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See detailRecent advances in the synthesis of aliphatic polyesters by ring-opening polymerization
Jérôme, Christine ULg; Lecomte, Philippe ULg

in Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews (2008), 60(9), 1056-1076

Advanced drug delivery systems rely on the availability of biocompatible materials. Moreover, biodegradability is highly desirable in the design of those systems. Consequently, aliphatic polyesters appear ... [more ▼]

Advanced drug delivery systems rely on the availability of biocompatible materials. Moreover, biodegradability is highly desirable in the design of those systems. Consequently, aliphatic polyesters appear as a class of promising materials since they combine both properties. Nevertheless, their use in practical biomedical systems relies on clinical approval which not only depends on the material itself but also on its reproducible synthesis with the absence of residual toxics. The first sections of this review aim at reporting on the evolution of the initiators/catalytic systems and of the synthesis conditions (particularly the use of supercritical CO2 as polymerization medium) in order to produce aliphatic polyesters with controlled macromolecular parameters by still "greener" ways. In addition, the further development of delivery systems also depends on the synthesis of materials exhibiting novel properties, such as amphiphilicity or pH-sensitivity that are emerging from the active research in macromolecular engineering. Functionalizing aliphatic polyesters is quite tedious due to their sensitivity towards hydrolytic degradation. The last section of this review is discussing several strategies to obtain functional (co)polyesters of various architectures providing them with novel properties. [less ▲]

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See detailNuclear imaging methods for non-invasive drug monitoring.
Bhatnagar, A.; Hustinx, Roland ULg; Alavi, A.

in Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews (2000), 41(1), 41-54

Functional imaging techniques provide complimentary information to that provided by structural studies such as MRI and CT. Functional imaging is based upon known parameters such as physiology, metabolism ... [more ▼]

Functional imaging techniques provide complimentary information to that provided by structural studies such as MRI and CT. Functional imaging is based upon known parameters such as physiology, metabolism, biochemistry, pharmacology, and any other biological process. As such, this methodology plays a major role in understanding the basic mechanisms of a multitude of disorders, accurate diagnosis of certain diseases, and developing effective treatment for serious illnesses such as cancer and central nervous system maladies. Although this type of imaging can be performed with various modalities, nuclear procedures have played the leading role in this discipline. Advances made in labeling various radionuclides to biologically important compounds, and development of sophisticated instruments have substantially contributed to the growth of the field of functional imaging. The introduction of positron emission topography (PET), which is based on imaging of compounds labeled with elements such as carbon, nitrogen, and fluorine, has added a major dimension to the evolution of the discipline. This review deals with a brief introduction to the methodologies utilized with radiolabeled tracers and then deals with specific applications of this technology. These applications include assessment of blood flow and metabolism, receptor imaging, elucidating the pathophysiologic process, evaluating role of labeled therapeutic agents, and the potential of these techniques in the development of novel biologic therapies. Functional imaging with radiolabeled tracers will play an increasingly important role in modern medicine, and its impact will be substantial in the management of patients with various disorders. [less ▲]

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