References of "2012"
     in
Bookmark and Share    
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLand Cover Dynamics (1990-2002) in Binh Thuan Province, Southern Central Vietnam
Hountondji, Yvon ULg; De Longueville, Florence ULg; Ozer, Pierre ULg

in International Journal of Asian Social Science (2012), 2(3), 336-349

This paper describes the use of satellite imageries and GIS data for identifying key environmental characteristics of Binh Thuan Province in south central Vietnam and for detecting the major changes ... [more ▼]

This paper describes the use of satellite imageries and GIS data for identifying key environmental characteristics of Binh Thuan Province in south central Vietnam and for detecting the major changes patterns within this region. Landsat TM (1990) and Landsat ETM+ (2002) imageries were used to classify the study area into seven land use and land cover (LULC) classes. A post-classification comparison analysis was used to quantify and illustrate the various LULC conversions that took place over the 12-year span of time. Results showed that a steady growth in population has caused extensive changes of land cover throughout the area. The maps also indicate that the loss of woody land (forest) and the extension of wetlands (irrigated area), combined with built-up encroachment, remains one of the most serious environmental problems facing the Binh Thuan Province today. The post-classification change detection analysis showed that critical habitats accounted for nearly 38.5% of the intensive study area between 1990 and 2002 while 61.5% remained stable. Results also showed over the 12-year span, approximately 1151.2 km² (115.120 ha) forest were converted respectively to brush, irrigated area (wetlands), cropland and built-up. This is an overall average decrease of 9594 hectares of forested area per year. Throughout the study area, districts most affected by forest conversion to another land cover are: Bac Bihn (2798 ha/year), Than Linh (2717 ha/year), Ham Thuan Nam (1601 ha/year) and Ham Thuan Bac (1524 ha/year). Based on the identified causes of these changes, we made policy recommendations for better management of land use and land cover. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 56 (14 ULg)
Full Text
See detailEtude pluridisciplinaire de l'implication bactérienne du phénomène de blanchissement des coraux Scléractiniaires (Indo-Pacifique)
Ladrière, Ophélie ULg

Doctoral thesis (2012)

Given the increasing number of coral diseases linked to the growing impact of global warming and human activities, the present research focused on the phenomenon of coral bleaching. The Scleractinian ... [more ▼]

Given the increasing number of coral diseases linked to the growing impact of global warming and human activities, the present research focused on the phenomenon of coral bleaching. The Scleractinian Cnidaria are the essential building blocks of the coral reef ecosystem, whose ecological, economic and societal interests are demonstrated. The symptom of bleaching has multiple and complex causes that are still unclear. It corresponds to the rupture of the mutualistic symbiosis between the coral and microalgae, called zooxanthellae, and can causes death of many corals. An assumption underlying this phenomenon suggests that corals are bleaching by the action of pathogenic bacteria, penetrating inside the coral tissues. However, this hypothesis seems quite controversial and the present work attempts to elucidate a set of issues surrounding this controversy. To do this, a multidisciplinary approach combining ecology (general and microbial) and molecular biology has been established through field and experimental studies. Using electron microscopy, morphological criteria were established to characterize the status of coral bleaching. Furthermore, this technique was also used to identify different types of bacteria within coral tissues. Their presence and their role within the coral holobiont were discussed. Several molecular biology techniques (DGGE, sequencing) have provided evidences on the non-specificity of bacterial communities associated with corals species, sampling sites and different status of bleaching. This non-specificity shows that the functions performed by bacteria in the coral holobiont could be the result of opportunistic bacteria from various taxonomic groups. The presence of Cyanobacteria in some corals, detected by microscopy and confirmed by molecular techniques, raises the question about their role within the holobiont and the alternative pathway that they offer for the symbiotic host compared with zooxanthellae. The issues of potential competition between these different symbionts or the benefit of this symbiotic diversity, in case of bleaching event, remain open. Transcriptomic genetics was used to study the response of coral facing a bacterial stress in different experimental conditions of temperature determining the expression of bacterial virulence. Studying the expression profile of genes involved in immunity of the coral allowed to understand the sequence of reactions and changes in resource allocation in response to different stages of bacterial infection. On this experiment, the first antimicrobial peptide of Scleractinia, the damicornin, has been identified and characterized. All these results suggest that the context of changes in environmental parameters is more important than the presence of pathogens itself. The bacteria would then act as an aggravating factor in a situation where the coral, already weakened and stressed, cannot defend itself adequately. Finally, the observation of an increase in cnidocytes in a coral species that has undergone bleaching, suggests that some coral species are able to shift to a more heterotrophic nutritional regime adapting to the lack of inputs caused by the significant loss of zooxanthellae. This would favor the resilience of coral. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 82 (22 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailUse of microbial biosensors to detect substrate heterogeneities at the single cell level and assess microbial viability: Validation of a mini-bioreactor platform
Brognaux, Alison ULg; Neubauer, Peter; Twizere, Jean-Claude ULg et al

