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See detailRickert On Historical Sciences: A Critical Appraisal
Dewalque, Arnaud ULg

Conference (2012, March 22)

In this talk I discuss a significant objection that has been raised against the view of historical sciences held by Heinrich Rickert: the accusation of “fruitless formalism”. This accusation has been ... [more ▼]

In this talk I discuss a significant objection that has been raised against the view of historical sciences held by Heinrich Rickert: the accusation of “fruitless formalism”. This accusation has been expressed by a large number of thinkers, including for instance Wilhelm Wundt, Edmund Husserl, Max Frischeisen-Köhler and Eduard Spranger. As one knows, Rickert answered the objection in the last editions of his major book, "The Limits of the Concept Formation in Natural Sciences". His strategy was, first, to distance himself from a certain interpretation I will call the “formal view”, and, second, to argue for the fruitfulness of his own, more sophisticated view. However, as suggested by other representatives of the Bade School (like Richard Kroner), it is doubtful that the Rickert view perfectly succeeded in resorbing the shortcomings of the formal view. - In the first, introductive section I will put the formalism-problem in connection with a definite sub-set of issues within the broader framework of the philosophy of history (1). In the second and third sections I will address two questions related, respectively, to the nature of historical form (2) and to the nature of historical material (3). I will then contrast the formal view with the Rickert view on the one hand and with Kroner’s contentual view on the other hand. In the last, conclusive section I will try to draw some general implications of the formalism-controversy (4). [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of acid and enzymatic methods for insulin dosage: Analytical performances and impact on glomerular filtration rate evaluation
DELANAYE, Pierre ULg; Thibaudin, L.; Souvignet, M. et al

in Clinica Chimica Acta (2012), 413(5-6), 556-560

Among issues susceptible to hamper a reliable measurement of inulin clearance, those regarding the dosage of inulin are largely neglected. We have compared the analytical performances of 2 commonly used ... [more ▼]

Among issues susceptible to hamper a reliable measurement of inulin clearance, those regarding the dosage of inulin are largely neglected. We have compared the analytical performances of 2 commonly used methods of inulin dosage (one “acid” and one “enzymatic” method) and studied their potential impact on the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) value given by inulin clearance. Repeatability, uncertainty and the beta-expectation limits were evaluated from pre-determined serum and urine pools of inulin. Agreement between the two methods was analyzed from 99 inulin clearances performed in renal transplant patients. Impact of the method of dosage on GFR evaluation was simulated according to the respective beta-expectations limits of each method. Overall, intra-assay coefficient of variability and relative bias were inferior to 5% and 10% for both methods. Contrary to the acid method, analytical performance of the enzymatic method was not influenced by the presence of glucose. The relative difference in GFR values obtained with the two methods in transplant patients was − 0.4 ± 10%. Simulations suggested that changes in inulin concentration attributable to analytical error could modify the value of GFR from − 12% to + 28%. In conclusion, while analytical performances are globally acceptable for both methods, they are not strictly equivalent. The impact on the determination of GFR, albeit limited, is not negligible and adds to other sources of inaccuracy. International standardization for the dosage of inulin is necessary. [less ▲]

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See detailThe connection between inner and outer debris disks probed by infrared interferometry
Absil, Olivier ULg

Conference (2012, March 22)

The far-infrared surveys of nearby main sequence stars performed since the launch of IRAS have shown that a significant fraction of main sequence stars are surrounded by cold dust populations. These ... [more ▼]

The far-infrared surveys of nearby main sequence stars performed since the launch of IRAS have shown that a significant fraction of main sequence stars are surrounded by cold dust populations. These surveys are now culminating with the the DUNES and DEBRIS key projects of the Herschel Space Observatory, which is more sensitive than ever and is able to detect cold dust populations with densities similar to that of the solar system Kuiper belt. However, little is known about the occurence of warm dust populations, the equivalent of our zodiacal cloud. Since 2005, high-precision infrared interferometers have opened a new way to directly resolve these exozodiacal dust populations. Interferometric observations enable to reach dynamic ranges (larger than 100:1) that are generally not achievable with classical spectro-photometric observations. We are currently carrying out a survey to characterise the hot dust populations around main sequence stars. The first results of this survey, performed on the CHARA array with the FLUOR instrument, will be presented in this talk. The results are based on a magnitude-limited sample of stars surrounded by cold dust and on an equivalent sample of stars showing no cold dust emission. The statistics for the occurence of bright exozodiacal disks will be presented, and compared with the Spitzer and Herschel results. The possible (dynamical) connections between the two populations will be discussed. We will also review the results obtained by other interferometers and discuss the on-going projects. [less ▲]

