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See detailInsuffisance rénale de la personne âgée
Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULg

Conference (2012, March 17)

L’insuffisance rénale avec l’âge n’est pas une fatalité. Il faut prévenir très tôt les facteurs de risque cardio-vasculaire et les corriger au mieux pour éviter que ces facteurs n’agissent plus tard dans ... [more ▼]

L’insuffisance rénale avec l’âge n’est pas une fatalité. Il faut prévenir très tôt les facteurs de risque cardio-vasculaire et les corriger au mieux pour éviter que ces facteurs n’agissent plus tard dans la vie et soient des facteurs de comorbidité très importants favorisant la dégradation fonctionnelle rénale et l’évolution vers une insuffisance rénale très sévère exposant le patient à un risque cardio-vasculaire, à des techniques de suppléance de la fonction rénale et à un décès plus rapide avec perte préalable de la qualité de vie. Il faut donc identifier précocement la réduction de la GFR et l’apparition d’une protéinurie, agir de concert ensemble sur de nombreux facteurs pour ralentir la progression. Ces facteurs sont souvent des facteurs de risque cardio-vasculaire, donc on fait un double coup en les corriger. La référence précoce lorsque vous remarquez une évolutivité de la GFR vers la baisse pour décider ensemble si un traitement de suppléance doit être lancé. Celui-ci ne sera décidé qu’en concertation commune si nous avons le temps de l’établir après avoir évaluer des niveaux d’autonomie de nutrition, de risque cardio-vasculaire, et tout cela intégré dans le côté social et environnemental du patient. Il faut rappeler ici l’importance des trajets de soins à proposer à tout patient insuffisant rénal en dessous de 45 ml/min, moment stratégique pour que le néphrologue puisse en partenariat avec le médecin généraliste contrer les perturbations de l’insuffisance rénale terminale. [less ▲]

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See detailInsuffisance rénale de la personne âgée
Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULg

Conference (2012, March 17)

•L’insuffisance rénale avec l’âge n’est pas une fatalité. •Une prévention des FRCV est indispensable. •Une identification précoce d’une réduction de GFR (mesure précise GFR?) et de la présence d’une ... [more ▼]

•L’insuffisance rénale avec l’âge n’est pas une fatalité. •Une prévention des FRCV est indispensable. •Une identification précoce d’une réduction de GFR (mesure précise GFR?) et de la présence d’une protéinurie est capitale. •Approche multidisciplinaire et précoce surtout chez le sujet âgé! Tester autonomie et dénutrition. •Référence précoce pour décider ensemble si évolutivité et SN traitement de suppléance. •Décider de lancer un traitement de suppléance nécessite une réflexion à plusieurs: le patient, sa famille, le médecin de famille, l’équipe de néphrologie en abordant la QOL •On peut tenter si doute, avec arrêt dès que la situation s’aggrave! [less ▲]

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See detailComment mieux concilier le Sport et l’Education ?
Cloes, Marc ULg

Conference (2012, March 17)

Nombre d'articles parus dans des quotidiens soulignent qu'une plus grande place devrait être faite au Sport dans l'Education. Dans cette conférence, il s'agira tout d'abord de redéfinir les différents ... [more ▼]

Nombre d'articles parus dans des quotidiens soulignent qu'une plus grande place devrait être faite au Sport dans l'Education. Dans cette conférence, il s'agira tout d'abord de redéfinir les différents concepts concernés avant de mettre en évidence certains paradoxes constatés à partir de résultats de recherches récentes. L'objectif consistera à mettre clairement en évidence la priorité à accorder au développement d'une culture de l'activité physique, moins sujettes aux dérapages constatés actuellement dans le développement d'un sport ultra compétitif. L'exposé se termine par la description de pistes d'actions rassemblant tous les acteurs de la société et visant à donner un visage plus accessible à la santé que l'activité physique permet de préserver. [less ▲]

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See detailNeuroimmune connections in ovine pharyngeal tonsil: potential site for prion neuroinvasion
Toppets, Vinciane ULg; Piret, Joëlle ULg; Kirschvink, Nathalie et al

in Cell & Tissue Research (2012)

Recent studies have proved the possible implication of nasal associated lymphoid tissues, mainly the pharyngeal tonsil, in prion pathogenesis. However, the mechanisms of this neuroinvasion are still being ... [more ▼]

