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See detailEffects of different tillage practices on soil water-stable aggregation and organic carbon distribution in dryland farming in Northern China
Liu, shuang; Yan, Changrong; He, Wenqing et al

in Acta Ecologica Sinica (2015), 35

Knowledge about the changes in soil aggregate stability and soil organic carbon (SOC) under different tillage treatments is necessary to assess the feasibility of adoption of conservation practices for ... [more ▼]

Knowledge about the changes in soil aggregate stability and soil organic carbon (SOC) under different tillage treatments is necessary to assess the feasibility of adoption of conservation practices for sustaining productivity and protecting the environment in dryland farming in northern China. In this study, four treatments, no-till with strawmulching (NTSM), all straw return tillage (ASRT), shallowrotary treatment (SRT) and conventional tillage (CT) were set and a 5 years field experiment was carried out to study the effects of different tillage practices on soil aggregates stability and organic carbon distribution. We found that macro-aggregate (N2 mm and 0.25– 2 mm) proportion, mean weight diameter, total amount, content of SOC in macro-aggregate and proportion of SOC inmacro-aggregate were significantly improved by NTSM, ASRT and SRT. In all treatments, soil ability to sequester carbonwas improved more prominently in NTSM, andmacro-aggregate proportion,meanweight diameter, total amount SOC in macro-aggregate and proportion of SOC in macro-aggregate were improve by 29.4%,30.9%,84.9% and 30.7% respectively by NTSM. In addition, improvement effects on soil aggregates stability and carbon sequestration ability in ASRT were all higher than in SRT, and compared to NTSM, macro-aggregate proportion was slightly higher (1.7%) in ASRT, but SOC content and amount in aggregates were remarkably lower. Our results revealed that reducing soil disturbance, increasing straw returning and especially their combined application (i.e. NTSM in this study) can effectively be used to reduce soil erosion and improve carbon sequestration in dryland farming in northern China. [less ▲]

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See detailVariation of drought and regional response to climate change in Huang-Huai鄄-Hai Plain
Xu, Jianwen; Ju, Hui; Liu, Qin ULg et al

in Acta Ecologica Sinica (2014)

It is widely recognized that the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events and climate disasters have strongly increased with global warming. The area of influence of climate disasters has also ... [more ▼]

It is widely recognized that the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events and climate disasters have strongly increased with global warming. The area of influence of climate disasters has also increased, which has had adverse effects on sustainable social and economic development. Drought is a recurring natural phenomenon, and is associated with a deficit of water resources over a large geographic area and long duration. Drought is attracting increased attention from scholars, with a focus on its intensity, duration and areal extent in northern China within the context of global change. Investigation of the variation of drought and regional response to climate change is very important to agricultural production, and can provide a reference fordeveloping appropriate measures to reduce droughts on the Huang-Huai-Hai(3H) Plain. At present, relevant research is more inclined to study meteorological drought itself, without consideration of drought characteristics in different phases in crop-growing seasons and the climate background of global change. In this paper, we determine drought characteristics in all four seasons and the winter wheat growing season on the 3H Plain, together with the effects of climate change. Based on data of 34 meteorological stations from 1961 to 2011, a relative moisture index was calculated to investigate the spatial pattern and temporal variability of drought characteristics on the 3H Plain. The results show varying degrees of drought in spring, winter and the winter wheat growing season. Drought frequency exceeded 90% over the past 50 years on the plain, with spring and winter the driest seasons. There were high-frequency drought areas in central and northern parts of the plain during spring, winter and the winter wheat growing season. The regional distribution of drought intensity and frequency showed an increasing tendency from south to north. A wet trend was detected on the plain in the winter wheat growing season over the last 50 years. However, the relative moisture index changed since 1978. That is to say, the index had an increasing trend from 1961 to 1980 when the plain was wetter; the index decreased from 1980 to 2011 when it was drier. Overall, although drought eased over the entire analysis period, a serious drought tendency has emerged over the last 20 years. In addition, temporal variability of the relative moisture index was significantly correlated with precipitation, solar radiation and relative humidity. This indicates that drought characteristics of the plain were more sensitive to these three climate variables. This has received increased attention in recent years with respect to addressing climate change. The results of our study indicate an arid trend, with increase of temperature in spring and summer on the 3H Plain. Therefore, relevant agencies should create an early warning system of extreme weather events and natural disasters, toward improvement of future regional agricultural scientific management and decision support systems in agricultural production. These agencies should also adapt to climate change by selecting strongly drought-resistant crop varieties and by adjusting cultivation methods and management measures, especially irrigation measures aimed at spring drought on the 3H Plain. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamic variation of water deficit of winter wheat and its possible climatic factors in Northern China
Liu, Qin ULg; mei, xurong; Yan, Changrong et al

