References of "2012"
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See detailLe vote obligatoire
Reuchamps, Min ULg; Caluwaerts, Didier; Bouhon, Frédéric ULg

in Bouhon, Frédéric; Reuchamps, Min (Eds.) Les systèmes électoraux de la Belgique (2012)

S’il est un élément précoce de la socialisation politique des jeunes Belges, c’est la connaissance de l’obligation de voter dans ce pays. Peu de Belges ignorent, en effet, que le vote y est obligatoire et ... [more ▼]

S’il est un élément précoce de la socialisation politique des jeunes Belges, c’est la connaissance de l’obligation de voter dans ce pays. Peu de Belges ignorent, en effet, que le vote y est obligatoire et donc qu’une obligation de se rendre aux urnes, sous peine de sanctions – généralement peu ou mal connues –, incombe à chaque électeur du Royaume, même si dans les faits tous ne participent au scrutin. Pourtant, le vote obligatoire n’est pas une caractéristique commune des systèmes électoraux à travers le monde. À ce jour, on ne retrouve une telle obligation, assortie ou non de sanction, que dans trente et un États ou partie d’État. La Belgique fut précurseur en la matière et, même si ce pays ne s’est pas détourné du vote obligatoire en plus de cent ans d’existence, cette obligation continue de susciter un véritable débat. Dans la première partie de ce chapitre, nous revenons sur l’introduction du vote obligatoire en Belgique en présentant les arguments de ce débat. La deuxième partie aborde les principes et les sanctions consacrés par le droit positif tandis que la troisième partie explore les conséquences politiques du vote obligatoire. Tout naturellement, la conclusion de ce chapitre se penchera sur son avenir en Belgique. [less ▲]

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See detailEsthetic management : a team approach.
MAINJOT, Amélie ULg; LAMBERT, France ULg

Conference (2012, April)

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See detailLes querelles littéraires : esquisse méthodologique
Stienon, Valérie ULg; Saint-Amand, Denis ULg; Bertrand, Jean-Pierre ULg

in COnTEXTES : Revue de Sociologie de la Littérature (2012), 10

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See detailUne cellule d'encadrement pour les producteurs transformateurs
Helleputte, Murielle ULg; De Laubier, Juliette ULg; Di Tanna, Sybille ULg et al

in Wallonie Elevages (2012), 4

La Cellule Qualité Produits Fermiers possède un guichet unique auquel le producteur-transformateur peut s'adresser pour toute question relative à son projet de diversification. En fonction de la demande ... [more ▼]

La Cellule Qualité Produits Fermiers possède un guichet unique auquel le producteur-transformateur peut s'adresser pour toute question relative à son projet de diversification. En fonction de la demande, il est dirigé vers le ou les pôles compétents. [less ▲]

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See detailExpansion of the main auroral oval at Jupiter : evidence for Io’s control over the Jovian magnetosphere
Bonfond, Bertrand ULg; Grodent, Denis ULg; Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg et al

Poster (2012, April)

In spring 2007, New Horizons' Jupiter fly-by provided a unique opportunity for the largest observation campaign dedicated to the Jovian aurora ever carried out by the Hubble Space Telescope. UV images of ... [more ▼]