Recent studies have proved the possible implication of nasal associated lymphoid tissues, mainly the pharyngeal tonsil, in prion pathogenesis. However, the mechanisms of this neuroinvasion are still being debated. To determine the potential sites for prion neuroinvasion inside the ovine pharyngeal tonsil, the topography of neurofilaments heavy (200 kDa) (NFH), neurofilaments light (70 kDa) (NFL) and glial fibrillar acidic protein (GFAP) was semi-quantitatively analysed inside the different compartments of the tonsil. The results showed that the most innervated areas were the interfollicular area and the connective tissue located beneath the respiratory epithelium. Even if the germinal centre of the lymphoid follicles was poorly innervated, the existence of rare follicular dendritic cell-nerve synapses inside the germinal centre indicates that this mechanism of neuroinvasion is possible but unlikely to be unique. The host PRNP genotype did not influence the pattern of innervation in these different tonsil compartments, unlike age: an increase of nerve endings in a zone of high trafficking cells beneath the respiratory epithelium occurred with ageing. A minimal age-related increase of innervation inside the lymphoid follicles was also observed. An increase in nerve fibre density around the lymphoid follicles, in an area rich in mobile cells able to transport PrPd, could ensure a more efficient infectivity, not in the early phase but in the advanced phase of lymphoinvasion after amplification of PrPd, or could act as direct site of entry during neuroinvasion. [less ▲]

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See detailLa publication : quelle stratégie ?
Dozo, Björn-Olav ULg

Scientific conference (2012, March 16)

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See detail"Frottements d'images : les films tardifs de Paul Sharits"
Belloi, Livio ULg

Conference (2012, March 16)

La notion de friction implique forcément celle de contact, ce qui, à l’évidence, intéresse au tout premier chef les images à caractère photochimique. Dans le cadre de cette communication, j'interroge la ... [more ▼]

La notion de friction implique forcément celle de contact, ce qui, à l’évidence, intéresse au tout premier chef les images à caractère photochimique. Dans le cadre de cette communication, j'interroge la notion de friction dans le champ du cinéma d’expérimentation, en me concentrant plus particulièrement sur les films du cinéaste (et peintre) américain Paul Sharits (1943-1993). À partir de "Color Sound Frames" (1974), l’œuvre de Sharits connaît une mutation profonde. Pour une large part, le travail du cinéaste consistera désormais à refilmer des fragments de pellicule déjà impressionnés, images appartenant de facto à la catégorie du déjà-vu. Pour ce faire, Sharits mobilise un écran transparent et un projecteur trafiqué, dont il a ôté et la griffe, et le mécanisme d’obturation. Retournant l’une contre l’autre les deux machines sur lesquelles se fonde le spectacle cinématographique, procédant par « anti-cadrage » et reprise de vue, le cinéaste orchestre, au plus intime de ses œuvres, d’intenses rapports de friction entre le film second (ou film filmé) et le film premier (ou film d’accueil, celui qui se déroule sous nos yeux) ; il accuse, de manière très méthodique, les discordances qui affectent les deux niveaux de la représentation, que ce soit en termes de vitesse, de texture ou de stabilité des motifs. Ma communication se donne pour but d’étudier, dans tous ses enjeux, les frictions internes qui traversent les films tardifs de Paul Sharits, dont "Tails" (1976) et "Bad Burns" (1982). Dans le cas de ce dernier film, le rapport de friction s’exacerbe, se déporte et tourne au conflit ouvert entre l’image et la source lumineuse censée lui donner vie : il se solde ponctuellement par des destructions apparentes du support filmique, petits désastres figuratifs qui ont paradoxalement valeur, selon Sharits, d’actes analytiques à part entière. [less ▲]

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See detailCreation of two vortex-entangled beams in a vortex-beam collision with a plane wave
Ivanov, Igor ULg

in Physical Review. A : General Physics (2012), 85(3), 0338131-4

The physics of photons and electrons carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) is an exciting field of research in quantum optics and electron microscopy. Usually, one considers propagation of these vortex ... [more ▼]

