References of "2012"
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See detailScales of spatial and temporal variations in Cryptosporidium and Giardia abundances and genetic diversity in a drinking water reservoir: implications for the risk assessment
Cauchie, Henry-Michel ULg; Burnet, Jean-Baptiste; Ogorzaly, Leslie et al

Conference (2012, February)

A monitoring of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum occurrence was conducted for 2 years in the largest drinking water reservoir of Luxembourg (Esch-sur-Sûre reservoir) using microscopy and qPCR ... [more ▼]

A monitoring of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum occurrence was conducted for 2 years in the largest drinking water reservoir of Luxembourg (Esch-sur-Sûre reservoir) using microscopy and qPCR techniques. Parasite analyses were performed on water samples collected from three sites: site A located at the inlet of the reservoir, site B located 18 km downstream site A, at the inlet of the drinking water treatment plant near the dam of the reservoir and site C where the finished drinking water is injected in the distribution network. The communication presented the main results of the survey and the assessment of risk infection with parasites. [less ▲]

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See detailTime-domain surface impedance boundary conditions enhanced by coarse volume finite-element discretisation
Vazquez Sabariego, Ruth ULg; Geuzaine, Christophe ULg; Dular, Patrick ULg et al

in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics (2012), 48(2), 631-634

In computational magnetodynamics, surface impedance boundary conditions allow to accurately account for high-frequency flux components while removing the massive conducting regions from the computation ... [more ▼]

In computational magnetodynamics, surface impedance boundary conditions allow to accurately account for high-frequency flux components while removing the massive conducting regions from the computation domain. The time-domain approach previously proposed by the authors relies on the spatial discretisation of a 1-D eddy-current problem by means of dedicated basis functions derived from the analytical frequency-domain solution. In this paper, these time-domain impedance conditions are combined with a coarse volume finite-element discretisation of the massive conductors to capture slowly varying flux components. The accuracy of the hybrid approach can further be improved by introducing a fictitious frequency-dependent conductivity. The method is illustrated and validated by means of 1-D and 2-D test cases in the frequency and time domain. [less ▲]

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See detailCOMBINATION OF INDEPENDENT COMPONENT ANALYSIS, DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS AND DESIGN SPACE FOR A NOVEL METHODOLOGY TO DEVELOP CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHODS
Rozet, Eric ULg; Debrus, Benjamin ULg; Lebrun, Pierre ULg et al

Poster (2012, February)

As defined by ICH [1] and FDA, Quality by Design (QbD) stands for “a systematic approach to development that begins with predefined objectives and emphasizes product and process understanding and process ... [more ▼]

As defined by ICH [1] and FDA, Quality by Design (QbD) stands for “a systematic approach to development that begins with predefined objectives and emphasizes product and process understanding and process control, based on sound science and quality risk management”. A risk–based QbD–compliant approach is proposed for the robust development of analytical methods. This methodology based on Design of Experiments (DoE) to study the experimental domain models the retention times at the beginning, the apex and the end of each peak corresponding to the compounds of a mixture and uses the separation criterion (S) rather than the resolution (RS) as a Critical Quality Attribute. Stepwise multiple linear regressions are used to create the models. The estimated error is propagated from the modelled responses to the separation criterion (S) using Monte Carlo simulations in order to estimate the predictive distribution of the separation criterion (S) over the whole experimental domain. This allows finding ranges of operating conditions that will guarantee a satisfactory quality of the method in its future use. These ranges define the Design Space (DS) of the method. In chromatographic terms, the chromatograms processed at operating conditions within the DS will assuredly show high quality, with well separated peaks and short run time, for instance. This Design Space can thus be defined as the subspace, necessarily encompassed in the experimental domain (i.e. the knowledge space), within which the probability for the criterion to be higher than an advisedly selected threshold is higher than a minimum quality level. Precisely, the DS is defined as “the multidimensional combination and interaction of input variables (e.g., material attributes) and process parameters that have been demonstrated to provide assurance of quality” [1]. Therefore, this DS defines a region of operating conditions that provide prediction of assurance of quality rather than only quality as obtained with traditional mean response surface optimisation strategies. For instance, in the liquid chromatography there is a great difference in e.g. predicting a resolution (RS) higher than 1.5 vs. predicting that the probability for RS to be higher than 1.5 (i.e. P(RS> 1.5)) is high. The presentation of this global methodology will be illustrated for the robust optimisation and DS definition of several liquid chromatographic methods dedicated to the separation of different mixtures: pharmaceutical formulations, API and impurities/degradation products, plant extracts, separation of enantiomers, … References [1] International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use, Topic Q8(R2): Pharmaceutical development, Geneva, 2009. [less ▲]

