Local and systemic cellular inflammation and cytokine release in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Moermans, Catherine ; HEINEN, Vincent ; NGUYEN DANG, Delphine et al
in Cytokine (2011), 56(2), 298-304
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic airway inflammatory disease caused by repeated exposure to noxious gases or particles. It is now recognized that the disease also ... [more ▼]
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic airway inflammatory disease caused by repeated exposure to noxious gases or particles. It is now recognized that the disease also features systemic inflammation. The purpose of our study was to compare airway and systemic inflammation in COPD to that seen in healthy subjects and to relate the inflammation with the disease severity. METHODS: Ninety-five COPD patients, encompassing the whole severity spectrum of the disease, were recruited from our outpatient clinic and rehabilitation center and compared to 33 healthy subjects. Induced sputum and blood samples were obtained for measurement of inflammatory cell count. Interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma produced by 24h sputum and blood cell cultures were measured. RESULTS: Compared to healthy subjects, COPD exhibited a prominent airway neutrophilic inflammation associated with a marked IL-10, IL-6 and TNF-alpha release deficiency that contrasted with a raised IFN-gamma production. Neutrophilic inflammation was also prominent at blood level together with raised production of IFN-gamma, IL-10 and TNF-alpha. Furthermore, sputum neutrophilia correlated with disease severity assessed by GOLD stages. Likewise the extent of TNF-alpha release from blood cells also positively correlated with the disease severity but negatively with that of sputum cell culture. Blood release of TNF-alpha and IL-6 negatively correlated with body mass index. Altogether, our results showed a significant relationship between cellular marker in blood and sputum but poor relationship between local and systemic release of cytokines. CONCLUSIONS: COPD is characterized by prominent neutrophilic inflammation and raised IFN-gamma production at both bronchial and systemic level. Overproduction of TNF-alpha at systemic level correlates with disease severity and inversely with body mass index. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 61 (17 ULg)
Cloning, expression analysis and bioactivity studies of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) interleukin-22.
Mira Monte, Milena ; ; et al
in Cytokine (2011), 55(1), 62-73
This report describes the cloning and characterisation of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) interleukin (IL)-22, and presents studies of the functional activity of its recombinant protein for the first ... [more ▼]
This report describes the cloning and characterisation of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) interleukin (IL)-22, and presents studies of the functional activity of its recombinant protein for the first time in a non-mammalian species. The predicted IL-22 coding region consists of 522 nucleotides which translates into a 173 amino acid protein, that contains an IL-10 family signature which is reasonably well conserved with other vertebrate IL-22 molecules. Expression analysis in tissues from healthy fish revealed a higher constitutive expression of IL-22 in mucosal tissues, suggesting a potentially important role in mucosal immunity. In vitro studies demonstrated that IL-22 expression was induced significantly by PHA and PMA in splenocyte primary cultures 4h post-stimulation. Expression was also induced in the spleen upon infection of fish with the Gram-negative bacterium Yersinia ruckeri, suggesting a potential role of IL-22 in vivo in defence against bacterial diseases. The Escherichia coli produced recombinant IL-22 enhanced the expression of a number of antimicrobial peptides, promoting host innate immunity against microbes and revealing a biological similarity with its mammalian counterpart. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 9 (1 ULg)
Expression Of Interleukin-6 Receptors And Interleukin-6 Messenger-Rna By Bovine Leukemia Virus-Induced Tumor-Cells
; ; et al
in Cytokine (1994), 6(6),Detailed reference viewed: 6 (2 ULg)
Direct stimulation of cytokines (IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-2, IFN-gamma and GM-CSF) in whole blood. I. Comparison with isolated PBMC stimulation.
; Zangerlé, Pierre-François ; et al
in Cytokine (1992), 4(3), 239-48
Production of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta), interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin 2 (IL-2), interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) and granulocyte-macrophage colony ... [more ▼]
Production of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta), interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin 2 (IL-2), interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) after stimulation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and phytohemagglutinin (PHA) was studied in 1/10 diluted whole blood (WB) culture and in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) culture. Cytokines IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha and IL-6 are preferentially stimulated by LPS whereas IL-2, IFN-gamma and GM-CSF are stimulated by PHA. Combination of 5 micrograms/ml PHA and 25 micrograms/ml LPS gave the most reliable production of the six cytokines studied. IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha and IL-6 represent a homogeneous group of early-produced cytokines positively correlated among themselves and with the number of monocytes in the culture (LeuM3). Furthermore, IL-1 beta was negatively correlated with the number of T8 lymphocytes. IL-2, IFN-gamma and GM-CSF represent a group of late-produced cytokines. Kinetics and production levels of IL-6 and GM-CSF are similar in WB and PBMC cultures. In contrast, production levels of TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma are higher in WB than in PBMC whereas production levels of IL-6 and IL-2 are lower in WB than in PBMC. Individual variation in responses to PHA + LPS was always higher in PBMC cultures than in WB cultures. The capacity of cytokine production in relation to the number of mononuclear cells is higher in WB, or in PBMC having the same mononuclear cell concentration as WB, than in conventional cultures of concentrated PBMC (10(6)/ml). Because it mimics the natural environment, diluted WB culture may be the most appropriate milieu in which to study cytokine production in vitro. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 159 (11 ULg)