In spring 2007, New Horizons' Jupiter fly-by provided a unique opportunity for the largest observation campaign dedicated to the Jovian aurora ever carried out by the Hubble Space Telescope. UV images of the aurora have been acquired on a quasi-daily basis from mid-February to mid-June 2007. Polar projection of the auroral emissions clearly show a continuous long-term expansion of main oval additionally to day by day variations. The main oval moved so much that the Ganymede footprint, which is usually located equatorward of the main emissions, has even been observed inside of it. Simultaneously, the occurrence rate of large equatorward isolated auroral features increased over the season. These emission patches are generally attributed to injections of depleted flux tubes. On 6th June, one of these features exceptionally moved down to the Io footpath. The Io footprint seemed to disappear while the footprint moved through this patch of emission. This disappearance is a unique case among all the UV images of the aurora acquired during the last 12 years. We suggest that all these changes seen in the Jovian aurora are evidence for a major reconfiguration of the magnetosphere induced by increased volcanic activity on Io. Indeed, New Horizons observed particularly intense activity from the Tvashtar volcano in late February 2007. Moreover, sodium cloud brightening caused by volcanic outbursts have also been seen in late May 2007. According to our interpretation, repeated volcanic outbursts beefed up the plasma torus density and its mass outflow rate. This caused the corotation breakdown boundary to migrate closer to Jupiter. Consequently, the main auroral oval moved equatorward. As heavy flux tubes move outward, sparsely filled ones should be injected into the inner magnetosphere in order to conserve the magnetic flux in this region. This phenomenon could explain the large number of injection signatures observed in May-June 2007. Such a cloud of depleted flux tubes probably disrupted the Io-magnetosphere interaction, leading to an abnormally faint Io footprint. [less ▲]

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See detailMultidisciplinary and Evidence-based Method for Prioritizing Diseases of Food-producing Animals and Zoonoses
Humblet, Marie-France ULg; Vandeputte, Sébastien ULg; Albert, Adelin ULg et al

in Emerging Infectious Diseases (2012), 18(4),

To prioritize 100 animal diseases and zoonoses in Europe, we used a multicriteria decision-making procedure based on opinions of experts and evidence-based data. Forty international experts performed ... [more ▼]

To prioritize 100 animal diseases and zoonoses in Europe, we used a multicriteria decision-making procedure based on opinions of experts and evidence-based data. Forty international experts performed intracategory and intercategory weighting of 57 prioritization criteria. Two methods (deterministic with mean of each weight and probabilistic with distribution functions of weights by using Monte Carlo simulation) were used to calculate a score for each disease. Consecutive ranking was established. Few differences were observed between each method. Compared with previous prioritization methods, our procedure is evidence based, includes a range of fields and criteria while considering uncertainty, and will be useful for analyzing diseases that affect public health [less ▲]

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See detailPrésentation des résultats de la recherche SAFE
Reiter, Sigrid ULg; Marique, Anne-Françoise ULg; de Meester, Tatiana

Conference given outside the academic context (2012)

Présentation des résultats de la recherche SAFE et d'un outil interactif permettant à différentes catégories d'utilisateurs d'estimer les consommations d'énergie relatives à leur logement et à leur ... [more ▼]

Présentation des résultats de la recherche SAFE et d'un outil interactif permettant à différentes catégories d'utilisateurs d'estimer les consommations d'énergie relatives à leur logement et à leur déplacements, à les comparer et à trouver des pistes concrètes d'amélioration. [less ▲]

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See detailDegradation inhibitors and metal additives: impact on solvent degradation
Léonard, Grégoire ULg

Report (2012)

This report is part of a PhD thesis currently taking place at the University of Liège in collaboration with the company Laborelec. A Degradation Test Rig (DTR) has been built in order to evaluate solvent ... [more ▼]

This report is part of a PhD thesis currently taking place at the University of Liège in collaboration with the company Laborelec. A Degradation Test Rig (DTR) has been built in order to evaluate solvent degradation in CO2 capture conditions. Details about degradation effects and about the DTR may be found in a previous report (PhD mid-term report, G. Léonard, 2011). Experiments to study the effect of process conditions on degradation are in progress with 2-ethanolamine (MEA) as benchmark solvent. This report presents first a brief overview of the different degradation mechanisms and associated products, followed by a literature review about metal influence on MEA degradation and a state of the art review about degradation inhibitors. [less ▲]

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See detailBelgium’s political elites and the crisis
Dodeigne, Jérémy ULg; Sinardet, Dave; Reuchamps, Min ULg

Conference (2012, April)

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See detailTHE RESPONSE OF ACETOBACTER SENEGALENSIS TO STRESSORS: A STUDY TOWARDS IMPROVEMENT OF VINEGAR STARTER PRODUCTION
Shafiei, Rasoul ULg; Thonart, Philippe ULg

in Acetic Acid Bacteria (2012, April)