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See detailBallade de l'homme seul. Fuite, étrangeté et extase dans quelques films de W. Herzog
Hamers, Jérémy ULg

Scientific conference (2012, March 22)

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See detailLa fédéralisation des allocations familiales et son impact sur la répartition des compétences
Behrendt, Christian ULg

Conference (2012, March 22)

Communication orale donnée le 22 mars 2012 à "l'Université de printemps" organisée par La Ligue des Familles et consacrée à la défédéralisation projetée de la compétence des allocations familiales, telle ... [more ▼]

Communication orale donnée le 22 mars 2012 à "l'Université de printemps" organisée par La Ligue des Familles et consacrée à la défédéralisation projetée de la compétence des allocations familiales, telle que décidée dans l'accord institutionnel du 11 octobre 2011. [less ▲]

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See detailL'Éducation au cinéma en Belgique : analyse institutionnelle d'un territoire fragmenté
Van Cauwenberge, Geneviève ULg

Conference (2012, March 22)

Mon intervention entend constituer une contribution à l’histoire institutionnelle de l’enseignement du cinéma en Belgique francophone. Jusqu’ici l’histoire de l’enseignement du cinéma en Belgique s’est ... [more ▼]

Mon intervention entend constituer une contribution à l’histoire institutionnelle de l’enseignement du cinéma en Belgique francophone. Jusqu’ici l’histoire de l’enseignement du cinéma en Belgique s’est surtout élaborée par le biais de l’évocation des personnalités marquantes qui en ont été les acteurs (c’est par exemple dans le cadre d’un texte consacré à André Delvaux que Paul Davay évoque les débuts de l’enseignement du cinéma en Belgique dans son ouvrage, Cinéma de Belgique). L’histoire institutionnelle de l’enseignement du cinéma reste, quant à elle, largement à écrire. La mise en place de l’enseignement du cinéma en Belgique est due à diverses instances: la Cinémathèque Royale de Belgique, le Ministère de la Communauté française, les écoles d’enseignement supérieur non-universitaire et les universités. On examinera le rôle respectif de chacune de ces instances en évoquant leurs divergences de vue mais aussi leurs diverses collaborations. Faisant retour à des textes fondateurs, tel le rapport rédigé en 1966 par Victor Bachy pour l’Unesco, on montrera comment les clivages entre enseignement laïc et confessionnel qui divisent le paysage scolaire francophone en Belgique se sont répercutés au niveau de l’enseignement du cinéma, contribuant à son éparpillement. On envisagera les conceptions respectives de la culture cinématographique et des finalités de l’enseignement du cinéma qui se sont développées dans chacun des réseaux d’enseignement. On verra aussi comment les diverses écoles et universités ont défini leur spécificité en matière de contenu d’enseignement et d’approche du cinéma (théorique, pratique, pratico/théorique) pour se positionner les unes par rapport aux autres dans le champ de l’enseignement du cinéma en Belgique. [less ▲]

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See detailVitamine D et diabète
CAVALIER, Etienne ULg; MATHIEU, C

Conference (2012, March 22)

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See detailPartnership in medicine : how to promote the collaboration between general practitioners, occupational physicians and social insurance physicians
Mairiaux, Philippe ULg; Vanmeerbeek, Marc ULg; Schippers, Nathalie ULg et al

Conference (2012, March 22)

