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See detailBiological variations during a race cycling
LE GOFF, Caroline ULg; Kaux, Jean-François ULg; Goffaux, Sébastien et al

in Biomedica 2012 (2012, April)

Background: The metabolic and cardiac impact of a cycling effort on blood biology is not very well described in the literature. We aimed to measure the concentration of different biomarkers (cardiac and ... [more ▼]

Background: The metabolic and cardiac impact of a cycling effort on blood biology is not very well described in the literature. We aimed to measure the concentration of different biomarkers (cardiac and metabolic) released during an international cycling race. Materials and Methods: Venous blood samples of 15 young men (25.1 ± 6.4 y.o.) were collected just before (T1), just after (T2), 3 hours (T3) after an international cycling race of 176 kilometers in Belgium for the determination of cardiac and metabolic biomarkers: red blood cells (RBC) haemoglobin (HgB) creatinin (Cr) highly sensitive troponin T (hsTnT) myoglobin (MYO) NT-proBNP All automated assays were performed according to the manufacter’s specifications. For the statistical analysis, an Anova calculated with the Statistica Software version 9.1 was used. Results: •RBC and HgB levels varied significantly between T0 and T3 (respectively p=0.0026, and p=0.002) (Fig. 1 and 2). • Cr concentration also varied significantly between all times (T0-T1:p<0.0001, T1-T3:p=0.0326 and T0-T3 p=0.0001)(Fig.3). These changes might be related to renal flow depletion during exercise. •MYO increased significantly between T0 and T1 (p<0.0001), but quickly decreased between T1 and T3, however the T3 level stay higher than T0 (p=0.014) (Fig.4). •The stress delivered from the physical activity performed during the race induced a significant variation of hsTnT which increased significantly between T0 and T1 (p<0.0001) and stayed higher 3 hours after the end of the exercise (T0-T3: p<0.0001) (Fig.5) . •The intense exercise delivery by the race induced a significant variation of NT-proBNP, that followed the same kinetic of hsTnT but in smaller proportion. We noticed variations statistically significant between T0 and T1 and between T0 and T3 for NT-proBNP (Fig.6). •These increases of cardiac biomarkers were significant but reasonable and could not allow us to talk about cellular necrosis or irreversible injury. Conclusions: Our results show that stress generated by a cycling race could be the cause for the different metabolic variations observed. Troponin T stays without a doubt the most specific marker for stress related to myocardial tissue. Its increase can then be considered as being of interest. [less ▲]

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See detailDamping identification of lightly damped linear dynamic systems using Common-base Proper Orthogonal Decomposition
Andrianne, Thomas ULg; Dimitriadis, Grigorios ULg

in Mechanical Systems & Signal Processing (2012), 28

This paper presents a new technique to identify the damping of linear systems. It is developed from the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) of the free response of the system and extended to the ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a new technique to identify the damping of linear systems. It is developed from the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) of the free response of the system and extended to the recently proposed Common-base POD (CPOD). The present application of CPOD considers simultaneously several free responses of the system to different initial conditions. The eigen-decomposition of the co-variance matrix leads to a unique vector basis which is likely to contain more information about the dynamics of the system than a vector basis obtained by the classic POD technique. The ability of the technique to estimate the mode shapes and the modal damping is demonstrated on a simulated mass-spring-damper system. Two different distributions of masses are considered in order to confront the CPOD analysis to the intrinsic limitation of POD, i.e. that the mode shapes are identified exactly only if the mass matrix is proportional to the identity matrix. It is shown that the identification of the damping is still possible when the modes are not orthonormal. The robustness of the technique is demonstrated in the presence of noise in the responses of the system and through an experimental application with comparison with other identifications techniques. [less ▲]

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See detailLes dates des élections depuis 1830
Bouhon, Frédéric ULg

in Bouhon, Frédéric; Reuchamps, Min (Eds.) Les systèmes électoraux de la Belgique (2012)

Cette contribution constitue une annexe d'un ouvrage collectif sur les systèmes électoraux de la Belgique. Elle vise à présenter, sous la forme de tableaux, les dates des élections en Belgique à tous les ... [more ▼]