Conference (2012, March 15)

The basic principle adopted in our studies is to use substrate limitation responsive biosensors in order to detect spatial glucose heterogeneities inside industrial bioreactors (whole-cell biosensor ... [more ▼]

The basic principle adopted in our studies is to use substrate limitation responsive biosensors in order to detect spatial glucose heterogeneities inside industrial bioreactors (whole-cell biosensor). Indeed, such heterogeneities cause a lowering of the biomass yield and an increase of by-products concentration. In this work, we have used these biosensors for the elaboration of a mini-bioreactor platform that can be used as a scale-down tool. Three green fluorescent protein (GFP) transcriptional reporters have been chosen in Escherichia coli, i.e. uspA::gfp, csiE::gfp and yciG::gfp. Our previous studies have shown that these kinds of promoters are induced in response of substrate limitation and exhibit a strong fluorescence attenuation when cultivated in heterogeneous bioreactors. This sensitivity to substrate limitation has been confirmed in the case of the csiE and yciG biosensors. A mini scale-down platform has been proposed as a high throughput tool to investigate rapidly the usefulness of a given microbial biosensor. This platform is composed of shake flask able to operate in fed-batch mode either by using the slow release or the intermittent feeding principle. The first system is based on a commercial package (Enbase) based on the enzymatic release of glucose in the medium. The Enbase system allows the generation of a very smooth glucose profile without any perturbations. For comparison purpose, we have also used an intermittent feeding that induces strong fluctuation at the level of the glucose and the dissolved oxygen concentration. Local heterogeneities have thus been reproduced at the level of these mini-bioreactors and these one have caused a decrease of GFP expression, as in conventional scale-down reactor. The presence of GFP in supernatants has also been noticed and seems to be correlated with the substrate limitation signal for the three cultivation systems considered in this work (i.e., chemostat, conventional and mini-bioreactors) and with the membrane permeability. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 47 (13 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailA splice site variant in the bovine RNF11 gene compromises growth and regulation of the inflammatory response.
Sartelet, Arnaud ULg; Druet, Tom ULg; Michaux, Charles ULg et al

in PLoS Genetics (2012), 15(3), 1002581

We herein report association mapping of a locus on bovine chromosome 3 that underlies a Mendelian form of stunted growth in Belgian Blue Cattle. By resequencing positional candidates, we identify the ... [more ▼]

We herein report association mapping of a locus on bovine chromosome 3 that underlies a Mendelian form of stunted growth in Belgian Blue Cattle. By resequencing positional candidates, we identify the causative c124-2A>G splice variant in intron 1 of the RNF11 gene, for which all affected animals are homozygous. We make the remarkable observation that 26% of healthy Belgian Blue animals carry the corresponding variant. We demonstrate in a prospective study design that approximately one third of homozygous mutants die prematurely with major inflammatory lesions, hence explaining the rarity of growth-stunted animals despite the high frequency of carriers. We provide preliminary evidence that heterozygous advantage for an as of yet unidentified phenotype may have caused a selective sweep accounting for the high frequency of the RNF11 c124-2A>G mutation in Belgian Blue Cattle. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 47 (25 ULg)
Full Text
See detailLe dopage
Kaux, Jean-François ULg