Acetic acid bacteria encounter various harsh conditions during acetic acid fermentation. Ethanol as the main substrate and acetic acid as the major product at low pH can influence deeply on the cellular ... [more ▼]

Acetic acid bacteria encounter various harsh conditions during acetic acid fermentation. Ethanol as the main substrate and acetic acid as the major product at low pH can influence deeply on the cellular functions of acetic acid bacteria. In previous studies in CWBI, Acetobacter senegalensis was used for production of dried vinegar starters; however the impact of stressors (ethanol and acetic acid) on A. senegalensis remained unclear. In this study, different techniques such as flow cytometry, culturability on solid medium and 2-DiGE were used comparatively to investigate the effect of carbon sources of inoculum media on the tolerance of A. senegalensis to stressors. Analysis of respiration system by flow cytometric methods showed that the presence of 2% (v/v) acetic acid in inoculum medium, in one hand, causes 80% of cells to continue to do respiration after a sudden exposure to 1- 3% (v/v) acetic acid in stress media while 89.7% of cells grown in glucose appeared as dead cells after an abrupt exposure to 3%(v/v) of acetic acid. On the other hand, 59.2% and 49.33% of cells grown in the presence of 2% (v/v) of acetic acid could maintain their entire membrane integrity after exposure to 1% and 3% (v/v) of acetic acid, respectively. Inoculum medium contained 5% (v/v) of ethanol as a carbon source enabled about 90% of cells to keep their growing capacities after a sudden exposure to 3% acetic acid. In contrast, just 40% of cells grown in glucose as a carbon source maintained their culturability on solid medium after exposure to 1% acetic acid. A similar profile of culturability was observed for the cells grown in 5% (v/v) ethanol or 2% (v/v) of acetic acid. A proteomic approach (2-DiGE) was used to analyze proteins expressed in the presence of different carbon sources. Differentially expressed proteins were mainly associated with energy metabolism, carbohydrate metabolisms, folding, sorting and degradation processes. The relative abundance of proteins was extensively different for cell grown in glucose compared with protein contents of cells grown in ethanol or acetic acid. In conclusion, production of a cost effective vinegar starter needs a qualified biomass which tolerates ethanol and acetic acid. Tolerance of A. senegalensis to acetic acid depends to a great extent on the composition of the medium which cells grow in. In spite of low adaption to acetic acid for cell grown in glucose, using ethanol or acetic acid in inoculum media renders a physiological state in A. senegelensis which enables it to cope with higher concentration of acetic acid readily, this biomass has a potential to be used as a starter [less ▲]

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See detail"Le lieu géométrique de toutes les agitations" : écrivains fictifs et prix littéraires
Dozo, Björn-Olav ULg; Lacroix, Michel

in Dozo, Björn-Olav; Glinoer, Anthony; Lacroix, Michel (Eds.) Imaginaires de la vie littéraire. Fiction, figuration, configuration (2012)

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See detailMicroRNA-146a is a causative factor and a specific biomarker for peripartum cardiomyopathy
Halkein, Julie ULg; Tabruyn, Sébastien ULg; Haghikia, Arash et al

Poster (2012, April)

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See detailLong-term magnetic field monitoring of the Sun-like star \xi Bootis A
Morgenthaler, A.; Petit, P.; Saar, S. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2012), 540

Aims: We aim to investigate the long-term temporal evolution of the magnetic field of the solar-type star ξ Bootis A, both from direct magnetic field measurements and from the simultaneous estimate of ... [more ▼]

