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See detailNeuroimmune connections in ovine pharyngeal tonsil: potential site for prion neuroinvasion
Toppets, Vinciane ULg; Piret, Joëlle ULg; Kirschvink, Nathalie et al

in Cell & Tissue Research (2012)

Recent studies have proved the possible implication of nasal associated lymphoid tissues, mainly the pharyngeal tonsil, in prion pathogenesis. However, the mechanisms of this neuroinvasion are still being ... [more ▼]

Recent studies have proved the possible implication of nasal associated lymphoid tissues, mainly the pharyngeal tonsil, in prion pathogenesis. However, the mechanisms of this neuroinvasion are still being debated. To determine the potential sites for prion neuroinvasion inside the ovine pharyngeal tonsil, the topography of neurofilaments heavy (200 kDa) (NFH), neurofilaments light (70 kDa) (NFL) and glial fibrillar acidic protein (GFAP) was semi-quantitatively analysed inside the different compartments of the tonsil. The results showed that the most innervated areas were the interfollicular area and the connective tissue located beneath the respiratory epithelium. Even if the germinal centre of the lymphoid follicles was poorly innervated, the existence of rare follicular dendritic cell-nerve synapses inside the germinal centre indicates that this mechanism of neuroinvasion is possible but unlikely to be unique. The host PRNP genotype did not influence the pattern of innervation in these different tonsil compartments, unlike age: an increase of nerve endings in a zone of high trafficking cells beneath the respiratory epithelium occurred with ageing. A minimal age-related increase of innervation inside the lymphoid follicles was also observed. An increase in nerve fibre density around the lymphoid follicles, in an area rich in mobile cells able to transport PrPd, could ensure a more efficient infectivity, not in the early phase but in the advanced phase of lymphoinvasion after amplification of PrPd, or could act as direct site of entry during neuroinvasion. [less ▲]

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See detailStrategic Bypass Deterrence
Bloch, Francis; Gautier, Axel ULg

Conference (2012, March 17)

In liberalized network industries, entrants can either compete for service using the existing infrastructure (access) or deploy their own infrastructure capacity (bypass). In this paper, we demonstrate ... [more ▼]

In liberalized network industries, entrants can either compete for service using the existing infrastructure (access) or deploy their own infrastructure capacity (bypass). In this paper, we demonstrate that, under the threat of bypass, the access price set by an unregulated and vertically integrated incumbent is compatible with productive efficiency. This means that the entrant bypasses the existing infrastructure only if it can produces the network input more efficiently. The incumbent lowers the access price compared to the ex-post efficient level to strategically deter inefficient bypass by the entrant. Accordingly, from a productive efficiency point of view, there is no need to regulate access prices when the entrant has the option to bypass. Despite that, we show that restricting the possibilities of access might be profitable for consumers. [less ▲]

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See detailCreation of two vortex-entangled beams in a vortex-beam collision with a plane wave
Ivanov, Igor ULg

in Physical Review. A : General Physics (2012), 85(3), 0338131-4

The physics of photons and electrons carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) is an exciting field of research in quantum optics and electron microscopy. Usually, one considers propagation of these vortex ... [more ▼]

The physics of photons and electrons carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) is an exciting field of research in quantum optics and electron microscopy. Usually, one considers propagation of these vortex beams in a medium or an external field and their absorption or scattering on fixed targets. Here we consider instead a beam-beam collision. We show that elastic scattering of a Bessel vortex beam with a counterpropagating plane wave naturally leads to two vortex-entangled outgoing beams. The vortex entanglement implies that the two final particles are entangled not only in their orbital helicities but also in the opening angles of their momentum cones. Our results are driven by kinematics of vortex-beam scattering and apply to particle pairs of any nature: eγ, e+e−, ep, etc. This collisional vortex entanglement can be used to create pairs of OAM-entangled particles of different nature and to transfer a phase vortex, for example, from low-energy electrons to high-energy protons. [less ▲]

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See detailSocial Cooperatives: When Social Enterprises Meet the Cooperative Tradition
Defourny, Jacques ULg

Conference (2012, March 16)

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See detailLa Cour pénale internationale, une guerre en retard ?
Deprez, Christophe ULg

Article for general public (2012)

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See detail"Frottements d'images : les films tardifs de Paul Sharits"
Belloi, Livio ULg

Conference (2012, March 16)

La notion de friction implique forcément celle de contact, ce qui, à l’évidence, intéresse au tout premier chef les images à caractère photochimique. Dans le cadre de cette communication, j'interroge la ... [more ▼]