Introduction: Many situations justify a close collaboration between GP, OP and SIP. Health problems impact work activity and vice versa. An altered health situation confronts workers with the risk of ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Many situations justify a close collaboration between GP, OP and SIP. Health problems impact work activity and vice versa. An altered health situation confronts workers with the risk of exclusion from the labour market. An interprofessional collaboration is thus needed to promote a more active policy of rehabilitation of workers on long term sickness absence. The Belgian Ministry of Employment initiated this study to identify communication channels and tools that could support collaboration among those health professionals. Methods: To this purpose, 8 nominal groups were organised to think about proposals to improve interdisciplinary collaboration. In sum 42 GP’s, 16 OP’s and 16 SIP’s participated in the discussions. For the elaboration of the final proposals, the research team relied on a multidisciplinary expert group. Results: An asymmetric relation was observed; each group expressed the need to receive information from the two others, but proposals to transfer information were rare. Exchanges in the groups showed that reciprocal ignorance is important and communication modalities are poor. A profound revision of the information transmission procedures seemed necessary. Several practical proposals were made to improve communication in case of sickness absence over three months, to allow information transfer and to promote mutual respect between the three disciplines. Other proposals considered professional training, and professional competencies which need to be better defined. Discussion: Misconceptions of the role of the different professional disciplines form a barrier to an effective collaboration. Technical and regulatory measures alone will not bring about a real promotion of interdisciplinary collaboration. The proposals arising from the study will contribute to increase reciprocal knowledge between professionals from the three disciplines and thus form the basis of a more effective collaboration. In turn, the experience of collaboration could have a beneficial effect on the reciprocal representations of each partner role. [less ▲]

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See detailAspects psychosociologiques de la maladie d’Alzheimer
Adam, Stéphane ULg

Scientific conference (2012, March 21)

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See detailContribution to the statistical evaluation of data obtained in External Quality Assessment programmes
Coucke, Wim ULg

Doctoral thesis (2012)

Laboratory medicine has undergone a spectacular evolution in the last decades and has become today of crucial importance for supporting diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. The increase of the volume of ... [more ▼]

Laboratory medicine has undergone a spectacular evolution in the last decades and has become today of crucial importance for supporting diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. The increase of the volume of laboratory analyses has not gone without an emerging risk of measurement errors that may have far-reaching consequences, even on the patient’s life. External Quality Assessment (EQA), already established since several decades in various countries and often running on an international level, aim at going further than the "internal quality control" procedures of every laboratory and at improving laboratory quality by inter-laboratory comparisons. An EQA round generally consists of sending aliquots of the same sample to various laboratories for assaying selected tests. After finishing the assays, results are reported back to the EQA organizer. Subsequently these results are subject to a statistical analysis, which is performed globally, for all the participants, or for each analytical technique separately. Finally, a report is sent to every participant that informs about the acceptability of the individual results, with respect to predefined limits, and with respect to the group of peers. This thesis, structured in five chapters, focuses on the External Quality Control of clinical laboratories by a critical analysis of existing methods and by creating new approaches that permit to improve the current procedures. The first chapter of this work emphasizes the evolution of the role of the clinical laboratory and EQA in the quality improvement. After the report ’To Err is Human: Building a Safer Health System’, numerous scientists became interested in investigating the frequency, source and impact of laboratory errors. The Total Testing Process (TTP) became recognized as the best framework to investigate laboratory errors. The three different phases of the TTP - respectively, the pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical phases - are described in detail and the nature and frequency of errors in each phase explained. For each phase, possible improvements are described and the role of EQA is suggested. Today, EQA principally focuses on the assessment and improvement of the analytical phase. Proposals are made to improve the role of EQA for assessing and improving pre- and post-analytical error as well, by using specific sample material and by automating the reporting of data and laboratory reports to the EQA participants. The principle of the comparison of results of a laboratory with those obtained by the other laboratories is traditionally based on the calculation of "z-scores". An indepth study comparing different techniques has been made, shedding new light on the shortcomings and strong points of the different approaches. We concluded that robust techniques may exhibit weak performance for smaller sample size, while techniques that eliminate outliers before calculating zscores should be recommended. The second Chapter discusses the role of EQA as a tool to assess harmonization between methods. The role of EQA is described, together with the pitfalls and current shortcomings for assessing harmonization. A major problem in assessing standardization between methods is the possible presence of matrix effects in control samples, in which a method-specific bias may appear. Several explanations for matrix effects are mentioned and statistical techniques are described that assist EQA organizers to split up the data in homogeneous peer groups using multivariate statistics. The chapter also reviews several techniques to be used in method comparison studies, and the preference for the use of orthogonal regression is expressed. In addition, an example is given of a method-comparison study for Estradiol and Progesterone, with a novel technique of assessing standardization between various methods, in the presence of matrix effects for a small number of samples. The study also reveals that standardization between various methods is not attained, and that the striving for standardization with standards of higher order may not be satisfactory. Chapter 3 introduces different evaluation techniques that combine information from different samples or parameters: Variance and bias index scores, Mean ranking scores, counts of z- and u-scores, and a long-term analytical Coefficient of Variation. Also, a new and original method is introduced that uses 3 steps to identify outliers in a first step, to find laboratories with exceeding variability in a second, and to identify laboratories with high bias in a third step. Each of the techniques are evaluated and discussed by means of a data set in which accidental outliers, high variability and high bias were induced. In addition, the comparison between the different evaluation methods reveals that distinguishing between variability and bias is a tedious task, and that some long-term analysis methods lack robustness against outliers. Also, it is proven that evaluation techniques summarizing results of different parameters may hide useful information. In addition, the 3-step method is proposed as a method for discerning between errors produced in the pre- or post-analytical phase, and errors that arise from the analytical phase. Chapter 4 applies the 3-step method to data obtained from the Belgian EQA. Data sets from alcohol, flow cytometry, lithium and semen analysis surveys are examined. The method is extended for applicability to heteroscedastic, i.e. unequal residual variability, regression models and demonstrates that it is able to be used in a wide range of surveys. For each of the surveys under consideration, a follow-up is made of the occurrence of accidental mistakes, and the evolution of within-laboratory variability and bias for selected methods. It highlights several conclusions that show a striking similarity for various EQA surveys: an improvement of laboratory performance has been attained over time. The major improvement was a reduction of accidental mistakes. The analytical performance of selected methods, however, did not show an improvement over time. In Chapter 5, some graphical representations of EQA data are explored and a graphical representation of the 3-step method is described. The histogram, normal quantile plot and box plot are described in detail and suggested for providing a quick visual overview of EQA data. Other graphical representations that respond to specific questions are given and discussed as well, like Shewhart charts, Cusum charts and graphical representations to combine variability and bias in one graph. In addition, the 3-step method is graphically explored by means of three distinct graphs. The chapter finishes by suggesting the use of interactive graphs for improving feedback from the EQA organizers to the EQA participants by means of Scalable Vector Graphics. The latter is illustrated with web-accessible examples of long-term evaluation of z-scores and the results of the 3-step method for the data obtained in the Belgian EQA for alcohol determination in blood. In brief, this work describes in a critical and constructive way current statistical methods used in EQA and proposes novel statistical and graphical techniques to help alleviating the future needs of External Quality Assessment programmes. [less ▲]

