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See detailSynthesis of poly(lactide-co-glycolide-co-ε-caprolactone)-graft-mannosylated poly(ethylene oxide) copolymers by combination of “clip” and “click” chemistries
Freichels, Hélène; Pourcelle, Vincent; Auzély-Velty, Rachel et al

in Biomacromolecules (2012), 13(3), 760-768

Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) is extensively used in pharmaceutical applications, for example, in targeted drug delivery, because of biocompatibility and degradation rate, which is easily tuned by the ... [more ▼]

Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) is extensively used in pharmaceutical applications, for example, in targeted drug delivery, because of biocompatibility and degradation rate, which is easily tuned by the copolymer composition. Nevertheless, synthesis of sugar-labeled amphiphilic copolymers with a PLGA backbone is quite a challenge because of high sensitivity to hydrolytic degradation. This Article reports on the synthesis of a new amphiphilic copolymer of PLGA grafted by mannosylated poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). A novel building block, that is, α-methoxy-ω-alkyne PEO-clip-N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) ester, was prepared on purpose by photoreaction of a diazirine containing molecular clip. This PEO block was mannosylated by reaction of the NHS ester groups with an aminated sugar, that is, 2-aminoethyl-α-d-mannopyroside. Then, the alkyne ω-end-group of PEO was involved in a copper alkyne- azide coupling (CuAAC) with the pendent azides of the aliphatic copolyester. The targeted mannose-labeled poly(lactide-co-glycolide-co-ε-caprolactone)-graft-poly(ethylene oxide) copolymer was accordingly formed. Copolymerization of d,l-lactide and glycolide with α-chloro-ε-caprolactone, followed by substitution of chlorides by azides provided the azido-functional PLGA backbone. Finally, micelles of the amphiphilic mannosylated graft copolymer were prepared in water, and their interaction with Concanavalin A (ConA), a glyco-receptor protein, was studied by quartz crystal microbalance. This study concluded to the prospect of using this novel bioconjugate in targeted drug delivery. [less ▲]

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See detailNEMA NU4-2008 Performance Evaluation for the MicroPET FOCUS 120 and Iodine-124
Taleb, Dounia ULg; Bahri, Mohamed Ali ULg; Warnock, Geoffrey ULg et al

in IEEE proceedings of ANIMMA 2011 (2012, March 12)

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See detailAn overview of the CAT: framework, R package, and applications
Magis, David ULg

Conference (2012, March 12)

Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) is an efficient method to administer psychometric or educational tests and questionnaires. Unlike the standard fixed (“paper-and-pencil”) tests, items in a CAT are ... [more ▼]

Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) is an efficient method to administer psychometric or educational tests and questionnaires. Unlike the standard fixed (“paper-and-pencil”) tests, items in a CAT are iteratively and optimally selected within a bank of available items, on the basis of previously administered items and the current ability estimate of the examinee. This general approach has several assets with respect to fixed tests: it reduces the risk of fraud, it allows for individualized questionnaires according to the examinee’s ability level, and fewer items must be administered to reach the same level of precision in the ability estimates. The purpose of this talk is threefold. First, a general overview of CAT is proposed and its main principles are quickly outlined. Second, a recently developed R package, called catR, is briefly presented and its functionalities are described. Finally, two applications are discussed. The first application is a live demonstration of catR, by using its by-default item bank about English aptitude assessment, and several CAT options. The second application focuses on the on-line testing platform Concerto, a web interface for the development and testing of CAT sessions that uses catR as underlying computational package. The R package catR was jointly developed with Gilles Raîche (Université du Québec à Montréal, Canada). The platform Concerto is under development by The Psychometrics Centre (Cambridge University, UK) under the supervision of Michal Kosinski and John Rust. [less ▲]

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See detailLe Rôle des revues interdisciplinaires dans les études doctorales
Letawe, Céline ULg

Conference (2012, March 10)

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See detailLong-term evaluation of spinal cord stimulation for neuropathic/vascular pain
WANET, Thomas; Kaschten, Bruno ULg; DUBUISSON, Annie ULg et al

Conference (2012, March 10)

