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See detailInfluence de l'état d'ameublissement et de la rugosité du sol des parcelles agricoles sur l'exactitude de l'altitude des points de contrôle positionnés au GPS
Ouedraogo, Mohamar ULg; Debouche, Charles ULg; Degre, Aurore ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2012), 16(1), 33-44

Our goal in this study is to estimate through ranges of variation, the impact of agricultural parcels soil’s tilth and roughness, due to cultivation techniques, on the exactness of ground control points ... [more ▼]

Our goal in this study is to estimate through ranges of variation, the impact of agricultural parcels soil’s tilth and roughness, due to cultivation techniques, on the exactness of ground control points elevation surveyed by RTK (Real Time Kinematic) GPS (Global Positioning System). So, 16 point’s elevations which were located each 100 mm on a transect have been surveyed first by using a total station (TS), and then a RTK GPS in 2 parcels (3 transects per parcel). Cultivation techniques on those parcels were different. The parcel 1 was tilled, and the soil of parcel 2 was prepared for cereal cropping. Then, the analysis of variance has been applied on the differences of TS and RTK GPS elevations data to estimate the confidence interval of ground control points elevation due (i) to soil tilth, whereas the times series statistical method have been applied on elevation data to estimate the confidence interval due (ii) to soil roughness. The confidence intervals of points elevation are estimated being (i) [51 mm; 57 mm], (ii) [-4 mm; 4 mm] for parcel 1, and (i) [97 mm; 113 mm], (ii) [-35 mm; 23 mm], for parcel 2. Results show that ground control point’s elevations exactness is influenced by soil tilth and soil roughness. In conclusion, we can admit that soil tilth and soil roughness have significant impact on the exactness of ground control points located on agricultural parcels. This impact must be considered in DEM errors evaluation of agricultural watershed. [less ▲]

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See detailA Target Projector for Videogrammetry under Vacuum Conditions
Roose, Stéphane ULg; Mazzoli, Alexandra ULg; Barzin, Pascal ULg et al

Scientific conference (2012, March 21)

Videogrammetry is a 3-dimensional co-ordinate measuring technique that (now) uses digital image capture as the recording method. Images are taken from at least two different locations and the light-rays ... [more ▼]

Videogrammetry is a 3-dimensional co-ordinate measuring technique that (now) uses digital image capture as the recording method. Images are taken from at least two different locations and the light-rays from the camera to the measurement object are intersected by triangulation into 3D point coordinates. With a large number of images, the camera orientation and 3D point locations are accurately determined with the use of a full mathematical model (bundle adjustment). Adhesive targets are commonly used for point materialization. Those targets consist of a retro-reflective material, with an adhesive backing for sticking to the structure under investigation. A drawback of these types of targets is that they can lose their adhesion and shape during thermal vacuum cycling, especially when cryogenic temperatures are involved. In addition the operation of placing and removing targets is a critical procedure that can lead to undesirable contamination and damage to the test item. Because they require to be physically attached to the surface to be measured, this can also compromise the quality assurance of the test object. Such problems were encountered during cryogenic thermal vacuum qualification testing of the ESA Planck Surveyor mission telescope reflectors. In the development described here the aim was to replace the use of adhesive targets by projected dots. The idea is not fundamentally new. Indeed a US company, Geodetic Systems Inc. (GSI) proposes already a commercial target projector for videogrammetry which uses a flashlamp and is adequate for workshop and laboratory applications. Dot projection videogrammetry is also suggested as a shape measurement method of Gossamer structures, membrane reflectors, etc…Note that there are fundamental differences in use and applications of retro-reflective targets and dot projection: • Retro-reflective targets are materialized on the test article. They appear as fiducials attached to the test article. Any relative distortion of the materialized point can be tracked with respect to the test article itself. • Projected dots are not materialized on the object. Practically a specific point cannot be tracked by this method. The dense cloud of projected dots allows sampling the surface or the shape in an arbitrary way.The Target Projector System (TPS), described here (Fig.1), was designed and manufactured to operate in the Large Space Simulator (LSS) of ESAof ESA under thermal vacuum conditions and to have a minimized temperature exchange with its environment. It is operational over a temperature range of 90K to 350 K, and has a wavelength of 808 nm.Qualification tests and results under vacuum, along with an assessment of the videogrammetric accuracy achievable for various configurations of this unique device are presented. [less ▲]