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See detail3-D cinéma : Quelques reliefs du discours du cinéma total
Tomasovic, Dick ULg

Conference (2012, March 21)

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See detailInfluence de l'état d'ameublissement et de la rugosité du sol des parcelles agricoles sur l'exactitude de l'altitude des points de contrôle positionnés au GPS
Ouedraogo, Mohamar ULg; Debouche, Charles ULg; Degre, Aurore ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2012), 16(1), 33-44

Our goal in this study is to estimate through ranges of variation, the impact of agricultural parcels soil’s tilth and roughness, due to cultivation techniques, on the exactness of ground control points ... [more ▼]

Our goal in this study is to estimate through ranges of variation, the impact of agricultural parcels soil’s tilth and roughness, due to cultivation techniques, on the exactness of ground control points elevation surveyed by RTK (Real Time Kinematic) GPS (Global Positioning System). So, 16 point’s elevations which were located each 100 mm on a transect have been surveyed first by using a total station (TS), and then a RTK GPS in 2 parcels (3 transects per parcel). Cultivation techniques on those parcels were different. The parcel 1 was tilled, and the soil of parcel 2 was prepared for cereal cropping. Then, the analysis of variance has been applied on the differences of TS and RTK GPS elevations data to estimate the confidence interval of ground control points elevation due (i) to soil tilth, whereas the times series statistical method have been applied on elevation data to estimate the confidence interval due (ii) to soil roughness. The confidence intervals of points elevation are estimated being (i) [51 mm; 57 mm], (ii) [-4 mm; 4 mm] for parcel 1, and (i) [97 mm; 113 mm], (ii) [-35 mm; 23 mm], for parcel 2. Results show that ground control point’s elevations exactness is influenced by soil tilth and soil roughness. In conclusion, we can admit that soil tilth and soil roughness have significant impact on the exactness of ground control points located on agricultural parcels. This impact must be considered in DEM errors evaluation of agricultural watershed. [less ▲]

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See detailBio-inspired polymers for the functionalization of industrial steel surfaces
Faure, Emilie ULg

Doctoral thesis (2012)