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See detailIMPROVE SHIP DESIGN COMPLEXITY (EASYSHIP)
Hage, André ULg; Rigo, Philippe ULg; Caprace, Jean-David ULg

Report (2012)

Nowadays productibility has become a major design attribute for shipbuilding industry. If a ship cannot be manufactured or assembled efficiently, it is not properly designed. To increase the ... [more ▼]

Nowadays productibility has become a major design attribute for shipbuilding industry. If a ship cannot be manufactured or assembled efficiently, it is not properly designed. To increase the productibility of ships, the scientific community and shipyards has developed the concept of Design For Production (DFP) which can be defined as "Design to reduce production costs to a minimum, compatible with the requirements of the vessel to fulfil its operational functions with acceptable safety, reliability and efficiency". DFP optimises all the manufacturing functions (fabrication, assembly, test, procurement, delivery, service, repair, etc.) that reduce the production work content while still meeting the specified design requirements and quality. The goal is to include the impact of design decisions on the production process. Time pressures on commercial ship contracts result in the overlapping of phases of design development, procurement and production. This makes the impact of engineering changes more difficult to manage. There is a need to systematically study the detail design process and its impact on construction with the objective to improve the process and its integration with construction. DFP can significantly reduce the costs, since ships can be quickly assembled from fewer parts. Thus, ships are easier to build and assemble, in less time, with better quality. Designers will save time and money by the reduction of the production complexity. [less ▲]

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See detailLe Parlement Jeunesse de la Communauté française, une initiative citoyenne ?
Wintgens, Sophie ULg; Dabée, Maëlle

in Fournier, Bernard; Hudon, Raymond (Eds.) Engagements politiques et citoyens de jeunes. Bilans et expériences au Canada et en Europe (2012, February)

Créée en 1997 dans l'esprit du modèle québécois, l'ASBL Parlement Jeunesse de la Communauté française organise annuellement une simulation parlementaire à destination de jeunes francophones résidants en ... [more ▼]

Créée en 1997 dans l'esprit du modèle québécois, l'ASBL Parlement Jeunesse de la Communauté française organise annuellement une simulation parlementaire à destination de jeunes francophones résidants en Belgique, âgés de 17 à 26 ans. Cette initiative citoyenne permet ainsi à une centaine de jeunes, idéalement issus de tous milieux et de tous horizons, de découvrir les rouages internes de la démocratie, conformément aux mécanismes et procédures propres au système parlementaire belge. Là où nombre d'études scientifiques sur l'engagement politique des jeunes s'accordent sur la prévalence d'un désintérêt manifeste et – plus largement – sur une tendance générale au déclin de l'engagement politique chez les jeunes, l'action citoyenne mise en œuvre par le Parlement Jeunesse témoigne en réalité de l'existence de formes moins classiques – dans le cas présent, associative – de socialisation des jeunes à la « chose politique ». L’objectif général poursuivi dans cette contribution est d'identifier la nature et les fondements de l'engagement politique déployé à travers cette jeune initiative, ainsi que d’en mesurer la portée et les limites. Dès lors, en quoi le Parlement Jeunesse participe-t-il de l’engagement politique des jeunes ? Ne contribue-t-il qu’au renforcement d’un intérêt politique latent et préexistant ? A contrario, participe-t-il de la construction d’un engagement politique au départ d’un processus d’apprentissage pratique des rouages de la démocratie parlementaire ? En d’autres termes, quelles sont les forces et les faiblesses de cette initiative citoyenne en terme de socialisation politique de la jeunesse ? [less ▲]

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See detailLearning to play K-armed bandit problems
Maes, Francis ULg; Wehenkel, Louis ULg; Ernst, Damien ULg

in Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Agents and Artificial Intelligence (ICAART 2012) (2012, February)

We propose a learning approach to pre-compute K-armed bandit playing policies by exploiting prior information describing the class of problems targeted by the player. Our algorithm first samples a set of K ... [more ▼]