Conference (2012, March 15)

Detailed reference viewed: 80 (10 ULg)
Full Text
See detailThe polyphony of public funding instruments in science and innovation policy
Fallon, Catherine ULg

Scientific conference (2012, March 15)

During the last decennia, the Walloon region in Belgium has launched new instruments to strategically fund university research. A new program called "Poles of Competitiveness" supports collaborative ... [more ▼]

During the last decennia, the Walloon region in Belgium has launched new instruments to strategically fund university research. A new program called "Poles of Competitiveness" supports collaborative research between industry and universities (Fallon & Delvenne 2010). Public funds support public-private partnerships between firms and universities. These new instruments interfere with established forms of distributed governance: industry partners are called upon to take the lead in the strategic management of large research programs and universities entered rapidly the game, while the regional administration are put on the side. Based on field research (Fallon 2011), the paper will discuss the impact of this transformation on the spaces of interactions between the actors of the STI regime: university, researchers, public administration, industry and stakeholders (Lepori 2011), all struggling for the definition of settings of participation and of administrative and political control (Buisson-Fenet 2008). We put in the fore historic and recent transformations of these socio-political spaces, to apprehend the complexity of institutions, norms, discourses and networks of the different stakeholders and to analyse how they adapted to the new set of policy instruments. In reference to the new avenue for public policy analysis of the "instruments in action" (Lascoumes & Le Galès 2007), we consider instrument as socio-technical device, carrying a concrete concept of the politics/society relationship, as well as meanings and representations. The choice of an instrument itself is a dynamic translation process (Callon 1986) and the use of methodological approaches derived from ANT help unveil the dynamics of institutional innovation and organisational learning: the researcher observes how actors mobilise objects and are being constrained by them, giving shape to internal procedures of categorisation and hierarchisation, with identification processes contributing to the definition of institutional boundaries (Douglas, 1986). The fieldwork thoroughly deconstructed emerging policy instruments and put them in perspective with the other policy support schemes used by the same researchers. The analysis of the transformation / emergence of instruments contributes to illuminate the diversity of networks, in terms of forms of cooperation, heterogeneity, power relations, time perspectives and representations. This instrumental polyphony can be considered as an asset, particularly for those researchers capable of strategically using them (Shinn & Lamy 2006). An instrument is dynamic, undergoing continuous transformation to adapt to contingency (Rayner 1986). Eg. the research council FNRS was settled in 1927 as a structure of collegiality and it consistently refused to become a part of a formal administration with its specific hierarchy. Recent transformations show confrontation of the logic of mutuality with a logic of global marketisation. In order to enrich the theoretical discussions, we propose to confront the propositions derived from the culturalist approach of coordination schemes (the grid/group cultural theory by Douglas (1986) and mobilised by Hood (1998) distinguishes four basic organizational types: hierarchic, fatalist, egalitarian and individualist; each of them favouring a specific mode of cooperation and control : random /mutuality /hierarchy / market) with the lessons we could learn by using the conceptual framework proposed by Lepori (2011). In their review of the "institutional dynamics of culture", 6 & Mars (2008) showed how the work of Douglas (1986) permeated most disciplines of social sciences: considering the four basic institutional forms of Douglas (1986), researchers further analysed how "anomalies" (anomalies under the system of classification that operate in a given institutional setting) are signs of on going hybridisation and social change (Thompson 1996) grounded on endogenous institutional dynamics. Made visible through a fieldwork mapping emerging hybrid forms, conflicts between the institutional forms are to be analysed as drivers of change. This is also central in the work launched by Hood on the "Art of the State" (1998) when considering the limited forms of institutional coordination to be found in public administrations and in the analysis of policy instruments. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 17 (2 ULg)
Full Text
See detailLes laboratoires scientifiques amazoniens: Dynamique des relations entre acteurs scientifiques et locaux dans les aires protégés (Équateur)
Escobar Jimenez, Kelly ULg

