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See detailAssessing the ligand properties of 1,3-dimesitylbenzimidazol-2-ylidene in ruthenium-catalyzed olefin metathesis
Borguet, Yannick ULg; Zaragoza, Guillermo; Demonceau, Albert ULg et al

in Dalton Transactions (2013), 42(20), 7287-7296

The deprotonation of 1,3-dimesitylbenzimidazolium tetrafluoroborate with a strong base afforded 1,3-dimesitylbenzimidazol-2-ylidene (BMes), which was further reacted in situ with rhodium or ruthenium ... [more ▼]

The deprotonation of 1,3-dimesitylbenzimidazolium tetrafluoroborate with a strong base afforded 1,3-dimesitylbenzimidazol-2-ylidene (BMes), which was further reacted in situ with rhodium or ruthenium complexes to afford three new organometallic products. The compounds [RhCl(COD)(BMes)] (COD is 1,5-cyclooctadiene) and cis-[RhCl(CO)2(BMes)] were used to probe the steric and electronic parameters of BMes. Comparison of the percentage of buried volume (%VBur) and of the Tolman electronic parameter (TEP) of BMes with those determined previously for 1,3-dimesitylimidazol-2-ylidene (IMes) and 1,3-dimesitylimidazolin-2-ylidene (SIMes) revealed that the three N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) had very similar profiles. Nonetheless, changes in the hydrocarbon backbone subtly affected the stereoelectronic properties of these ligands. Accordingly, the corresponding [RuCl2(PCy 3)(NHC)(CHPh)] complexes displayed different catalytic behaviors in the ring-closing metathesis (RCM) of α,ω-dienes. In the benchmark cyclization of diethyl 2,2-diallylmalonate, the new [RuCl2(PCy 3)(BMes)(CHPh)] compound (1d) performed slightly better than the Grubbs second-generation catalyst (1a), which was in turn significantly more active than the related [RuCl2(PCy3)(IMes)(CHPh)] initiator (1b). For the formation of a model trisubstituted cycloolefin, complex 1d ranked in-between catalyst precursors 1a and 1b, whereas in the RCM of tetrasubstituted cycloalkenes it lost its catalytic efficiency much more rapidly. [less ▲]

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See detailRetracing the evolution of monometallic ruthenium-arene catalysts for C-C bond formation
Delaude, Lionel ULg; Demonceau, Albert ULg

in Dalton Transactions (2012), 41(31), 9257-9268

Preformed or in situ generated monometallic ruthenium-arene complexes with the generic formula RuX2(arene)(L) (L = phosphine or N-heterocyclic carbene) are versatile and efficient catalyst precursors for ... [more ▼]

Preformed or in situ generated monometallic ruthenium-arene complexes with the generic formula RuX2(arene)(L) (L = phosphine or N-heterocyclic carbene) are versatile and efficient catalyst precursors for olefin metathesis and atom transfer radical reactions. Their synthesis is usually accomplished using simple and straightforward experimental procedures starting from the [RuCl2(p-cymene)]2 dimer. This article retraces their evolution over the past 20 years and highlights similarities and differences with the parallel development of well-defined RuX2(CHR)(L1)(L2) ruthenium-alkylidene catalysts. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthesis and catalytic application of palladium imidazol(in)ium-2- dithiocarboxylate complexes
Champion, Martin J. D.; Solanki, Riten; Delaude, Lionel ULg et al

in Dalton Transactions (2012), 41(40), 12386-12394

The palladium(ii) dimer, [Pd(C,N-C 6H 4CH 2NMe 2)Cl] 2 reacts with two equivalents of the NHC·CS 2 zwitterionic ligands [NHC = IPr (1,3- diisopropylimidazol-2-ylidene), ICy (1,3-dicyclohexylimidazol-2 ... [more ▼]

The palladium(ii) dimer, [Pd(C,N-C 6H 4CH 2NMe 2)Cl] 2 reacts with two equivalents of the NHC·CS 2 zwitterionic ligands [NHC = IPr (1,3- diisopropylimidazol-2-ylidene), ICy (1,3-dicyclohexylimidazol-2-ylidene), IMes (1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene), IDip (1,3-bis(2,6- diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene), SIMes (1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl) imidazolin-2-ylidene)] in the presence of NH 4PF 6, to yield the cationic products [Pd(C,N-C 6H 4CH 2NMe 2)(S 2C·NHC)] +. In a similar fashion, the compounds [Pd(C,N-bzq)(S 2C·NHC)] + (bzq = benzo[h]quinolinyl, NHC = ICy, IMes, IDip) are obtained from the corresponding dimer [Pd(C,N-bzq)Cl] 2. The bis(phosphine) compounds [Pd(S 2C·NHC)(PPh 3) 2] 2+ (NHC = ICy, IMes, IDip, SIMes) are obtained on treatment of [PdCl 2(PPh 3) 2] with NHC·CS 2 zwitterions in the presence of NH 4PF 6. The reaction of [PdCl 2(dppf)] with IMes·CS 2 and NH 4PF 6 provides the complex [Pd(S 2C·IMes)(dppf)] 2+. The complexes [Pd(S 2C·NHC)(PPh 3) 2](PF 6) 2 (NHC = IMes, IDip) were active pre-catalysts (1 mol% loading) for the conversion of benzo[h]quinoline to 10-methoxybenzo[h]quinoline in the presence of PhI(OAc) 2 and methanol. The intermediacy of [Pd(C,N-bzq)(S 2C·NHC)] + was supported by the high yield of 10-methoxybenzo[h]quinoline using [Pd(C,N-bzq)(S 2C·IDip)] + to promote the same reaction. Small amounts of 2,10-dimethoxybenzo[h]quinoline were also isolated from these reactions. Using [Pd(C,N-bzq)(S 2C·IDip)] + and N-chlorosuccinimide as the oxidant led to the formation of 10-chlorobenzo[h]quinoline in moderate yield from benzo[h]quinoline. The molecular structures of [Pd(S 2C·IMes)(PPh 3) 2](PF 6) 2 and [Pd(S 2C·IMes) (dppf)](PF 6) 2 were determined crystallographically. [less ▲]

