponding to a capacitance map of the skin surface reaching 50 microm pixel resolution. Some topographical details can be easily disclosed and the SC hydration as well. Two surfactant solutions were tested on volunteers. These solutions were applied under test patches for 2 days on the volar forearms. Clinical and SkinChip assessments were performed 3 h after removing the patch. RESULTS: The generated images allowed a precise observation of skin irritation which appeared as a two-step process. Early changes consisted of darker pixels corresponding to overhydrated swollen corneocytes at the irritated sites. Two days later, the same area appeared as white pixels, indicating the loss of corneocyte hydration. CONCLUSION: The SkinChip device appears to be a very sensitive tool for detecting the early steps of surfactant-induced skin irritation affecting the SC. [less ▲]

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See detailThe conundrum of skin pores in dermocosmetology.
Uhoda, Emmanuelle ULg; Pierard, Claudine ULg; Petit, Ludivine et al

in Dermatology : International Journal for Clinical & Investigative Dermatology (2005), 210(1), 3-7

'Skin pore' is a term used by lay people and in the field of cosmetology. It remains misleading when it is not clearly defined. Indeed, lay people use it with at least 3 different meanings. Basically ... [more ▼]

'Skin pore' is a term used by lay people and in the field of cosmetology. It remains misleading when it is not clearly defined. Indeed, lay people use it with at least 3 different meanings. Basically, invisible pores represent the openings of the sweat gland apparatus. By contrast, the visible pores represent enlarged empty funnel-shaped or cylindrical horny impacted openings of pilosebaceous follicles. This review describes some of the current objective methods used to describe skin pores. [less ▲]

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See detailVascularity and fractal dimension of the dermo-epidermal interface in guttate and plaque-type psoriasis.
Uhoda, Isabelle; Pierard, Gérald ULg; Pierard-Franchimont, Claudine ULg et al

in Dermatology : International Journal for Clinical & Investigative Dermatology (2005), 210(3), 189-93

BACKGROUND: Histological structures of the skin are often irregular in size and shape. Euclidean geometry and fractal analysis are complementary for assessing distinct aspects of their dimensions ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Histological structures of the skin are often irregular in size and shape. Euclidean geometry and fractal analysis are complementary for assessing distinct aspects of their dimensions. OBJECTIVE: To determine and compare the variations in shape of the dermo-epidermal junction and the size of the superficial vessels in psoriatic lesions. METHOD: The relative microvasculature area and the fractal dimension D of the dermo-epidermal interface were measured inside and outside growth-stunted guttate lesions (n = 22) and expanding plaques (n = 37) in psoriasis of the trunk. RESULTS: The median D values of the dermo-epidermal interface were significantly larger (p < 0.01) in psoriatic plaques (D = 1.15) than in guttate lesions (D = 1.08), and these D values on lesional skin were significantly larger (p < 0.01) than in the uninvolved skin (D = 1.03). The microvasculature was significantly (p < 0.01) more developed in lesional (plaque: 13%, guttate: 8.20%) than in uninvolved skin (3.60 and 3.85%). No correlations were found between the relative microvasculature areas and the D values of the dermo-epidermal interface, both in the uninvolved and lesional skins of each psoriatic type. CONCLUSION: The absence of a relationship between modulations of the dermo-epidermal junction and vascular hyperplasia, both in expanding and stable psoriasis lesions, suggests that these events are regulated by different mechanisms and do not depend on each other. [less ▲]

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See detailWhat is SkinChip? From silicon image sensor technology to SkinChip.
Pierard, Gérald ULg; Leveque, Jean-Luc

in Dermatology : International Journal for Clinical & Investigative Dermatology (2004), 208(4), 291-2

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See detailEffect of haemodialysis on acoustic shear wave propagation in the skin.
Uhoda, I.; Petite, Louicette ULg; Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULg et al

in Dermatology : International Journal for Clinical & Investigative Dermatology (2004), 209(2), 95-100

