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See detailSound production in two carapids (Carapus acus and C-mourlani) and through the sea cucumber tegument
Parmentier, Eric ULg; Fine, Michael; Vandewalle, Pierre ULg et al

in Acta Zoologica (2006), 87(2), 113-119

Carapus acus and Carapus mourlani are able to live inside sea cucumbers and sea stars respectively. Unlike other carapids whose sounds have been recorded (C. boraborensis, C. homei and Encheliophis ... [more ▼]

Carapus acus and Carapus mourlani are able to live inside sea cucumbers and sea stars respectively. Unlike other carapids whose sounds have been recorded (C. boraborensis, C. homei and Encheliophis gracilis), these two species have a central constriction in their swimbladder and are unlikely to encounter heterospecific carapids within their hosts. We evoked sound production in Carapus acus and Carapus mourlani by adding several individuals to a tank with a single host and found that their sounds differ substantially from the sounds emitted by other carapids in pulse length, peak frequency and sharpness of tuning (Q(3 dB)). Unlike the other carapids, C. mourlani and C. acus produce shorter and less repetitive sounds and do not produce sounds when they enter their host. Since sounds produced within a sea cucumber have the potential to be heard by distant carapids and are typically recorded outside the sea cucumber, we examined the effect of the sea cucumber tegument on acoustic transmission. Attenuation by the tegument was negligible at the frequencies within carapid sounds. Therefore, carapids have the potential to call from the relative safety of a sea cucumber without sacrificing the distance over which their transmissions are heard. [less ▲]

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See detailPhylogenetic analysis of the pearlfish Carapini (Ophidiiformes, Carapidae)
Parmentier, Eric ULg; Castillo Cabello, Gabriel ULg; Chardon, Michel ULg et al

in Acta Zoologica (2000), 81

Fishes of the tribe Carapini (Encheliophis and Carapus) share a noteworthy peculiarity: they shelter in holothurian echinoderms or bivalve hosts. Some species are considered parasitic, others commensal ... [more ▼]

Fishes of the tribe Carapini (Encheliophis and Carapus) share a noteworthy peculiarity: they shelter in holothurian echinoderms or bivalve hosts. Some species are considered parasitic, others commensal. This study focuses on the phylogeny of the tribe, using two other Carapidae species as an outgroup (Snyderidia canina and Onuxodon fowleri). Insofar as possible, the selected anatomical and behavioural characters where chosen in an ecomorphological perspective, as features that could be responses to various lifestyle-related constraints. Our character selection also took into account the fact that some features are (presumably) linked. Such features were grouped together as a single trait to avoid their overvaluation. This methodology enabled us to separate commensals from parasites, the former belonging to Carapus and the latter to Encheliophis. Carapus species reflect in their morphology the constraints imposed by a diet of hard, mobile, elusive prey, showing predator-type features: a strong dentition, a wide mouth opening, a robust food intake apparatus. On the other hand, the endoparasitic Encheliophis species show a generally weaker buccal apparatus and narrow mouth opening, in relation to the different constraints of their lifestyle where the diet constraints are less pronounced: they eat body parts of their host. We propose changes in both generic diagnoses and transfer three species from Encheliophis to Carapus. [less ▲]

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