Squatting test: A posture to study and counteract cardiovascular abnormalities associated with autonomic dysfunction.
PHILIPS, Jean-Christophe ; SCHEEN, André
in Autonomic neuroscience : basic & clinical (2011)
The squatting test is an active posture manoeuvre that imposes one of the most potent orthostatic stresses. In normal subjects, the changes in blood pressure and heart rate are transient because of ... [more ▼]
The squatting test is an active posture manoeuvre that imposes one of the most potent orthostatic stresses. In normal subjects, the changes in blood pressure and heart rate are transient because of appropriate baroreflex homeostasis and do not provoke symptoms. However, in various pathological conditions, both the increase in blood pressure during squatting and the decrease in blood pressure during standing may be more important and sustained, potentially leading to complaints and adverse events. Squatting has been used to evaluate patients with tetralogy of Fallot, heart transplant, dysautonomia, including diabetic cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy, and individuals prone to vasovagal syncope. Careful analysis of changes in blood pressure and heart rate during the transition from standing to squatting and from squatting to standing allows the early detection of altered vagal and/or sympathetic function. Of note squatting position has been proposed as a therapeutic means to counteract the fall in blood pressure in patients suffering from dizziness due to dysautonomia and orthostatic hypotension or presenting pre-syncope symptoms, such as soon after exercise. The aims of the present review are to analyse the haemodynamic pattern during a squatting test in various pathological situations and to describe what may be the negative and positive haemodynamic changes associated with this posture. We were especially interested in using the squatting test for the assessment of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy associated with diabetes mellitus. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 23 (2 ULg)