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See detailQuelques problèmes philologiques posés par l'oeuvre de Saussure
Sofia, Estanislao ULg

in Langages (2012), 185

This paper aims to raise some difficulties inherent in the status of Saussure’s “work”. Having published little, but written much, Saussure has left us (together with his theories) a philological problem ... [more ▼]

This paper aims to raise some difficulties inherent in the status of Saussure’s “work”. Having published little, but written much, Saussure has left us (together with his theories) a philological problem which is far from being resolved – most of his manuscripts (90% approximately) remaining unpublished, and most of his ideas have remained unfinished. We intend to highlight the need to take explicitly, in editing and transmitting Saussurean “ideas” and “work”, a coherent set of philological principles, fit for showing the state of the this particular “text” without distortion. [less ▲]

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See detailMoyens et enjeux d'une approche didactique des Illuminations
Saint-Amand, Denis ULg

Conference (2012, March 10)

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See detailOpinion publique et nucléaire : critique et dépassement
Mormont, Marc ULg

Conference (2012, March 10)

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See detailCopropriété et servitude
Boufflette, Sophie ULg

Scientific conference (2012, March 10)

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See detailSolitary fibrous tumour of the vagus nerve
SCHOLTES, Félix ULg; SCHOLSEM, Martin; Martin, Didier ULg

Conference (2012, March 10)

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See detailThird ventricle colloid cysts
REUTER, Gilles ULg; SCHOLTES, Félix ULg; LENELLE, Jacques ULg et al

Conference (2012, March 10)

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See detailProportion of extended-spectrum ß-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in community setting in Ngaoundere, Cameroon
LONCHEL, Carine Magoué; MEEX, Cécile ULg; Gangoué-Piéboji, Joseph et al

in BMC Infectious Diseases (2012), 12

BACKGROUND: There is no information regarding the resistance mechanisms of extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae in community setting in Cameroon. The current study aimed to ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: There is no information regarding the resistance mechanisms of extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae in community setting in Cameroon. The current study aimed to determine the proportion of ESBLs in Enterobacteriaceae isolated in the community and to analyse some risk factors associated with ESBL carriage. METHODS: Faecal samples were collected from 208 different outpatients and 150 healthy student volunteers between 3 January and 3 April 2009. Enterobacterial isolates resistant to third-generation cephalosporins were screened for ESBL production by the double-disk synergy test. Presumptive ESBL-producing isolates with positive synergy test were identified by Mass Spectrometry using the BioTyper MALDI-TOF. For such ESBL positive isolates, antibiotic susceptibility was determined by the Vitek 2 system. PCR and sequencing were performed for the detection of different types of ESBL genes in presumptive ESBL-producing isolates. Statistical methods were used for the univariate calculation of risk factors. RESULTS: During the study period, a total of 358 faecal samples were analysed; 58 of such samples (16%) showed an ESBL phenotype and were confirmed by PCR. The proportion of ESBL producers in faecal carriage was statistically different between outpatients and student volunteers (23.1% vs. 6.7%: p < 0.000). According to a univariate analysis, previous use of antibiotics (ciprofloxacin) appeared to be a risk factor for ESBL carriage (p < 0.05).Escherichia coli was the species most frequently isolated among the ESBL producers in outpatients (66.7%) and student volunteers (90%). Isolates showed additional resistance to gentamicin, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole but none of them was resistant to temocillin, amikacin or meropenem. Most of the strains (97%) produced a CTX-M group 1 enzymes [CTX-M-15 (98%) or CTX-M-1 (2%)] and the remaining strains produced SHV-12 enzyme (3%). CONCLUSIONS: The use of drugs such as amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole does not seem appropriate for empirical treatment because of emerging resistance. The implementation in Cameroon or in other African countries of methods of screening ESBL-producing organisms in routine laboratories is of great importance in order for us to offer patients appropriate treatment and for infection control efforts to succeed. [less ▲]

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See detailL’Europe peut-elle faire le poids face aux puissances émergentes ?
Santander, Sébastian ULg

Conference (2012, March 09)

La communication porte sur le défi que représente les puissances émergentes pour l'Europe comme acteur des relations internationales.