Aims: We aim to investigate the long-term temporal evolution of the magnetic field of the solar-type star ξ Bootis A, both from direct magnetic field measurements and from the simultaneous estimate of indirect activity indicators. Methods: We obtained seven epochs of high-resolution, circularly-polarized spectra from the NARVAL spectropolarimeter between 2007 and 2011, for a total of 76 spectra. Using approximately 6100 photospheric spectral lines covering the visible domain, we employed a cross-correlation procedure to compute a mean polarized line profile from each spectrum. The large-scale photospheric magnetic field of the star was then modelled by means of Zeeman-Doppler Imaging, allowing us to follow the year-to-year evolution of the reconstructed magnetic topology. Simultaneously, we monitored the width of several magnetically sensitive spectral lines, the radial velocity, the line asymmetry of intensity line profiles, and the chromospheric emission in the cores of the Ca II H and Hα lines. Results: During the highest observed activity states, in 2007 and 2011, the large-scale field of ξ Bootis A is almost completely axisymmetric and is dominated by its toroidal component. The toroidal component persists with a constant polarity, containing a significant fraction of the magnetic energy of the large-scale surface field through all observing epochs. The magnetic topologies reconstructed for these activity maxima are very similar, suggesting a form of short cyclicity in the large-scale field distribution. The mean unsigned large-scale magnetic flux derived from the magnetic maps varies by a factor of about 2 between the lowest and highest observed magnetic states. The chromospheric flux is less affected and varies by a factor of 1.2. Correlated temporal evolution, due to both rotational modulation and seasonal variability, is observed between the Ca II emission, the Hα emission and the width of magnetically sensitive lines. The rotational dependence of polarimetric magnetic measurements displays a weak correlation with other activity proxies, presumably due to the different spatial scales and centre-to-limb darkening associated with polarimetric signatures, as compared to non-polarized activity indicators. Better agreement is observed on the longer term. When measurable, the differential rotation reveals a strong latitudinal shear in excess of 0.2 rad d-1. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of Transient Creep Strain Model on the Behavior of Concrete Columns Subjected to Heating and Cooling
Gernay, Thomas ULg

in Fire Technology (2012), 48(2), 313-329

In the numerical analysis of structures in fire, the material models that are used have important implications on the global behavior of the structure. In concrete, a particular phenomenon appears when ... [more ▼]

In the numerical analysis of structures in fire, the material models that are used have important implications on the global behavior of the structure. In concrete, a particular phenomenon appears when subjected to high temperatures: the transient creep strain. Models integrating explicitly a term for transient creep strain have been proposed in the literature but, in the current Eurocode 2 model, there is no explicit term for transient creep strain. This phenomenon is included in the Eurocode 2 model, but it is implicitly considered in the mechanical strain term. A series of experimental fire tests on axially restrained concrete columns subjected to heating and cooling has been recently performed at South China University of Technology and described by Wu et al. (Fire Technol 46:231–249). In the original paper, it was shown that using the implicit model of Eurocode 2, the behavior of the columns cannot be simulated properly, especially during the cooling phase. The objective of the present paper is to perform again the fire tests simulations using a new formulation of the Eurocode 2 model that contains an explicit term for transient creep. In the first part of the paper, the explicit formulation of the Eurocode 2 model is presented. In the second part, the fire tests are modeled with the software SAFIR using, on the one hand, the implicit Eurocode model and, on the other hand, the new explicit model. It is shown that the transient creep model has significant implications on the global behavior of structural concrete members, as the residual axial load sustained by the columns at the end of the fire can differ by up to 25% of the initial applied load depending on the transient creep strain model that is used for the calculation. The experimental behavior is better matched with the new explicit model than with the current Eurocode model. Particularly, the results given by the Eurocode model during the cooling phase are unconservative as the residual axial load is overestimated. Finally, it is explained why, on the basis of an example, in a performance-based approach, these results can have important implications on the global fire resistance of a structure. [less ▲]

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See detailDo Identities Matter More than Party Interests in Ethno-Territorial Politics? Conceptual and Empirical Insights from Multilevel and Deeply Divided Belgium
Reuchamps, Min ULg; Dodeigne, Jérémy ULg; Sinardet, Dave

Conference (2012, April)

In territorial politics, identities are a chief variable of the political life. By definition, the ethno-linguistic identities play(ed) an important role in the political dynamics of several highly ... [more ▼]