Cette contribution constitue une annexe d'un ouvrage collectif sur les systèmes électoraux de la Belgique. Elle vise à présenter, sous la forme de tableaux, les dates des élections en Belgique à tous les niveaux de pouvoir depuis 1830. [less ▲]

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See detailModelling the risk of ecosystem disruption in Europe with a dynamic vegetation model
Dury, Marie ULg; Hambuckers, Alain ULg; Warnant, Pierre et al

Conference (2012, April)

What will be the European ecosystem responses to future climate? With unprecedented speed and extent, the projected climate change might lead to a disruption of terrestrial plants functioning in many ... [more ▼]

What will be the European ecosystem responses to future climate? With unprecedented speed and extent, the projected climate change might lead to a disruption of terrestrial plants functioning in many regions. In the framework of the EcoChange project, transient projections over the 1901-2100 period have been performed with a process-based dynamic vegetation model, CARAIB DVM (Dury et al., 2011, iForest 4: 82, 99). The vegetation model was driven by the outputs of four climate models under the SRES A1B scenario: the ARPEGE/Climate model and three regional climate models (KNMI-RACMO2 , DMI-HIRHAM5 and HC-HadRM3Q0 RCMs) from the European Union project ENSEMBLES. DVMs are appropriate tools to apprehend potential climate change impacts on ecosystems and identify threatened regions over Europe. CARAIB outputs (soil moisture, runoff, net primary productivity, fire, etc.) were used to characterize the ecosystem evolution. To assess consequences on biodiversity, the evolution of 100 natural common European species (47 herbs, 12 shrubs and 41 trees) has been studied year-to-year over the 1901-2100 period. Under the combined effects of projected changes particularly in temperature and precipitations, CARAIB simulates important reductions in the annual soil water content. The species productivities vary strongly from year to year reaching during the driest years values much lower than present-day average productivity. According to CARAIB, a lot of species might go beyond their water tolerance very frequently, particularly after 2050, due to more intense summer droughts. In the northern part of Europe and in the Alps, with reduced temperature variability and positive soil water anomalies, NPP variability tends to decrease. Regions with more severe droughts might also be affected by an increase of the frequency and intensity of wildfires. With this background, the species distributions might be strongly modified. 15% of tree species and 30% of herb and shrub species (respectively 30% and 60% if the CO2 fertilization effect on species is not taken into account) might experience a loss of 30% or more of their current distribution. Proportions of new species appearance at the end of the century were also studied. Southern Europe might suffer important species extinction while the more suitable climate conditions in northern Europe might lead to a gain in species diversity. [less ▲]

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See detailPrediction of the cross-section capacity of hot-rolled profiles using the direct strength method and the continuous strength method
Li, Yongzhen ULg; Rossi, Barbara ULg

in Chan, S.L.; Shu, G.P. (Eds.) Proceedings of seventh International Conference on Advances in Steel Structures (2012, April)

Material yielding on one hand and local buckling on the other hand limit the cross-section capacity of steel structural members. Current structural design codes use the concept of cross-section ... [more ▼]

Material yielding on one hand and local buckling on the other hand limit the cross-section capacity of steel structural members. Current structural design codes use the concept of cross-section classification to determine the cross-section resistance of hot-rolled profiles. In this system, the Effective Width Method (EWM) is employed to account for local buckling effects for slender, class 4, cross-sections. Alternative design methods for treatment of local buckling in metallic cross-sections have been proposed, including the Direct Strength Method (DSM), developed for cold-formed steel structural profiles, and, recently, the Continuous Strength Method (CSM). The DSM is based on the assumption that the strength can be predicted from the ratio of the yield strength to the elastic critical load in conjunction with a strength curve for the entire cross-section. Thus it is essentially an extension of the use of column curves for global buckling, but with application to local buckling instability. The CSM is a deformation-based design approach which is based on a continuous relationship between cross-sectional slenderness and cross-section deformation capacity and a rational exploitation of strain hardening. This paper is focused on the evaluation of the cross-sectional resistance of hot-rolled structural profiles. Test data from literature experimental programmes have been gathered and analysed to compare the predictions from the DSM and CSM design approaches. [less ▲]