in Acta Ecologica Sinica (2013)

Currently, it is widely recognized that the determination of water deficit for crop water requirement is a key part of design and operation of agricultural water resource systems. This paper analyzes the ... [more ▼]

Currently, it is widely recognized that the determination of water deficit for crop water requirement is a key part of design and operation of agricultural water resource systems. This paper analyzes the weather and crop data for the periods of 1971—1980 and 2001—2010, to assess the spatial dynamic variation of water deficit of winter wheat in different growth stages. The water deficit changes during jointing and heading stages were investigated considering the shapes of climate parameters using sensitivity analysis model. The results indentified an increasing trend of total water deficit of winter wheat in central Northern China where large part is arid land. Moreover the drought degree of winter wheat showed more aggravation during the period between sowing and returning green stages along the line of Xuzhou and Xuchang to the north. Water deficit had alleviated during the period between returning green and jointing stages, excluding central part of Northern China. The spatial pattern of water deficit of winter wheat showed an increasing trend during the period between jointing and heading stages except in the central part of Shanxi Province. Most part of the Northern China showed a decreasing trend of water deficit during the period between heading and maturity stages, where as in the south west of Northern China water deficit increased. During jointing and heading stages of winter wheat, the meteorological stations where water deficit changes are positively linked to sunshine duration account for the majority and the stations where water deficit changes is positive sensitive to sunshine duration are located in Hebei Province. The wind speed is followed, and the stations where water deficit changes are positive sensitive to mean air temperature account for the minority. The findings from this research provide an important information base for the regional studies of irrigation scheduling, water resources management to ease the tension of water resources supply and demand [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of intercropping aphid-resistant wheat cultivars with oilseed rape
Zhou, Haibo ULg

in Acta Ecologica Sinica (2009), 29

The effects of intercropping of wheat cultivars and oilseed rape on the densities of wheat aphid, Sitobion avenae, and their arthropod natural enemies were evaluated. Three winter wheat cultivars with ... [more ▼]

The effects of intercropping of wheat cultivars and oilseed rape on the densities of wheat aphid, Sitobion avenae, and their arthropod natural enemies were evaluated. Three winter wheat cultivars with different resistant levels to S. avenae were used: `KOK¿ (high resistance), `Xiaobaidongmai¿ (low resistance) and`Hongmanghong¿ (susceptible). The results showed that the densities of S. avenae were significantly higher on the monoculture pattern than on either the 8-2 intercropping pattern (eight rows of wheat with two rows of oilseed rape) or the 8-4 intercropping pattern (eight rows of wheat with four rows of oilseed rape). The mean number of predators and the mummy rates of S. avenae were significantly higher in two intercropping patterns than those in the monoculture pattern. The densities of S. avenae, ladybeetles, and mummy rate of S. avenae were significantly different among different wheat cultivars. The highest densities of S. avenae and ladybeetles were found on wheat cultivar Hongmanghong. The lowest densities of S. avenae associated with high mummy rate of S. avenae were found on wheat cultivar Xiaobaidongmai. The results showed that wheat-oilseed rape intercropping conserved more predators and parasitoids than in wheat monoculture fields, and partial resistance of wheat cultivar Xiaobaidongmai had complementary or even synergistic effects on parasitoid of S. avenae. [less ▲]

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