BACKGROUND: Diverse skin alterations may develop in patients under chronic haemodialysis. Among them, signs of premature photo-ageing have been described. AIM: To assess alterations in the physical ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Diverse skin alterations may develop in patients under chronic haemodialysis. Among them, signs of premature photo-ageing have been described. AIM: To assess alterations in the physical properties of skin consistent with ageing effects and with cutaneous fluid exchanges during haemodialysis sessions. METHODS: In the first part of the study, 45 haemodialysed patients were compared to 45 age-, sex- and body-mass-index-matched healthy subjects. In the second part of the study, skin of 30 haemodialysed patients was assessed immediately before and after a haemodialysis session. The speed of ultrasound shear wave propagation was measured in each subject. Series of 16 multidirectional resonance running time measurements (RRTM) were performed on the forehead and/or the volar forearm. They were averaged for each subject. The corresponding intra-individual coefficients of variation were calculated as an estimate of the skin mechanical anisotropy. RESULTS: In both haemodialysed patients and their matched controls, RRTM values were significantly higher on the forearms than on the forehead. By contrast, no significant difference was found in RRTM values that could be ascribed to chronic haemodialysis. However, RRTM values were significantly increased as an immediate and probably transient effect of haemodialysis sessions. In healthy subjects, ageing was associated with increased RRTM values. CONCLUSION: Chronic haemodialysis does not appear to influence significantly the functional expression of the dermal ageing process. Subtle fluid movements occurring in the skin during haemodialysis sessions can be assessed by measuring non-invasively the speed of ultrasound shear wave propagation in the skin. [less ▲]

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See detailMycosis fungoides progression and chronic solvent exposure
Nikkels, Arjen ULg; Quatresooz, Pascale ULg; Delvenne, Philippe ULg et al

in Dermatology : International Journal for Clinical & Investigative Dermatology (2004), 208(2), 171-173

The effect of repeated exposure to specific chemicals on the initiation or progression of mycosis fungoides (MF) remains unsettled. A patient with low-grade patch stage MF progressively developed MF ... [more ▼]

The effect of repeated exposure to specific chemicals on the initiation or progression of mycosis fungoides (MF) remains unsettled. A patient with low-grade patch stage MF progressively developed MF plaques restricted to his arms, and a tumour on his right thigh. These areas were subject to repeated exposure to solvents. His thigh was indeed in close contact with his trousers pocket where he used to store a wiping rag drenched into white spirit and cellulosic thinner. Immunophenotyping these lesions revealed a dense LCA+, CD2+, CD3+, CD4+, CD5+, CD7+, CD45+, CD45RO+ T-cell infiltrate admixed with many factor XIIIa+ dendrocytes. T-cell receptor rearrangement analysis identified a monoclonal T-cell infiltrate. An internal work-up remained negative. Stopping further solvent exposure failed to improve his condition. Oral corticotherapy combined with low-dose interferon-alpha2a halted disease progression. This observation suggests that long-term solvent exposure may trigger MF and hasten its progression from the patch stage to the plaque and tumour stages. Copyright (C) 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel. [less ▲]

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See detailRevisiting the gender-linked melanoma burden.
Quatresooz, Pascale ULg; Uhoda, Isabelle; Fumal, Isabelle et al

in Dermatology : International Journal for Clinical & Investigative Dermatology (2004), 209(3), 197-201

BACKGROUND: Much is known about the worldwide rising incidence of skin cancers in the white populations. However, contradictory reports have been presented about a gender-linked risk for malignant ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Much is known about the worldwide rising incidence of skin cancers in the white populations. However, contradictory reports have been presented about a gender-linked risk for malignant melanoma (MM). OBJECTIVE: To review the recent epidemiological information about primary and metastatic MM in south-east Belgium. METHODS: Laboratory records of primary MM according to age and gender were compared per 3-year periods from 1988 to 2002. The numbers of MM per decade of patient age were corrected with regard to the number of citizens in the defined periods of age. This led to the calculation of the rate of estimated prevalence (REP). The same assessments were performed on 187 sentinel lymph node biopsies collected during the last 3-year period. RESULTS: A total of 1,051 primary MM in women and 594 primary MM in men were diagnosed over the 15-year period. The female-to-male ratio rose by 24% over time, with a mean value of 1.77. The most recent years showed a marked increase both in the numbers and REP of primary MM. This situation was present in both genders, although it was most prominent in women of the reproductive age. MM metastases were found in 38/187 sentinel lymph nodes with a female-to-male ratio of 2.17. The age distribution for all sentinel lymph node biopsies copied that of primary MM, but the vast majority of the nodal metastatic MM was found in patients older than 50 years. The ratio between MM metastases and primary MM reached 6.1% (12/198) in men and 6.9% (26/378) in women. CONCLUSION: A recent increase in primary MM incidence was observed in our laboratory. The most likely cause is ascribed to more sensitive MM detection using the combination of clinical dermoscopy and laboratory immunohistochemistry. During the past 15 years, women were more affected than men by both primary and metastatic MM. The gender difference in incidence of primary MM has progressively widened due to an increased incidence in young and middle-aged women. By contrast, nodal metastatic MM mostly affected postmenopausal women. [less ▲]

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See detailThe eyelids and metastatic breast carcinoma.
Claessens, Nadine; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Dermatology : International Journal for Clinical & Investigative Dermatology (2003), 206(2), 181-2

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