The physics of photons and electrons carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) is an exciting field of research in quantum optics and electron microscopy. Usually, one considers propagation of these vortex beams in a medium or an external field and their absorption or scattering on fixed targets. Here we consider instead a beam-beam collision. We show that elastic scattering of a Bessel vortex beam with a counterpropagating plane wave naturally leads to two vortex-entangled outgoing beams. The vortex entanglement implies that the two final particles are entangled not only in their orbital helicities but also in the opening angles of their momentum cones. Our results are driven by kinematics of vortex-beam scattering and apply to particle pairs of any nature: eγ, e+e−, ep, etc. This collisional vortex entanglement can be used to create pairs of OAM-entangled particles of different nature and to transfer a phase vortex, for example, from low-energy electrons to high-energy protons. [less ▲]

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See detailLe contrôle de la glycémie
Penning, Sophie ULg; Massion, Paul

Scientific conference (2012, March 16)

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See detailLa Cour pénale internationale, une guerre en retard ?
Deprez, Christophe ULg

Article for general public (2012)

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See detailInteractions of apamin with pore mutated SK3 channels
Dilly, Sébastien ULg; Lamy, Cédric; Poncin, Sylvie et al

Poster (2012, March 16)

In the present work, we have tested the impact of the replacement of valine residues in the pore region of SK3 (520) by either an alanine or a phenylalanine residue in terms of the interactions of apamin ... [more ▼]

In the present work, we have tested the impact of the replacement of valine residues in the pore region of SK3 (520) by either an alanine or a phenylalanine residue in terms of the interactions of apamin with these mutants in comparison with the corresponding native channels. Replacing valine residue at position 520 of the SK3 channel by a phenylalanine significantly increased the sensitivity of the channel to be blocked by tetraethylammonium (TEA) as previously reported. Indeed, an aromatic residue, such as a phenylalanine or a tyrosine, is frequently found in the pore region of several potassium channels more sensitive to TEA than SK channels. We measured the affinity (Kd) of apamin in saturation experiments and studied SK currents in transfected cells using patch clamp techniques. In parallel, molecular modelling techniques were used to examine the impact of these local modifications on the interaction of apamin with the corresponding channels. The presence of a phenylalanine in the pore region of potassium channels led to a higher sensitivity for TEA by creating more hydrophobic interactions as found by the docking procedure. In the in vitro binding experiments, the phenylalanine mutant (SK3VF) displayed a very low affinity for apamin. In patch clamp experiments, the SK current was only very partially blocked by apamin in the SK3VF mutant. Furthermore, apamin displayed an affinity and a blocking activity for the alanine mutant close to that for the corresponding native channels. In conclusion, the presence of a bulky and hydrophobic residue at a position near the pore mouth of SK3 channels has a negative impact on their interactions with apamin. [less ▲]

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See detailLiterary mediations, imaginaries and sociological approaches
Saint-Amand, Denis ULg; Glinoer, Anthony

Conference (2012, March 16)

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See detailLes aspects nutritionnels de la betterave fourragère et son intégration dans les rations
Beckers, Yves ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2012)

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See detailLA FALSIFICATION DES MEDICAMENTS
Marini Djang'Eing'A, Roland ULg

in Forum Pharmaceutique (2012, March 16), -(-), 16

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See detailSurface-initiated controlled radical polymerization from silica nanoparticles with high initiator density
Chakkalakal, G. Louis; Alexandre, Michaël ULg; Abetz, Clarissa et al

in Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics (2012), 213(5), 513-528

The surface of silica nanoparticles is modified using the “grafting from” technique. A multi-step reaction is conducted to modify their surface properties. (3-glycidoxypropyl) trimethoxysilane (GPS) is ... [more ▼]

The surface of silica nanoparticles is modified using the “grafting from” technique. A multi-step reaction is conducted to modify their surface properties. (3-glycidoxypropyl) trimethoxysilane (GPS) is used as the coupling agent for the fixation of atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) initiator. The grafting efficiency of GPS mixed with aqueous suspension of silica nanoparticles is studied, followed by the coupling efficiency towards ATRP initiator. The bromide concentration of ATRP initiator is kept constant for comparative kinetic studies of styrene and MMA polymerizations. The consequences at high conversions and the particle size distribution are studied. The behaviour of the glass transition temperature of either polymer-modified particles and the nature of dispersion of polymer-coated silica particles are analyzed. [less ▲]

