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See detailDistribution of freshwater snails in family-based VAC ponds and associated waterbosied with special reference to intermediate hosts of fish-borne zoonotic trematides in Nam Dinh province, Vietnam
Bui Thi, Dung ULg

in Acta Tropica (2010), 116

Fish-borne zoonotic trematodes, such as Clonorchis sinensis, heterophyids and others, constitute a public health concern in parts of northern Vietnam and infections with these trematodes are often thought ... [more ▼]

Fish-borne zoonotic trematodes, such as Clonorchis sinensis, heterophyids and others, constitute a public health concern in parts of northern Vietnam and infections with these trematodes are often thought to be linked to fish culture. One common fish culture system is the integrated fish-livestock (VAC) ponds where individual households have 1 or more ponds. Fish fry, mainly of various carp species, pro-duced in hatcheries, not necessarily local, are introduced into nursery ponds and after approximately 6 weeks, juvenile fishes are transferred to household ponds, referred to as grow-out ponds. Grow-out ponds are usually fertilized with organic debris, including animal excreta, to stimulate algal growth and subsequently fish growth. This paper describes the distribution of freshwater snails and occurrence of trematode infections in these in VAC ponds and associated habitats as part of a major study on risk factors of FZT infections in cultured fish in two communes, Nghia Lac and Nghia Phu, Nghia Hung District, Nam Dinh Province. The area is under intense rice cultivation with an extensive canal network supplying fields and also household VAC ponds. A total of 16 snail species was found and four were widely distributed i.e. Angulyagra polyzonata, Melanoides tuberculata, Bithynia fuchsiana and Pomacea insularum. Snail diver-sity and counts were higher in nursery ponds than in grow-out ponds. Species of the families Thiaridae and Viviparidae were more abundant than other species in VAC ponds while species of the Bithyniidae, Stenothyridae and Planorbidae dominated in rice fields and small canals. Trematode infections were found in eight snail species and among these M. tuberculata had the highest overall prevalence of infec-tion (13.28%). No trematode infections were found in species of the Viviparidae and Ampullaridae except for metacercariae. Parapleurolophocercous and pleurolophocercous cercariae constituted the most com-mon type of cercariae recovered, contributing 40.6% of all infections followed by echinostome cercariae (35.0%) and xiphidiocercariae (17.3%). Bithynia fuschiana and M. tuberculata had the most diverse trema-tode fauna. C. sinensis was not recorded in this study. The VAC pond system in this area, is very important for transmission of minute intestinal trematodes while they play little role in transmission of C. sinensis as its intermediate hosts, bithynid snails, rarely occur in these ponds. From a public health perspective this is positive as the effects of infections with intestinal trematodes are considered mild. On the other hand it is possible that even such subtle effects could have importance in public health as transmission is very intense in the area. And this in combination with the aquaculture importance, reduced marketability of fishes with high metacercariae loads, warrants that control efforts against these trematodes are initiated to reduce transmission in this production system. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison between active and passive surveillance within the Network of Epidemiological Surveillance of Animal Diseases in Chad (REPIMAT)
Ouagal, M.; Hendrikx, P.; Saegerman, Claude ULg et al

in Acta Tropica (2010), 116(2), 147-151

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See detailFlow cytometric enumeration of parasitaemia and haematologic changes in trypanosoma-infected mice.
Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas ULg; Saerens, Dirk; Desmecht, Daniel ULg

in Acta Tropica (2008), 107(2), 139-44

African trypanosomiasis is a severe parasitic disease affecting both man and livestock. It is crucial to expand our fundamental knowledge of the intimate interactions between trypanosomes and their ... [more ▼]

African trypanosomiasis is a severe parasitic disease affecting both man and livestock. It is crucial to expand our fundamental knowledge of the intimate interactions between trypanosomes and their vertebrate hosts in order to develop new and efficient control strategies. The mouse model of trypanosomiasis is the most popular for research purposes because of all the logistic advantages of using this species. Studies of any aspect of trypanosomiases in the mouse systematically require the quantification of some phenotypic traits which translate its degree of resistance/susceptibility to the disease, as blood cell counts. The present study presents a methodological approach combining everyday microsampling of tail blood and its analysis by flow cytometry. The technical options and conditions permitting a fast, reliable and reproducible daily quantification of erythrocyte, reticulocyte, leucocyte and trypanosome counts in the inoculated mouse were established. The protocol proposed allows the multiplication of blood samplings without being exposed to the time-consuming constraint of visual countings, without causing iatrogenic blood cell alterations in the mouse and without requiring specific anti-trypanosome antibodies. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of an experimental Trypanosoma congolense infection and plane of nutrition on milk production and some biochemical parameters in West African Dwarf goats
Faye, D.; Fall, A.; Leak, S. et al

in Acta Tropica (2005), 93(3), 247-257

The interactions of trypanosomosis and plane of nutrition on health and productivity of multiparous and primiparous West African Dwarf (WAD) does were studied in a multi-factorial experiment including ... [more ▼]

The interactions of trypanosomosis and plane of nutrition on health and productivity of multiparous and primiparous West African Dwarf (WAD) does were studied in a multi-factorial experiment including diet (supplementation or basal diet) and infection (infected or control). Experimental does were infected with Trypanosoma congolense at the beginning of the second week post-kidding and monitored for 16 weeks after infection. Trypanosome infection significantly reduced packed cell volume (PCV) (control: 30.1 +/- 0.3% versus infected: 22.2 +/- 0.3%; P < 0.0001). Regardless of infection, the drop in PCV from the pre-infection period to the end of the experiment was more severe in animals under restricted diet (interaction diet x period, P < 0.001). Trypanosome parasitaemia tended to be higher in the supplemented group than in the basal diet group (P > 0.05) and multiparous animals had a higher parasitaemia (score: 2.6 +/- 0.1) than primiparous animals (score: 2.2 +/- 0.1) (P < 0.05). Trypanosome infection as well as dietary supplement had a significant effect on lactation length. Milk off-take from trypanosome-infected does was significantly lower than that from the uninfected control group (17.5 +/- 3.21 versus 35.5 +/- 3.21, P < 0.001) and there was a positive effect of plane of nutrition (supplemented: 32.8 +/- 3.21 and basal diet: 20.2 +/- 3.51, P = 0.01). The drop in milk off-take due to trypanosome infection was more severe in the supplemented group (control: 46.7 +/- 4.71 versus infected: 18.9 +/- 4.21) than in the group receiving a basal diet (control: 24.2 +/- 5.01 versus infected: 16.1 +/- 4.71) (interaction infection x diet, P = 0.04) due to the number of does from the supplemented group that were withdrawn from the experiment. The effect of trypanosome infection on doe's live-weight was only noticeable during the first 8 weeks of lactation and there was no significant effect on offspring growth rate unless the mother died. Plasma total protein (TP), albumin and cholesterol concentrations were significantly reduced by the infection but were significantly increased by supplementation. Supplemented does had a higher level of cholesterol and a tendency for a higher parasitaemia. Does of high parity also had a higher cholesterol level than primiparous does and, based on the number of animals that were withdrawn from the experiment, they showed a lower resistance to the infection. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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