We propose a learning approach to pre-compute K-armed bandit playing policies by exploiting prior information describing the class of problems targeted by the player. Our algorithm first samples a set of K-armed bandit problems from the given prior, and then chooses in a space of candidate policies one that gives the best average performances over these problems. The candidate policies use an index for ranking the arms and pick at each play the arm with the highest index; the index for each arm is computed in the form of a linear combination of features describing the history of plays (e.g., number of draws, average reward, variance of rewards and higher order moments), and an estimation of distribution algorithm is used to determine its optimal parameters in the form of feature weights. We carry out simulations in the case where the prior assumes a fixed number of Bernoulli arms, a fixed horizon, and uniformly distributed parameters of the Bernoulli arms. These simulations show that learned strategies perform very well with respect to several other strategies previously proposed in the literature (UCB1, UCB2, UCB-V, KL-UCB and $\epsilon_n$-GREEDY); they also highlight the robustness of these strategies with respect to wrong prior information. [less ▲]

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See detailJames McAuley
Delrez, Marc ULg

Article for general public (2012)

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See detailLes carrières professionnelles des cadres : regard croisé du genre et de l'âge
Grodent, Françoise ULg

Scientific conference (2012, February)

Ce papier a pour objectif de réaliser une revue de littérature qui doit permettre de construire une recherche empirique visant à apporter une vision comparative des carrières des hommes et des femmes ... [more ▼]

Ce papier a pour objectif de réaliser une revue de littérature qui doit permettre de construire une recherche empirique visant à apporter une vision comparative des carrières des hommes et des femmes cadres en regard de trois groupes d’âge : les moins de 35 ans, les [35-50] ans et les plus de 50 ans. Nous considérons les deux sexes étant donné que les trajectoires professionnelles sont influencées par le sexe de la personne ainsi que par les stéréotypes et les rôles qui y sont directement associés (genre). Les générations, quant à elles, nous permettront de tenir compte de l’évolution des facteurs de contexte que sont notamment ces rôles attribués au masculin et au féminin à travers les époques. En effet, les constructions sociales liées au sexe des individus sont susceptibles de changer d’une génération à l’autre et donc d’agir distinctement sur les intentions de carrière. Le fait d’introduire la dimension générationnelle, en plus de celle du genre, est l’occasion d’aborder le concept d’intersectionnalité qui consiste en un croisement des groupes cibles propres à la gestion de la diversité. A l’issue de cet aperçu théorique faisant état de la littérature existante relative à cette thématique des carrières des individus occupant un poste à responsabilités, nous pourrons mettre en évidence différentes questions de recherche qu’il nous faudra, dans un second temps, confronter à la réalité du terrain. [less ▲]

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See detailDoes pupil constriction under blue and green monochromatic light exposure change with age?
Daneault, V; Vandewalle, Gilles ULg; Hébert, M et al

Poster (2012, February)

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See detailDifferential proteomic analysis of a human breast tumor and its matched bone metastasis identifies cell membrane and extracellular proteins associated with bone metastasis
Dumont, Bruno ULg; Castronovo, Vincenzo ULg; Peulen, Olivier ULg et al

in Journal of Proteome Research (2012)

The classical fate of metastasizing breast cancer cells is to seed and form secondary colonies in bones. The molecules closely associated with these processes are predominantly present at the cell surface ... [more ▼]

The classical fate of metastasizing breast cancer cells is to seed and form secondary colonies in bones. The molecules closely associated with these processes are predominantly present at the cell surface and in the extracellular space, establishing the first contacts with the target tissue. In this study, we had the rare opportunity to analyze a bone metastatic lesion and its corresponding breast primary tumor obtained simultaneously from the same patient. Using mass spectrometry, we undertook a proteomic study on cell surface and extracellular protein-enriched material. We provide a repertoire of significantly modulated proteins, some with yet unknown roles in the bone metastatic process as well as proteins notably involved in cancer cell invasiveness and in bone metabolism. The comparison of these clinical data with those previously obtained using a human osteotropic breast cancer cell line highlighted an overlapping group of proteins. Certain differentially expressed proteins are validated in the present study using immunohistochemistry on a retrospective collection of breast tumors and matched bone metastases. Our exclusive set of selected proteins supports the set-up of further investigations on both clinical samples and experimental bone metastasis models that will help to reveal the finely coordinated expression of proteins that favor the development of metastases in the bone microenvironment. [less ▲]

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See detailMicroorganisms from aphid honeydew attract natural enemies and tending ants
Verheggen, François ULg; Leroy, Pascal; Fischer, Christophe ULg et al

Conference (2012, February)

Aphids are some of the most serious pests of cultivated crops worldwide, causing major yield and economic losses. Previous works have demonstrated ants and natural enemies (including ladybeetles and ... [more ▼]