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See detailSocial Cooperatives: When Social Enterprises Meet the Cooperative Tradition
Defourny, Jacques ULg

Conference (2012, March 16)

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See detailComplex Risks from Old Urban Waste Landfills: Sustainability Perspective from Iasi, Romania
Ciumasu, I.; Costica, M.; Costica, N. et al

in Journal of Hazardous Materials (2012), 16

Landfills continue to represent the most frequent managerial practice for municipal solid wastes and an increasing and complex problem globally. In certain countries, a transition to an open society and ... [more ▼]

Landfills continue to represent the most frequent managerial practice for municipal solid wastes and an increasing and complex problem globally. In certain countries, a transition to an open society and free market is superimposed on the transition to sustainability, resulting in even higher complexity of management. This paper proposes an approach for problem-structuring of landfills in complex transitions: sustainability or unsustainability of a management approach is determined by a set of sustainability filters that are defined by sets of indicators and prioritized according the systemic concept of sustainability, which says that economy is embedded in society, which is embedded in nature. The writers exercise this approach with an old landfill in Iasi, Romania, and conclude for unsustainability, because the ecological sustainability filter is not successfully passed. Social and economic sustainability filters are also discussed in relation with the ecological sustainability indicators. The described approach allows a coherent, transdisciplinary synthesis of knowledge scattered across various disciplines, a pervasive problem in landfill management. The case study helps distinguish between generally true and context-dependent aspects. [less ▲]

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See detailEtude pluridisciplinaire de l'implication bactérienne du phénomène de blanchissement des coraux Scléractiniaires (Indo-Pacifique)
Ladrière, Ophélie ULg

Doctoral thesis (2012)

Given the increasing number of coral diseases linked to the growing impact of global warming and human activities, the present research focused on the phenomenon of coral bleaching. The Scleractinian ... [more ▼]

Given the increasing number of coral diseases linked to the growing impact of global warming and human activities, the present research focused on the phenomenon of coral bleaching. The Scleractinian Cnidaria are the essential building blocks of the coral reef ecosystem, whose ecological, economic and societal interests are demonstrated. The symptom of bleaching has multiple and complex causes that are still unclear. It corresponds to the rupture of the mutualistic symbiosis between the coral and microalgae, called zooxanthellae, and can causes death of many corals. An assumption underlying this phenomenon suggests that corals are bleaching by the action of pathogenic bacteria, penetrating inside the coral tissues. However, this hypothesis seems quite controversial and the present work attempts to elucidate a set of issues surrounding this controversy. To do this, a multidisciplinary approach combining ecology (general and microbial) and molecular biology has been established through field and experimental studies. Using electron microscopy, morphological criteria were established to characterize the status of coral bleaching. Furthermore, this technique was also used to identify different types of bacteria within coral tissues. Their presence and their role within the coral holobiont were discussed. Several molecular biology techniques (DGGE, sequencing) have provided evidences on the non-specificity of bacterial communities associated with corals species, sampling sites and different status of bleaching. This non-specificity shows that the functions performed by bacteria in the coral holobiont could be the result of opportunistic bacteria from various taxonomic groups. The presence of Cyanobacteria in some corals, detected by microscopy and confirmed by molecular techniques, raises the question about their role within the holobiont and the alternative pathway that they offer for the symbiotic host compared with zooxanthellae. The issues of potential competition between these different symbionts or the benefit of this symbiotic diversity, in case of bleaching event, remain open. Transcriptomic genetics was used to study the response of coral facing a bacterial stress in different experimental conditions of temperature determining the expression of bacterial virulence. Studying the expression profile of genes involved in immunity of the coral allowed to understand the sequence of reactions and changes in resource allocation in response to different stages of bacterial infection. On this experiment, the first antimicrobial peptide of Scleractinia, the damicornin, has been identified and characterized. All these results suggest that the context of changes in environmental parameters is more important than the presence of pathogens itself. The bacteria would then act as an aggravating factor in a situation where the coral, already weakened and stressed, cannot defend itself adequately. Finally, the observation of an increase in cnidocytes in a coral species that has undergone bleaching, suggests that some coral species are able to shift to a more heterotrophic nutritional regime adapting to the lack of inputs caused by the significant loss of zooxanthellae. This would favor the resilience of coral. [less ▲]

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