In territorial politics, identities are a chief variable of the political life. By definition, the ethno-linguistic identities play(ed) an important role in the political dynamics of several highly divided societies. In most cases, the institutional design is in fact adapted or has been adapted to the ethno-linguistic divisions of the country. According to quite a few scholars, it is especially true for political elites who are not only shaped by this variable but also use this variable to legitimate their attitudes and actions. Therefore political elites of each ethno-linguistic group appeared to behave as monolithic blocks, standing against each other along ethno-linguistic lines. Nonetheless, this view neglects the role of party interests in explaining the behaviors of political elites. An important question for ethno-territorial politics should be raised: do identities matter more that party interests? The current reform of the – multilevel and deeply-divided – Belgian state provides a fertile ground to test this hypothesis. To what extent, party interests can account for political elites’ position in the debate about the 6th Belgian constitutional reform? To explore these questions, we surveyed every representative of Belgium’s seven legislative assemblies with a standardized questionnaire (Summer 2011). This research will help us apprehend the rationale behind political elites’ attitudes – be it identities, party interests or a mix of them – negotiating the new boundaries of the state and above all shed light on territorial politics in Europe. So doing, this paper aims at contributing to the debate that explores the possibility of a unified analytical approach bridging ethno-territorial politics and party politics. [less ▲]

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See detailRèglement 1346/2000 relatif aux procédures d'insolvabilité
Wautelet, Patrick ULg; Leunen, Charles-Antoine

in van Drooghenbroeck, Jean-François (Ed.) Droit judiciaire européen et international (2012)

This paper presents an overview of court practice in relation to Regulation 1346/2000. The focus is on cases decided by the ECJ, Belgian and French courts. Reference is also made to the most important ... [more ▼]

This paper presents an overview of court practice in relation to Regulation 1346/2000. The focus is on cases decided by the ECJ, Belgian and French courts. Reference is also made to the most important cases decided by English courts. Cases are presented and discussed in relation to the various provisions of the Regulation to which they relate. For each case, an abstract is included, followed by (critical) comments. This overview appeared in a book presenting the main European regulations dealing with European procedural law (jurisdiction of courts, recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments). The book is part of a series edited by Prof. Georges de Leval (University of Liège), which collects court practice in relation to procedural law. [less ▲]

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See detailVulgariser et distinguer. Stratégies médiatiques autour du discours théorique
Provenzano, François ULg

in Discours et la Langue (Le) (2012), 2(2), 199-209

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See detailInfluence of drying and hydrothermal treatment of corn on the denaturation of salt-soluble proteins and color parameters
Odjo, Sylvanus; Malumba Kamba, Paul ULg; Dossou, Joseph et al

in Journal of Food Engineering (2012), 109(3), 561-570

The effect of heat treatments (drying and hydrothermal treatment) on the extractability of salt-soluble protein (SSP) was assessed using Promatest methodology for corn kernels heated between 60 C and 120 ... [more ▼]

The effect of heat treatments (drying and hydrothermal treatment) on the extractability of salt-soluble protein (SSP) was assessed using Promatest methodology for corn kernels heated between 60 C and 120 C. During drying, the evolution of the grain moisture content is fitted using the analytical solution of Fick equation developed by Crank (1979) for spherical material. The decrease of extractible salt-soluble protein during heating is forecasted using a first and a second order ordinary differential equation. It was found that temperature; moisture content and time of processing greatly influence the kinetic denaturation of SSP of corn kernels. The evolution of extractible SSP content of corn kernels during drying at high temperature is more correctly described with second order kinetic than with the first order kinetic reaction. The Hunterlab color parameters of corn also vary during drying. Lightness and color intensity decrease while yellowness, redness, chroma and hue angle increase through drying time. Most of these Hunterlab color parameters are highly correlated with the salt-soluble proteins content and therefore could be used as indicators of excessive heat treatment and denaturation of salt-soluble proteins in corn kernels [less ▲]

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See detailSPM for MEG/EEG
Phillips, Christophe ULg

Scientific conference (2012, April)

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See detailL'immersion linguistique en contexte de mobilité Erasmus
Meunier, Deborah ULg

Scientific conference (2012, April)

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