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See detailPlatelet-rich plasma to treat jumper’s knee: preliminary results
Kaux, Jean-François ULg; CROISIER, Jean-Louis ULg; SIMONI, Paolo ULg et al

in Biomedica 2012 (2012, April)

Introduction: Tendinopathies, especially jumper’s knee, often remain rebel to conservative treatments. Several experimental studies have shown the healing properties of platelet and their growth factors ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Tendinopathies, especially jumper’s knee, often remain rebel to conservative treatments. Several experimental studies have shown the healing properties of platelet and their growth factors. Researches have specifically demonstrated the platelets action as mediator and/or enhancer of tissue healing. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of 1 injection of PRP in patients suffering from chronic jumper’s knee. Our protocol was approved by Ethic Committee of University and University Hospital of Liège. Methods: Patients performed imaging (US and MRI) and functional assessments, and a clinical examination using an algometer, before treatment and 6 weeks after PRP treatment. They were also invited to answer to questionnaire relative to pain and functional status. PRP was obtained from autologous blood using an apheresis system (COM.TEC, Fresenius). The injection of 6mL of PRP was realised without local anaesthesia into the proximal insertion of the patellar tendon. A 48h rest-time was recommended after infiltration. Afterwards, a submaximal eccentric reeducation was initiated 1 week after infiltration 3 times a week during 5 weeks. In case of pain, anti-inflammatory drugs were prohibited and patient were encouraged to take class I or II painbrakers. Results: At this time, 10 patients with jumper’s knee were included in our study. Pre-injection tests revealed pain of the upper part of the patellar tendon just below the patella, associated with loss of function. Imaging exams confirmed diagnosis. Six weeks post-injection, the clinical status was improved in all patients, with a significant decrease of algo-functional scores. The pain reported during functional assessments was decreased (in particular for the eccentric actions), yet no significant improvement of physical performances was observed. We found no significant differences between imaging exams before and 6 weeks after PRP injection. Conclusion: One in situ injection of PRP clinically improved patients with jumper’s knee 6 weeks after treatment. All the 10 patients reported a decrease of pain during day-life and through physical activities. However nor functional performances neither imaging were improved. [less ▲]

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See detailHealth claims assessment in the field of joint and cartilage: a consensus viewpoint of the Group for the Respect of Ethics and Excellence in Science
Bruyère, Olivier ULg; Avouac, Bernard; Richette, Pascal et al

in Current Medical Research & Opinion (2012), 28(4), 611-6

Abstract Introduction: In 2006, the European Parliament and Council issued a regulation (No. 1924/2006) for the nutrition and health claims made on foods, including food supplements. According to the ... [more ▼]

Abstract Introduction: In 2006, the European Parliament and Council issued a regulation (No. 1924/2006) for the nutrition and health claims made on foods, including food supplements. According to the regulation, the use of nutrition and health claims shall only be permitted if the substance in respect of which the claim is made has been shown to have a beneficial nutritional or physiological effect. In the field of joint and cartilage health, there is no clear scientific-based definition of the nature of such a beneficial nutritional or physiological effect. The objective of this paper is to scientifically define the possible content of health claims related to joint and cartilage health and to provide scientific guidelines for the design of clinical studies which need to be adopted to substantiate such health claims. Methods: Literature review up to September 2011 followed by a consensus expert discussion organized by the Group for the Respect of Ethics and Excellence in Science (GREES). Results: In line with the general principles of the PASSCLAIM and the Codex recommendations, the GREES identified four acceptable health claims related to joint and cartilage health based on the effects on discomfort, joint and cartilage structural integrity or risk factors for joint and cartilage diseases. The GREES considers that randomized controlled trials on a relevant outcome is the best design to assess health claims. Moreover, animal studies could also be of interest to substantiate some health claims, to assess the clinical relevance of endpoints used in human studies or to extrapolate data obtained in patients to the target (apparently) healthy population. Conclusion: According to the methodology and biomarkers used in the study and whether or not additional animal studies are provided to support the claim, various health claims can be acceptable in the field of joint and cartilage health. [less ▲]