Aphids are some of the most serious pests of cultivated crops worldwide, causing major yield and economic losses. Previous works have demonstrated ants and natural enemies (including ladybeetles and hoverflies) to be able to use aphid volatile chemicals to locate aphid colonies. Here, we report the first isolation of a bacterium from the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum honeydew, Staphylococcus sciuri, which produces kairomones used by the aphidophagous hoverfly Episyrphus balteatus and the Asian Ladybeetle Harmonia axyridis during their search for prey colonies. Some specific semiochemicals produced by S. sciuri were identified as attractants and ovipositional stimulants. Similarly, we have shown scouts of the aphid tending ant species, Lasius niger, to orientate their foraging behaviour toward an Aphis fabae infested plant and we have demonstrated that the odours released by this aphid honeydew were attractive for ant scouts. Again, bacteria were involved in the production of these honeydew semiochemicals. Interestingly, ant scouts were also able to discriminate honeydew odour from A. fabae (usually attended by L. niger) and A. pisum (unattendedby L. niger). Comparison of the volatile and bacteria composition of both aphid species honeydew were attended. [less ▲]

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See detailDaljit Nagra: Sourires de tigre et dents brunes
Munos, Delphine ULg

Article for general public (2012)

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See detailQUALITY BY DESIGN COMPLIANT METHOD VALIDATION
Rozet, Eric ULg; Boulanger, B.; Hubert, Philippe ULg

Poster (2012, February)

Analytical method validation is a mandatory step to evaluate the ability of developed methods to provide accurate results for their routine application in order to trust the critical decisions that will ... [more ▼]

Analytical method validation is a mandatory step to evaluate the ability of developed methods to provide accurate results for their routine application in order to trust the critical decisions that will be made with them. Even if several guidelines exist to help perform analytical method validations (ICH Q2R1 [1], USP <1225> [2], …) there is still the need to clarify the meaning and interpretation of analytical method validation criteria and methodology. Indeed, actually method validation is mostly realised as the traditional check list implementation of e.g. the ICH Q2R1 or USP <1225> method validation requirements. However, within the trend of Quality by Design [3], there is the need to switch from this traditional vision to an analytical method validation really adding value and providing a high level of assurance of analytical methods results reliability. Yet, different interpretations can be made of the validation guidelines as well as for the definitions of the validation criteria. This will lead to diverse experimental designs implemented to try fulfilling these criteria. Finally, different decision methodologies can also be interpreted from these guidelines. Therefore, the risk that a validated analytical method may be unfit for its future purpose will depend on a personal interpretation of these guidelines. The objective of this presentation is thus to show that analytical method validation should be planned and performed by first starting with the end in mind: what is the objective of the analytical methods under study? In such a way analytical method validation is coherent with the actual Quality by Design regulatory expectations. The risk of having validated an analytical method unfit for its purpose is strongly reduced as well as the risk of generating Out of Specification (OOS) results due to an unfit method. References [1] International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) of Technical Requirements for registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use, Topic Q2 (R1): Validation of Analytical Procedures: Text and Methodology, Geneva, 2005. [2] USP 33 NF 28 S1, U.S. Pharmacopeia, 2007. USP–NF General Chapter <1225>. [3] International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use, Topic Q8(R2): Pharmaceutical development, Geneva, 2009. [less ▲]

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See detailEddy Currents and Corner Singularities
Buret, François; Dauge, Monique; Dular, Patrick ULg et al

in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics (2012), 48(2), 679-682

Eddy current problems are addressed in a bidimensional setting where the conducting medium is non-magnetic and has a corner singularity. For any fixed parameter linked to the skin depth for a plane ... [more ▼]

Eddy current problems are addressed in a bidimensional setting where the conducting medium is non-magnetic and has a corner singularity. For any fixed parameter linked to the skin depth for a plane interface, we show that the flux density is bounded near the corner unlike the perfect conducting case. Then as goes to zero, the first two terms of a multiscale expansion of the magnetic potential are introduced to tackle the magneto-harmonic problem. The heuristics of the method are given and numerical computations illustrate the obtained accuracy. [less ▲]

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See detailRapport 2 FIRST Spin Off IMONIC
Goffin, Dorothée ULg

Report (2012)

Rapport du projet FIRST spin-off IMONIC financé par le SPW (Production de mélanges à valeur santé contenant des isomaltooligosaccharides et de l’acide gluconique prébiotiques et répondant au cahier des ... [more ▼]

Rapport du projet FIRST spin-off IMONIC financé par le SPW (Production de mélanges à valeur santé contenant des isomaltooligosaccharides et de l’acide gluconique prébiotiques et répondant au cahier des charges de l’agriculture biologique). [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 34 (8 ULg)