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See detailA Target Projector for Videogrammetry under Vacuum Conditions
Roose, Stéphane ULg; Mazzoli, Alexandra ULg; Barzin, Pascal ULg et al

Scientific conference (2012, March 21)

Videogrammetry is a 3-dimensional co-ordinate measuring technique that (now) uses digital image capture as the recording method. Images are taken from at least two different locations and the light-rays ... [more ▼]

Videogrammetry is a 3-dimensional co-ordinate measuring technique that (now) uses digital image capture as the recording method. Images are taken from at least two different locations and the light-rays from the camera to the measurement object are intersected by triangulation into 3D point coordinates. With a large number of images, the camera orientation and 3D point locations are accurately determined with the use of a full mathematical model (bundle adjustment). Adhesive targets are commonly used for point materialization. Those targets consist of a retro-reflective material, with an adhesive backing for sticking to the structure under investigation. A drawback of these types of targets is that they can lose their adhesion and shape during thermal vacuum cycling, especially when cryogenic temperatures are involved. In addition the operation of placing and removing targets is a critical procedure that can lead to undesirable contamination and damage to the test item. Because they require to be physically attached to the surface to be measured, this can also compromise the quality assurance of the test object. Such problems were encountered during cryogenic thermal vacuum qualification testing of the ESA Planck Surveyor mission telescope reflectors. In the development described here the aim was to replace the use of adhesive targets by projected dots. The idea is not fundamentally new. Indeed a US company, Geodetic Systems Inc. (GSI) proposes already a commercial target projector for videogrammetry which uses a flashlamp and is adequate for workshop and laboratory applications. Dot projection videogrammetry is also suggested as a shape measurement method of Gossamer structures, membrane reflectors, etc…Note that there are fundamental differences in use and applications of retro-reflective targets and dot projection: • Retro-reflective targets are materialized on the test article. They appear as fiducials attached to the test article. Any relative distortion of the materialized point can be tracked with respect to the test article itself. • Projected dots are not materialized on the object. Practically a specific point cannot be tracked by this method. The dense cloud of projected dots allows sampling the surface or the shape in an arbitrary way.The Target Projector System (TPS), described here (Fig.1), was designed and manufactured to operate in the Large Space Simulator (LSS) of ESAof ESA under thermal vacuum conditions and to have a minimized temperature exchange with its environment. It is operational over a temperature range of 90K to 350 K, and has a wavelength of 808 nm.Qualification tests and results under vacuum, along with an assessment of the videogrammetric accuracy achievable for various configurations of this unique device are presented. [less ▲]

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See detailNew insights on the quasars central region from microlensed quasars
Sluse, Dominique ULg; Hutsemekers, Damien ULg; Wambsganss, Joachim et al

Conference (2012, March 21)

Our detailed understanding of the working engine of quasars is still incomplete. Several basic questions remain such as: How is the supermassive black hole in the center of quasars fed ? What is the ... [more ▼]

Our detailed understanding of the working engine of quasars is still incomplete. Several basic questions remain such as: How is the supermassive black hole in the center of quasars fed ? What is the geometry and kinematics of the gas flow near the black hole ? The slow advances in answering these questions during the last decades advocates for new research methods. The analysis of the microlensing-induced deformations of multiply-imaged quasars is one such technique. It starts to be used as a tool to measure the temperature profile of the accretion disk, to estimate the size and study the geometry of the region emitting the broad emission lines. However, up to now, these applications have concerned mostly a handful of systems. In this talk, I will discuss the occurence of microlensing in a sample known strongly-lensed quasars and present the variety of emission-line deformations which is observed. I will also explain how spectroscopic follow-up of strongly-lensed quasars in the survey era should provide important insights on the quasar structure. [less ▲]

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See detailChemically resistant encapsulation for MEMS release
Stoukatch, Serguei ULg; Tooten, ester; Axisa, Fabrice ULg et al

Conference (2012, March 21)

We have proposed and explored a novel sequence in MEMS fabrication process flow. The novel MEMS fabrication process flow can be shortly described as a “packaging first, MEMS release second”. We propose to ... [more ▼]