Learning material (2012)

Le document présente la problématique, l’état des connaissances, la méthodologie, les outils théoriques, les résultats et certaines conclusions de la thèse intitulée: "QUAND LES LIMITES DES SCIENCES ET ... [more ▼]

Le document présente la problématique, l’état des connaissances, la méthodologie, les outils théoriques, les résultats et certaines conclusions de la thèse intitulée: "QUAND LES LIMITES DES SCIENCES ET LES SENTIERS DE CHASSE S’ENTRECROISENT: UNE ETHNOGRAPHIE DE LABORATOIRES SCIENTIFIQUES AMAZONIENS EN PARTENARIAT AVEC LES COMMUNAUTÉS LOCALES AUTOCHTONES" [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 10 (4 ULg)
Full Text
See detailQuantifications équivariantes
Radoux, Fabian ULg

Scientific conference (2012, March 15)

Detailed reference viewed: 20 (1 ULg)
Full Text
See detailBiomarkers of renal disease
CAVALIER, Etienne ULg

Conference (2012, March 15)

Detailed reference viewed: 4 (0 ULg)
Full Text
See detailPossibilités et limites des nez électroniques pour la mesure des odeurs.
Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Delva, Julien

Conference (2012, March 15)

The communication aimed at presenting the potential of electronic noses to monitor environmental odours. The advantages and the limits of the concept were presented together with the point of view of a ... [more ▼]

The communication aimed at presenting the potential of electronic noses to monitor environmental odours. The advantages and the limits of the concept were presented together with the point of view of a company specialized in odour measurement. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 27 (4 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailComplex Risks from Old Urban Waste Landfills: Sustainability Perspective from Iasi, Romania
Ciumasu, I.; Costica, M.; Costica, N. et al

in Journal of Hazardous Materials (2012), 16

Landfills continue to represent the most frequent managerial practice for municipal solid wastes and an increasing and complex problem globally. In certain countries, a transition to an open society and ... [more ▼]

Landfills continue to represent the most frequent managerial practice for municipal solid wastes and an increasing and complex problem globally. In certain countries, a transition to an open society and free market is superimposed on the transition to sustainability, resulting in even higher complexity of management. This paper proposes an approach for problem-structuring of landfills in complex transitions: sustainability or unsustainability of a management approach is determined by a set of sustainability filters that are defined by sets of indicators and prioritized according the systemic concept of sustainability, which says that economy is embedded in society, which is embedded in nature. The writers exercise this approach with an old landfill in Iasi, Romania, and conclude for unsustainability, because the ecological sustainability filter is not successfully passed. Social and economic sustainability filters are also discussed in relation with the ecological sustainability indicators. The described approach allows a coherent, transdisciplinary synthesis of knowledge scattered across various disciplines, a pervasive problem in landfill management. The case study helps distinguish between generally true and context-dependent aspects. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 13 (1 ULg)
See detailUne prothèse discale!? Ca marche ?! C'est remboursé ?!
Martin, Didier ULg

Scientific conference (2012, March 14)

Detailed reference viewed: 109 (7 ULg)
Full Text
See detailRation comparée conventionnelle - bio en élevage de bovin viande et lait
Beckers, Yves ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2012)

Detailed reference viewed: 22 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailImpact of Protective Compounds on the Viability, Physiological State and Lipid Degradation of FreezeDried Pseudomonas Fluorescens BTP1 during Storage
Mputu Kanyinda, Jean-Noël ULg; Pierart, C.; Weekers, F. et al

in International Journal of Biotechnology and Biochemistry (2012), 8(4), 17-26

The drying of bacteria remains a major alternative in order to keep them long term. After centrifugation, the bacterial pellet of Pseudomonas fluorescensBTP1 was divided in two fractions one with ... [more ▼]