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See detailRèglement 44/2001 concernant la compétence judiciaire, la reconnaissance et l'exécution des décisions en matière civile et commerciale : synthèse de jurisprudence
Wautelet, Patrick ULg; Collienne, Fleur ULg

in Van Drooghenbroeck, Jean-François (Ed.) Droit judiciaire européen et international (2012)

This paper presents an overview of the case law of the ECJ in relation to Regulation 44/2001. The focus is on cases decided by the ECJ, with a few reference made to court practice in Belgium. Cases are ... [more ▼]

This paper presents an overview of the case law of the ECJ in relation to Regulation 44/2001. The focus is on cases decided by the ECJ, with a few reference made to court practice in Belgium. Cases are presented and discussed in relation to the various provisions of the Regulation to which they relate. For each case, an abstract is included, followed by (critical) comments. This overview appeared in a book presenting the main European regulations dealing with European procedural law (jurisdiction of courts, recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments). The book is part of a series edited by Prof. Georges de Leval (University of Liège), which collects court practice in relation to procedural law. [less ▲]

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See detailSearching for a theoretical relation between reverberation and the scattering coefficients of surface in a room
Embrechts, Jean-Jacques ULg

in Proceedings of the Acoustics 2012 Nantes conference (2012, April)

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See detailL'invité du mois : Jean-François Husson, secrétaire général du CRAIG (Centre de Recherche en Action publique, Intégration et Gouvernance)
Depret, Alain; Husson, Jean-François ULg

Article for general public (2012)

Interview accordée au périodique de l'Union des Villes et Communes de Wallonie sur les activités du CRAIG et sur plusieurs de mes sujets de recherche : finances locales, gouvernance locale, financement ... [more ▼]

Interview accordée au périodique de l'Union des Villes et Communes de Wallonie sur les activités du CRAIG et sur plusieurs de mes sujets de recherche : finances locales, gouvernance locale, financement des cultes. [less ▲]

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See detailL’homme de lettres en personnage générique. La ‘‘sociologie-fiction’’ des Physiologies
Stienon, Valérie ULg

in Dozo, Björn-Olav; Glinoer, Anthony; Lacroix, Michel (Eds.) Imaginaires de la vie littéraire. Fiction, figuration, configuration (2012)

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See detailEnsembles reconnaissables de rationnels
Charlier, Emilie ULg

Scientific conference (2012, April)

In this talk I will introduce the recognizable sets of rationals, following the formalism of Jeffrey Shallit. I will point out several open questions regarding this topic.

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See detailChargement de marchandises dans un avion cargo: le cas des marchandises nécessitant des précautions particulières
Schyns, Michael ULg; Limbourg, Sabine ULg; Kleyntssens, Thomas ULg

Conference (2012, April)

D'une part, les entreprises de transport aérien ont acheminé en 2010 plus d’un tiers de la valeur des exportations mondiales. D'autre part, le chargement des avions est une opération complexe soumise à de ... [more ▼]

D'une part, les entreprises de transport aérien ont acheminé en 2010 plus d’un tiers de la valeur des exportations mondiales. D'autre part, le chargement des avions est une opération complexe soumise à de nombreuses contraintes et peu d'outils sont disponibles pour aider les loadmasters à trouver la meilleure disposition des conteneurs dans les avions. Limbourg, Schyns et Laporte (2011) ont proposé un modèle à variables entières pour traiter les problèmes élémentaires. Notre travail est une extension de ces travaux. Nous considérons des chargements spéciaux qui impliquent des précautions particulières (produits dangereux, animaux, produits réfrigérés, aliments périssables, ...) ainsi que le transport de marchandises de plus grande taille. L’ajout de ces deux types de contraintes se justifie par la grande fréquence de ces situations dans des problèmes réels rencontrés par nos partenaires industriels. Le problème résultant est très complexe et nous proposons un outil pour le résoudre. [less ▲]

