References of "CAB Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Nutrition and Natural Resources"
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See detailImproving bioethanol production by increasing sugar beet crop yield
Belboom, Sandra ULg; Léonard, Angélique ULg

in CAB Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Nutrition and Natural Resources (2011), 6(24), 1-10

This review presents a summary of published papers about the improvement of sugar beet yield and its transformation into bioethanol. After situating the current political and economic context of the sugar ... [more ▼]

This review presents a summary of published papers about the improvement of sugar beet yield and its transformation into bioethanol. After situating the current political and economic context of the sugar beet crop, influence of factors during the crop growth is studied. Main factor influencing the crop yield and, consequently the bioethanol yield is the weather variability. Others parameters as climate change, fertilizer and crop management are evocated and explained in further paragraphs. Irrigation takes also place in semi-arid countries and plays a role in the different results. After the overview of the crop growth conditions, the sugar beet transformation into bioethanol has been pointed out with the most energetic steps, the different available raw materials from sugar beet and the optimal parameters to get the highest possible yield in terms of bioethanol. To provide economics on bioenergy production, the goal is to obtain the highest yield available in terms of sugar beet, sugar and then bioethanol. Some savings can be made with energy reduction during the fermentation or distillation steps. A sole guideline to reach this goal is not available because of the variability of the parameters depending on the location and on the weather forecasts. [less ▲]

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See detailCurrent status of scrapie. CAB review for Perspectives in Agriculture
Saegerman, Claude ULg; Vanopdenbosch, E.; Berkvens, D.

in CAB Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Nutrition and Natural Resources (2007), 2(027),

Despite being controlled in many developed countries, scrapie remains endemic in many parts of the world. Economic losses result from mortality and culling of small ruminants and from market restrictions ... [more ▼]

Despite being controlled in many developed countries, scrapie remains endemic in many parts of the world. Economic losses result from mortality and culling of small ruminants and from market restrictions. Moreover, it is difficult to develop all-inclusive guidelines that could establish a scrapie-free status for a country. Unfortunately, the global picture remains incomplete because in many countries confusion still remains regarding the clinical picture of scrapie and information is not available owing to the absence of adequate epidemiosurveillance networks. Currently, the predominant theory is that PrPSc is the infectious agent where host genetic factors play a central role. The precise transmission routes of scrapie and their relative contributions to the overall transmission intensity remain poorly documented and the physiopathology is not fully understood. However, it is evident that the purchase of female sheep from scrapie flocks, sharing pastures with scrapie flocks, sharing breeding rams and genetic host susceptibility are the main risk factors for the spread of the disease. A better understanding of the epidemiology of scrapie would greatly aid the development and evaluation of control and eradication strategies that were mainly based on selective depopulation of infected animals and genetically susceptible and/or related animals and also on the biosecurity and the use of selective genetic breeding programmes in healthy flocks. Some numbers of a new transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) form in small ruminants (atypical scrapie) have meanwhile been identified by TSE rapid testing using an assay, which also recognizes comparatively less proteinase K-resistant PrPSc. Uncertainties remain regarding the pathogenesis of this new TSE form, as well as regarding its potential transmissibility within the affected species and to other species. Thus far, no bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) cases have been confirmed in sheep under natural conditions (a report of vertical transmission after experimental infection merits attention), but two historical cases of BSE in goats born in the 1990s have been identified. Currently BSE must also be considered in the differential diagnosis of scrapie. The development of prevention and control programmes should be assisted by new scientific findings. [less ▲]

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