The drying of bacteria remains a major alternative in order to keep them long term. After centrifugation, the bacterial pellet of Pseudomonas fluorescensBTP1 was divided in two fractions one with protecting compounds (2% glycerol or 5% maltodextrine) and one without and freeze-dried. After freeze drying, powders were sealed in aluminium bag under vacuum and stored at 4 or 20°C. The parameters such as viability, the conductivity and the ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids were used to investigate the viability of freeze-dried powders during storage. For example cell concentration of powder with glycerol (PG) at CFU/g before storage is 4.109 and after 7 month 2.108 at 4°C and 3,5.107 at 20°C). The ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids decrease in function of time (e.g. at 4°C the ratios of C18:3 and C18:2 by C16:0 decreases respectively of 0,013 to 0,001 and 0,05 to 0,03 after 60 days of storage). In the present study, flow cytometric analysis was applied to evaluate the state in which the cells are at the end of storage time. We compared the survival results of bacteria obtained by plate count with the flow cytometric analysis results. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 55 (9 ULg)
Full Text
See detailApplications de la résonance magnétique nucléaire à la chimie des actinides et au retraitement des combustibles nucléaires.
Vidick, Geoffrey ULg

Doctoral thesis (2012)

This research work is dedicated to develop and bring to light the contribution of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in the study of the actinide ions and their complexes in aqueous or in organic solvents ... [more ▼]

This research work is dedicated to develop and bring to light the contribution of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in the study of the actinide ions and their complexes in aqueous or in organic solvents. We use several advanced NMR techniques. The dispersion of the longitudinal relaxation time T1 of solvent nuclei with the magnetic field (NMRD) yields information on the magnetic properties of paramagnetic actinide ions. The sensitivity of NMR to the exact nature of the ground state of actinide ions is also illustrated by detailed studies on the complexes of U, Np, Pu, Am and Cm in different oxidation states. It will be shown that the paramagnetic shifts induced by the actinide ions originate from both a through space dipolar contribution and a through bonds contact contribution. The latter gives access to delocalized unpaired electron densities that are directly related to the covalency of the actinide-ligand bonds. However, electronic densities can only be obtained after separation of the two contributions. This separation made thanks three different methods based on studies with variable temperature and by synthesizing highly symmetric and anisotropic complexes. The use of dipolar contribution can be, as for her, related to the geometry of complexes formed in solution. This method of determination of solution structure is illustrated in the case of four specially designed N-polyaromatic ligands actinide/lanthanide partitioning by liquid-liquid extraction, an essential step for the ultimate nuclear fuel reprocessing. Besides their structure determination, the use of NMR techniques allowed of determined the stoechiometry and speciation in solution of these complexes. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 41 (10 ULg)
Full Text
See detailSensitivity of the Oxygen Dynamics in the Black Sea North Western Shelf to physical and biogeochemical processes : 3D model approach
Capet, Arthur ULg; Beckers, Jean-Marie ULg; Grégoire, Marilaure ULg

Conference (2012, March 13)

The presentation evidences the role of benthic oxygen consumption in the seasonal hypoxia afecting the Norht western shelf of the Black Sea. Spatial variability of related processes is evidenced and ... [more ▼]

The presentation evidences the role of benthic oxygen consumption in the seasonal hypoxia afecting the Norht western shelf of the Black Sea. Spatial variability of related processes is evidenced and finally interanual variability of hypoxia severity is quantified and related to nitrogen riverine inputs. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (3 ULg)
Full Text
See detailDispersal ability and speciation mechanisms in bryophytes
Hutsemekers, Virginie ULg

Doctoral thesis (2012)

Detailed reference viewed: 37 (8 ULg)