We have proposed and explored a novel sequence in MEMS fabrication process flow. The novel MEMS fabrication process flow can be shortly described as a “packaging first, MEMS release second”. We propose to package the MEMS device first (die mount, wire bonding and encapsulation) and to perform the MEMS release as the last step in the fabrication process flow. The standard route for IC manufacturing is, that the die packaging is the last step [1]. Such approach can’t be directly transferred and used for MEMS fabrication [2]. The main reason for that, that the MEMS device after the release becomes vulnerable to any physical and chemical exposure. Such exposure can occur during transportation, handling or any post-processing (incl. the packaging). [less ▲]

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See detailEtude IRM par tenseur de diffusion (DTI) des anomalies microstructurelles de la matière blanche dans la maladie de Parkinson
Coolen, Tim; Cremers, Julien ULg; André, Elodie ULg et al

Poster (2012, March 21)

Introduction L’imagerie par résonance magnétique (IRM) conventionnelle du cerveau est réputée normale dans la maladie de Parkinson (MP), mais l’essor récent de techniques avancées offre de nouvelles ... [more ▼]

Introduction L’imagerie par résonance magnétique (IRM) conventionnelle du cerveau est réputée normale dans la maladie de Parkinson (MP), mais l’essor récent de techniques avancées offre de nouvelles perspectives, notamment l’IRM par tenseur de diffusion (DTI). Les études précédentes en la matière, hétérogènes dans leurs méthodes, montrent des résultats discordants. Ici, nous avons utilisé la DTI pour rechercher, sans hypothèse a priori, la présence d’anomalies microstructurelles au sein des principaux tracti de matière blanche dans la MP. Méthodes Soixante et un volumes en pondération de diffusion ont été acquis avec un système Allegra 3T (Siemens, Erlangen, Allemagne) au moyen d’une séquence DTI doublement refocalisée (1) chez 27 patients parkinsoniens non déments (durée moyenne d’évolution après le diagnostic : 5 ± 4.2 ans) et 25 contrôles d’âge (MP: 68,7±8,4; C: 65,1±8,8) et de genre similaires. Pour chaque sujet, les valeurs d’anisotropie fractionnelle (FA) et de diffusivité moyenne (MD) ont été extraites à partir d’un modèle du tenseur obtenu au moyen du logiciel ExploreDTI (2) faisant appel à la méthode RESTORE (3). Nous avons ensuite utilisé le module TBSS (v1.2) du logiciel FSL (4) pour conformer les images des scalaires dans un espace tridimensionnel commun puis rechercher, voxel-par-voxel, des différences entre les 2 groupes au sein du squelette de la matière blanche. Les résultats obtenus à l’issue d’un test par permutations (N=10000) ont été corrigés pour des comparaisons multiples. Résultats L’analyse des cartes de FA montre des valeurs significativement (P<0.05) plus élevées chez les patients dans plusieurs régions (5): fibres sous-corticales péri-rolandiques droites, parties du faisceau arqué droit, fibres du faisceau longitudinal inférieur et /ou fronto-occipital inférieur droit, fibres sous-corticales préfrontales gauches, partie postérieure du genou corps calleux. La comparaison inverse ne révèle aucun résultat significatif ni l’analyse des cartes de MD. Conclusions Ces résultats sont en accord avec les modèles physiopathologiques selon lesquels le primum movens dans la MP se situe dans une dysfonction synaptique et axonale (6,7). Une augmentation des valeurs de FA de la matière blanche dans la MP est en contradiction avec la plupart mais pas toutes (8,9) les études précédentes. L’hypothèse d’une diminution relative des fibres de croisement dans ces régions chez les patients mérite d’être testée au moyen de méthodes d’acquisition et d’analyse plus élaborées. Références 1. Nagy Z, et al. Magn Reson Med 2008; 60(5):1256-1260. 2. Leemans A, et al. Proc Intl Soc Mag Reson Med 17 2009;3537. (Abstract). 3. Chang LC, et al. Magn Reson Med 2005;3(5):1088-1095. 4. Smith SM et al. Neuroimage 2006; 31(4):1487-1505. 5. Catani M, et al. Cortex 2008; 44(8):1105-1132. 6. Schulz-Schaeffer WJ. Acta Neuropathol 2010; 120(2):131-143. 7. Cheng HC, et al. Ann Neurol 2010; 67(6):715-725. 8. Tessa C, et al. AJNR 2008; 29(4):674-680. 9. Wang JJ et al. Radiology 2011; 261(1):210-217. Remerciements Ce travail est financé par le Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique (FNRS-FRS) de la Communauté Française de Belgique. [less ▲]

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