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See detailGold(I) complexes bearing mixed-donor ligands derived from N-heterocyclic carbenes
Chia, Eugene Y; Naeem, Saira; Delaude, Lionel ULg et al

in Dalton Transactions (2011), 40(25), 6645-6658

The new 2-phenylthiocarbamoyl-1,3-dimesitylimidazolium inner salt (IMes•CSNPh) reacts with [AuCl(L)] in the presence of NH4PF6 to yield [(L)Au(SCNPh•IMes)]+ (L = PMe3, PPh3, PCy3, CNBut). The carbene ... [more ▼]

The new 2-phenylthiocarbamoyl-1,3-dimesitylimidazolium inner salt (IMes•CSNPh) reacts with [AuCl(L)] in the presence of NH4PF6 to yield [(L)Au(SCNPh•IMes)]+ (L = PMe3, PPh3, PCy3, CNBut). The carbene-containing precursor [(IDip)AuCl] reacts with IMes•CSNPh under the same conditions to afford the complex [(IDip)Au(SCNPh•IMes)] + (IDip = 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene). Treatment of the diphosphine complex [(dppm)(AuCl)2] with one equivalent of IMes•CSNPh yields the digold metallacycle, [(dppm)Au 2(SCNPh•IMes)]2+, while reaction of [L 2(AuCl)2] with two equivalents of IMes•CSNPh results in [(L2){Au(SCNPh•IMes)}2]2+ (L2 = dppb, dppf, or dppa; dppb = 1,4-bis(diphenylphosphino)butane, dppf = 1,1'-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene, dppa = 1,4- bis(diphenylphosphino)acetylene). The homoleptic complex [Au(SCNPh•IMes) 2]+ is formed on reaction of [AuCl(tht)] (tht = tetrahydrothiophene) with two equivalents of the imidazolium-2- phenylthiocarbamoyl ligand. This product reacts with AgOTf to yield the mixed metal compound [AuAg(SCNPh•IMes)2]2+. Over time, the unusual trimetallic complex [Au(AgOTf)2(SCNPh•IMes) 2]+ is formed. The sulfur-oxygen mixed-donor ligands IMes•COS and SIMes•COS (SIMes = 1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl) imidazolin-2-ylidene) were used to prepare [(L)Au(SOC•IMes)]+ and [(L)Au(SOC•SIMes)]+ from [(L)AuCl] (L = PPh3, CNtBu). The bimetallic examples [(dppf){Au(SOC•IMes)} 2]2+ and [(dppf){Au(SOC•SIMes)}2] 2+ were synthesized from the reaction of [(dppf)(AuCl)2] with the appropriate ligand. Reaction of [(tht)AuCl] with one equivalent of IMes•COS or SIMes•COS yields [Au(SOC•IMes) 2]+ and [Au(SOC•SIMes)2]+, respectively. The compounds [(Ph3P)Au(SCNPh•IMes)]PF 6, [(Cy3P)Au(SCNPh•IMes)]PF6 and [Au(AgOTf)2(SCNPh•IMes)2]OTf were characterized crystallographically. [less ▲]

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See detailInteraction of 6,6-bis(5,5,8,8-tetramethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-1,2,4-benzotriazin-3-yl)-2,2:6,2-terpyridine (CyMe4-BTTP) with some trivalent ions such as lanthanide(III) ions and americium(III)
Lewis, Frank; Harwood, Laurance; Hudson, Michael J. et al

in Dalton Transactions (2010), 39

The new solvent extraction reagent 6,6’’-bis(5,5,8,8-tetramethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-1,2,4-benzotriazin-3-yl)-2,2’:6’,2’’-terpyridine (CyMe4-BTTP) has been synthesized in 4 steps from 2,2’:6’,2’’ ... [more ▼]

The new solvent extraction reagent 6,6’’-bis(5,5,8,8-tetramethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-1,2,4-benzotriazin-3-yl)-2,2’:6’,2’’-terpyridine (CyMe4-BTTP) has been synthesized in 4 steps from 2,2’:6’,2’’-terpyridine. Detailed NMR and mass spectrometry studies indicate that the ligand forms 1:2 complexes with lanthanide(III) perchlorates where the aliphatic rings are conformationally constrained whereas 1:1 complexes are formed with lanthanide(III) nitrates where the rings are conformationally mobile. An optimized structure of the 1:2 solution complex with Yb(III) was obtained from the relative magnitude of the induced paramagnetic shifts. X-ray crystallographic structures of the ligand and of its 1:1 complex with Y(III) were also obtained. The NMR and mass spectra of [Pd(CyMe4-BTTP)]n2n+ are consistent with a dinuclear double helical structure (n = 2). In the absence of a phase-modifier, CyMe4-BTTP in 1-octanol showed a maximum distribution coefficient of Am(III) of 0.039 (±20%) and a maximum separation factor of Am(III) over Eu(III) of 12.0 from nitric acid. From nitric acid, the metal(III) cations are extracted as the 1:1 complex. The generally low distribution coefficients observed compared with the BTBPs arise because the 1:1 complex of CyMe4-BTTP is considerably less hydrophobic than the 1:2 complexes formed by the BTBPs. In M(BTTP)3+ complexes, there is a competition between the nitrate ions and the ligand for the complexation of the metal. [less ▲]

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