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See detailLe vote obligatoire
Reuchamps, Min ULg; Caluwaerts, Didier; Bouhon, Frédéric ULg

in Bouhon, Frédéric; Reuchamps, Min (Eds.) Les systèmes électoraux de la Belgique (2012)

S’il est un élément précoce de la socialisation politique des jeunes Belges, c’est la connaissance de l’obligation de voter dans ce pays. Peu de Belges ignorent, en effet, que le vote y est obligatoire et ... [more ▼]

S’il est un élément précoce de la socialisation politique des jeunes Belges, c’est la connaissance de l’obligation de voter dans ce pays. Peu de Belges ignorent, en effet, que le vote y est obligatoire et donc qu’une obligation de se rendre aux urnes, sous peine de sanctions – généralement peu ou mal connues –, incombe à chaque électeur du Royaume, même si dans les faits tous ne participent au scrutin. Pourtant, le vote obligatoire n’est pas une caractéristique commune des systèmes électoraux à travers le monde. À ce jour, on ne retrouve une telle obligation, assortie ou non de sanction, que dans trente et un États ou partie d’État. La Belgique fut précurseur en la matière et, même si ce pays ne s’est pas détourné du vote obligatoire en plus de cent ans d’existence, cette obligation continue de susciter un véritable débat. Dans la première partie de ce chapitre, nous revenons sur l’introduction du vote obligatoire en Belgique en présentant les arguments de ce débat. La deuxième partie aborde les principes et les sanctions consacrés par le droit positif tandis que la troisième partie explore les conséquences politiques du vote obligatoire. Tout naturellement, la conclusion de ce chapitre se penchera sur son avenir en Belgique. [less ▲]

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See detailEcouter le bruit, faire entendre la gêne
Colon, Paul-Louis ULg

in Communications (2012), (90), 95-107

Noise issues and ordinary listening have long been adressed separately in the social sciences. This paper argues in favor of the usefulness of an integrated approach to both, from the standpoint of an ... [more ▼]

Noise issues and ordinary listening have long been adressed separately in the social sciences. This paper argues in favor of the usefulness of an integrated approach to both, from the standpoint of an ethnographic investigation on the perception and management of sonic environment which was carried out in French-speaking Belgium. This heuristic approach – combining listening and noise – makes it possible to describe the process of when the feeling of annoyance comes about and the ability for annoyed people to express it. [less ▲]

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See detailPenser la querelle par la sélection naturelle. Discours et scènes romanesques du struggle for life
Stienon, Valérie ULg

in COnTEXTES : Revue de Sociologie de la Littérature (2012), 10

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See detailL'orientation scolaire. Héritages sociaux et jugements professoraux
Andre, Géraldine ULg

Book published by Presses Universitaires de France - 1ère éd. (2012)

Pourquoi, au sein de sociétés démocratiques et de systèmes éducatifs ouverts, les jeunes de milieux populaires se retrouvent-ils souvent dans des filières et des formes d’enseignement peu valorisées dans ... [more ▼]

Pourquoi, au sein de sociétés démocratiques et de systèmes éducatifs ouverts, les jeunes de milieux populaires se retrouvent-ils souvent dans des filières et des formes d’enseignement peu valorisées dans la hiérarchie scolaire ? À partir d’une enquête qualitative de longue durée, cet ouvrage propose une relecture de la sociologie de l’éducation en confrontant les interprétations de l’orientation à un corpus empirique inédit. Une immersion prolongée dans les familles, les lieux de sociabilité d’élèves de l’enseignement professionnel, les séances d’orientation et les conseils de classe donne à ce livre l’épaisseur ethnographique nécessaire pour saisir les réalités scolaires. Au-delà des processus de relégation, cet ouvrage donne à voir les pratiques et les représentations des acteurs qui façonnent les trajectoires. En choisissant une région postindustrielle comme principal terrain d’enquête, c’est aussi la question de la transformation des classes sociales qui est posée. Les cultures de classe demeurent-elles le facteur clé pour expliquer les mécanismes de l’orientation ? L’analyse du processus d’orientation vers l’enseignement de type professionnel nous plonge ainsi dans un débat plus vaste sur la reproduction culturelle et le changement social. [less ▲]

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