La notion de friction implique forcément celle de contact, ce qui, à l’évidence, intéresse au tout premier chef les images à caractère photochimique. Dans le cadre de cette communication, j'interroge la notion de friction dans le champ du cinéma d’expérimentation, en me concentrant plus particulièrement sur les films du cinéaste (et peintre) américain Paul Sharits (1943-1993). À partir de "Color Sound Frames" (1974), l’œuvre de Sharits connaît une mutation profonde. Pour une large part, le travail du cinéaste consistera désormais à refilmer des fragments de pellicule déjà impressionnés, images appartenant de facto à la catégorie du déjà-vu. Pour ce faire, Sharits mobilise un écran transparent et un projecteur trafiqué, dont il a ôté et la griffe, et le mécanisme d’obturation. Retournant l’une contre l’autre les deux machines sur lesquelles se fonde le spectacle cinématographique, procédant par « anti-cadrage » et reprise de vue, le cinéaste orchestre, au plus intime de ses œuvres, d’intenses rapports de friction entre le film second (ou film filmé) et le film premier (ou film d’accueil, celui qui se déroule sous nos yeux) ; il accuse, de manière très méthodique, les discordances qui affectent les deux niveaux de la représentation, que ce soit en termes de vitesse, de texture ou de stabilité des motifs. Ma communication se donne pour but d’étudier, dans tous ses enjeux, les frictions internes qui traversent les films tardifs de Paul Sharits, dont "Tails" (1976) et "Bad Burns" (1982). Dans le cas de ce dernier film, le rapport de friction s’exacerbe, se déporte et tourne au conflit ouvert entre l’image et la source lumineuse censée lui donner vie : il se solde ponctuellement par des destructions apparentes du support filmique, petits désastres figuratifs qui ont paradoxalement valeur, selon Sharits, d’actes analytiques à part entière. [less ▲]

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See detailLa publication : quelle stratégie ?
Dozo, Björn-Olav ULg

Scientific conference (2012, March 16)

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See detailLe contrôle de la glycémie
Penning, Sophie ULg; Massion, Paul

Scientific conference (2012, March 16)

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See detailInteractions of apamin with pore mutated SK3 channels
Dilly, Sébastien ULg; Lamy, Cédric; Poncin, Sylvie et al

Poster (2012, March 16)

In the present work, we have tested the impact of the replacement of valine residues in the pore region of SK3 (520) by either an alanine or a phenylalanine residue in terms of the interactions of apamin ... [more ▼]

In the present work, we have tested the impact of the replacement of valine residues in the pore region of SK3 (520) by either an alanine or a phenylalanine residue in terms of the interactions of apamin with these mutants in comparison with the corresponding native channels. Replacing valine residue at position 520 of the SK3 channel by a phenylalanine significantly increased the sensitivity of the channel to be blocked by tetraethylammonium (TEA) as previously reported. Indeed, an aromatic residue, such as a phenylalanine or a tyrosine, is frequently found in the pore region of several potassium channels more sensitive to TEA than SK channels. We measured the affinity (Kd) of apamin in saturation experiments and studied SK currents in transfected cells using patch clamp techniques. In parallel, molecular modelling techniques were used to examine the impact of these local modifications on the interaction of apamin with the corresponding channels. The presence of a phenylalanine in the pore region of potassium channels led to a higher sensitivity for TEA by creating more hydrophobic interactions as found by the docking procedure. In the in vitro binding experiments, the phenylalanine mutant (SK3VF) displayed a very low affinity for apamin. In patch clamp experiments, the SK current was only very partially blocked by apamin in the SK3VF mutant. Furthermore, apamin displayed an affinity and a blocking activity for the alanine mutant close to that for the corresponding native channels. In conclusion, the presence of a bulky and hydrophobic residue at a position near the pore mouth of SK3 channels has a negative impact on their interactions with apamin. [less ▲]

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See detailLiterary mediations, imaginaries and sociological approaches
Saint-Amand, Denis ULg; Glinoer, Anthony

Conference (2012, March 16)

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See detailLes aspects nutritionnels de la betterave fourragère et son intégration dans les rations
Beckers, Yves ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2012)

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See detailLA FALSIFICATION DES MEDICAMENTS
Marini Djang'Eing'A, Roland ULg

in Forum Pharmaceutique (2012, March 16), -(-), 16

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See detailSurface-initiated controlled radical polymerization from silica nanoparticles with high initiator density
Chakkalakal, G. Louis; Alexandre, Michaël ULg; Abetz, Clarissa et al

in Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics (2012), 213(5), 513-528

The surface of silica nanoparticles is modified using the “grafting from” technique. A multi-step reaction is conducted to modify their surface properties. (3-glycidoxypropyl) trimethoxysilane (GPS) is ... [more ▼]

The surface of silica nanoparticles is modified using the “grafting from” technique. A multi-step reaction is conducted to modify their surface properties. (3-glycidoxypropyl) trimethoxysilane (GPS) is used as the coupling agent for the fixation of atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) initiator. The grafting efficiency of GPS mixed with aqueous suspension of silica nanoparticles is studied, followed by the coupling efficiency towards ATRP initiator. The bromide concentration of ATRP initiator is kept constant for comparative kinetic studies of styrene and MMA polymerizations. The consequences at high conversions and the particle size distribution are studied. The behaviour of the glass transition temperature of either polymer-modified particles and the nature of dispersion of polymer-coated silica particles are analyzed. [less ▲]