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See detailAnalysis of virgin olive oil volative fraction from two distinct geographical areas of eastern Morocco
Tanouti, K.; Serghini Caid, H.; Abid, M. et al

Conference (2012, March 09)

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See detailÉvolution des effectifs des populations d’éléphants d’Afrique soudanosahélienne :enjeux pour leur conservation
Bouché, Philippe ULg

Doctoral thesis (2012)

The first objective of this thesis was to analyze the evolution of Sudano-Sahelian African elephant populations in a context of environmental challenges and increasing human demography. The second ... [more ▼]

The first objective of this thesis was to analyze the evolution of Sudano-Sahelian African elephant populations in a context of environmental challenges and increasing human demography. The second objective was to propose solutions for elephant conservation in the Sudano-Sahelian context. To fulfill these objectives, aerial surveys have been carried out in every protected area harboring a known population of elephants. This work was first implemented at a local level on several study cases and finally at a global level. Results of aerial surveys estimate the current elephant number at minimum 7,745 elephants, about 2% of the African elephant total population. This confirmed that the elephant populations have been progressively fragmented and confined to few protected areas representing 5% of the Soudano-Sahelian strip. The long term (four decades) elephant population trends has been studied by comparing our results with the database of the study area. The half of the monitored population collapse during the last 40 years. The viability of small elephant population of 200 elephants and below is critical and several of them collapsed. Contrasted local situation have been observed : if a number depletion is often observed, in some protected areas elephant populations are stable or increasing. Although, trends of other large mammals’ population is not linked to that of the elephants. This result allow to conclude that the elephant is not a good indicator of the abundance of other large mammals’ population. Causes of elephant populations’ depletion are both due to climate change (global drought) and socio-economic (human demography and land use pressure) issues. An appropriate and permanent field management, a better valorisation of elephants and the creation of negotiated corridors with local people could garantee the future of Sudano-Sahelian African elephants. [less ▲]

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See detailReview of M-I coupling and auroral emissions at the outer planets
Grodent, Denis ULg

Conference (2012, March 09)

The bulk morphology of Jupiter's and Saturn's UV aurorae is conveniently divided into three components: 1) the main emission (main oval), 2) the satellites auroral footprints (equatorward of the main ... [more ▼]

The bulk morphology of Jupiter's and Saturn's UV aurorae is conveniently divided into three components: 1) the main emission (main oval), 2) the satellites auroral footprints (equatorward of the main emission): Io, Europa and Ganymede for Jupiter and Enceladus for Saturn, 3) the polar emissions (poleward of the main emission).This schematic view is already providing useful information on the giant planets aurorae. However, a quick inspection of HST and Cassini UV images directly shows that this simplified classification does not really match the complex morphology of the auroral emissions. As an example, in the case of Jupiter's UV aurorae, it appears that the main emission is not forming an oval, not even a closed shape; it is far from uniform and its position and size vary with time and depend on the viewing geometry. A secondary emission appears equatorward of the main emission and many small scale features regularly appear, some of them periodically. Satellites auroral footprints themselves appear to be much more intricate than predicted by present models. These footprints are actually multiple, their location and number vary periodically with time and with the satellites orbital longitude. The polar emissions are also much more complicated than predicted. Each of the above effects is related to a specific physical phenomenon in the atmosphere, the magnetosphere, or even in the planet's interior. For instance, the spatial distribution of the satellites auroral footprints made it possible to demonstrate the existence of a magnetic field anomaly near the surface of Jupiter's northern hemisphere. Observations which might appear insignificant, like the multiplicity of the satellites footprints or their periodicity are actually extremely valuable because they reveal the complexity of the interaction, in this case between a moon and the magnetospheric plasma of the planet around which it is orbiting. The same applies to small scale auroral structures which depict crucial magnetospheric processes like hot plasma injection, flux-tube interchange or magnetic reconnection mechanisms. The growing HST and Cassini databases are shedding new light on the origin of Jupiter's and Saturn's aurorae. Mechanisms that we thought could be taken for granted may even be challenged. [less ▲]

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