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See detailComplex Risks from Old Urban Waste Landfills: Sustainability Perspective from Iasi, Romania
Ciumasu, I.; Costica, M.; Costica, N. et al

in Journal of Hazardous Materials (2012), 16

Landfills continue to represent the most frequent managerial practice for municipal solid wastes and an increasing and complex problem globally. In certain countries, a transition to an open society and ... [more ▼]

Landfills continue to represent the most frequent managerial practice for municipal solid wastes and an increasing and complex problem globally. In certain countries, a transition to an open society and free market is superimposed on the transition to sustainability, resulting in even higher complexity of management. This paper proposes an approach for problem-structuring of landfills in complex transitions: sustainability or unsustainability of a management approach is determined by a set of sustainability filters that are defined by sets of indicators and prioritized according the systemic concept of sustainability, which says that economy is embedded in society, which is embedded in nature. The writers exercise this approach with an old landfill in Iasi, Romania, and conclude for unsustainability, because the ecological sustainability filter is not successfully passed. Social and economic sustainability filters are also discussed in relation with the ecological sustainability indicators. The described approach allows a coherent, transdisciplinary synthesis of knowledge scattered across various disciplines, a pervasive problem in landfill management. The case study helps distinguish between generally true and context-dependent aspects. [less ▲]

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See detailImmuno-inflammatory mechanisms in refractory asthma
Manise, Maïté ULg

Doctoral thesis (2012)

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See detailImpact of global climate change and desertification on the environment and society in Southern Centre of Vietnam (a case study in Binh Thuan province). Climate today and tomorrow: state of play and perception.
Ozer, Pierre ULg

Report (2012)

The Province of Binh Thuan is the driest area of Vietnam. It is felt as being affected by desertification processes that are mainly resulting from the ongoing „climate change‟, especially shortening ... [more ▼]

The Province of Binh Thuan is the driest area of Vietnam. It is felt as being affected by desertification processes that are mainly resulting from the ongoing „climate change‟, especially shortening rainfall. But has climate, and especially precipitations, really changed in recent years? Or is the recent increase of agricultural activities with higher water needs may explain such perception of a changing climate? In the collection of four papers presented hereafter, we try to answer to these questions. Yet, the first paper investigates recent trends in precipitation and temperatures using daily data from the weather station of Phan Thiet. It appears that the area did not experience any significant precipitation decrease (rainfall have, at the contrary, globally increased) but a very significant increase in temperature. The second paper focuses on future climate projections (that is 2046-2065 and 2081-2100 compared to historical data 1970-1999). It shows that the Province of Binh Thuan will face an increase of mean temperature of about 1.6°C (over 2046-2065) and 2.5°C (over 2081-2100) and an increase of extreme temperatures and extreme rainfall events. However, no significant changes about the evolution of the annual amount of precipitation were found. It also indicates that the dry season is likely to be longer in 2046-2065 owing to a delay in the onset of the rainy season (up to 15 days) accompanied by an earlier end of the rainy season (up to 30 days). The third paper explores recent land use and land cover changes in the Province of Binh Thuan. Comparisons of the land cover maps reveal that a steady growth in population has caused extensive changes of land cover throughout the area. The maps also indicate that the loss of woody land (forest) and the extension of irrigated area, combined with built-up encroachment, remains one of the most serious environmental problems today. Yet, results showed over the 12-year span, approximately 115,120 ha of forests were converted respectively to brush, irrigated area, cropland and built-up. This is an overall average decrease of approximately 9,594 ha of forested area per year. Based on the identified causes of these changes, we made policy recommendations for better management of land use and land cover. Such results show that water needs are always increasing due to the extension of irrigated areas. The last paper concludes with a case study of a fishing village disappearing as a result of shoreline erosion. It shows that the term “climate change” is misused probably because it is easier to blame a global issue rather than the local mismanagement of natural resources, the lack of land use planning and the nonexistence of policies focused on natural hazard management in the uncontrolled construction the seaside resort of Mui Ne. This reflexion about the wrong perception of climate change which may cause several economic problems could be extended to water availability which may not be sufficient to support recent developments of irrigated agriculture. Understanding current problems may help developing adaptation strategies in the next decades. Further research is needed to understand such perception of climate change, especially when knowing that future climate may be really affected by an increase of extreme rainfall events and an extended dry season. [less ▲]

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See detailHybrid material for electromagnetic absorption
Detrembleur, Christophe ULg; Huynen, Isabelle; Thomassin, Jean-Michel ULg et al

Patent (2012)

The present invention relates to a hybrid material (10) for absorbing electromagnetic radiation (60) and a method for making such a material. The hybrid material (10) comprises at least one grid panel (20 ... [more ▼]

The present invention relates to a hybrid material (10) for absorbing electromagnetic radiation (60) and a method for making such a material. The hybrid material (10) comprises at least one grid panel (20) of thickness t 1 having holes (25) traversing said thickness t 1 , at least one polymer composite material (30) of thickness t 2 filling at least partially the holes (25) of the at least one grid panel (20), said at least one polymer composite material (30) including a polymer matrix (40) and conductive particles (50) dispersed into said polymer matrix (40), characterized in that the internal surface of the holes (25) of the at least one grid panel (20) is metallic. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 34 (3 ULg)