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See detailChemically resistant encapsulation for MEMS release
Stoukatch, Serguei ULg; Tooten, ester; Axisa, Fabrice ULg et al

Conference (2012, March 21)

We have proposed and explored a novel sequence in MEMS fabrication process flow. The novel MEMS fabrication process flow can be shortly described as a “packaging first, MEMS release second”. We propose to ... [more ▼]

We have proposed and explored a novel sequence in MEMS fabrication process flow. The novel MEMS fabrication process flow can be shortly described as a “packaging first, MEMS release second”. We propose to package the MEMS device first (die mount, wire bonding and encapsulation) and to perform the MEMS release as the last step in the fabrication process flow. The standard route for IC manufacturing is, that the die packaging is the last step [1]. Such approach can’t be directly transferred and used for MEMS fabrication [2]. The main reason for that, that the MEMS device after the release becomes vulnerable to any physical and chemical exposure. Such exposure can occur during transportation, handling or any post-processing (incl. the packaging). [less ▲]

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See detailExamen clinique de l'épaule
Kaux, Jean-François ULg

Conference (2012, March 21)

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See detailLes matériaux implantables : quel contrôle assurer dans l'avenir ?
Grandfils, Christian ULg

Scientific conference (2012, March 20)

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See detailDoes Tight Glycemic Control positively impact on patient mortality?
Penning, Sophie ULg; Le Compte, Aaron J.; Signal, Matthew et al

Poster (2012, March 20)

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See detailThanatologie et tératologie de Lévi-Strauss. Quelques réflexions sur une fidélité
Cormann, Grégory ULg

Scientific conference (2012, March 20)

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See detailDoes Tight Glycemic Control positively impact on patient mortality?
Penning, Sophie ULg; Le Compte, Aaron J.; Signal, Matthew et al

in Critical Care (2012, March 20)

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See detailPrevalence, genetic diversity and antiretroviral drugs resistance-asszociated mutations among untreated HIV-1-infected pregnant women in Gabon, Central Africa
CARON, Mélanie; LEKANA-DOUKI, Sonia Etenna; MAKUWA, Maria et al

in BMC Infectious Diseases (2012), 12:64

BACKGROUND: In Africa, the wide genetic diversity of HIV has resulted in emergence of new strains, rapid spread of this virus in sub-Saharan populations and therefore spread of the HIV epidemic throughout ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: In Africa, the wide genetic diversity of HIV has resulted in emergence of new strains, rapid spread of this virus in sub-Saharan populations and therefore spread of the HIV epidemic throughout the continent. METHODS: To determine the prevalence of antibodies to HIV among a high-risk population in Gabon, 1098 and 2916 samples were collected from pregnant women in 2005 and 2008, respectively. HIV genotypes were evaluated in 107 HIV-1-positive samples to determine the circulating subtypes of strains and their resistance to antiretroviral drugs (ARVs). RESULTS: The seroprevalences were 6.3% in 2005 and 6.0% in 2008. The main subtype was recombinant CRF02_AG (46.7%), followed by the subtypes A (19.6%), G (10.3%), F (4.7%), H (1.9%) and D (0.9%) and the complex recombinants CRF06_cpx (1.9%) and CRF11_cpx (1.9%); 12.1% of subtypes could not be characterized. Analysis of ARVs resistance to the protease and reverse transcriptase coding regions showed mutations associated with extensive subtype polymorphism. In the present study, the HIV strains showed reduced susceptibility to ARVs (2.8%), particularly to protease inhibitors (1.9%) and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (0.9%). CONCLUSIONS: The evolving genetic diversity of HIV calls for continuous monitoring of its molecular epidemiology in Gabon and in other central African countries. [less ▲]

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See detailAvant-propos
Bousmar, Éric; Dumont, Jonathan ULg; Marchandisse, Alain ULg et al

in Bousmar, Éric; Dumont, Jonathan; Marchandisse, Alain (Eds.) et al Femmes de pouvoir, femmes politiques durant les derniers cièles du Moyen Âge et au cours de la première Renaissance (2012)

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See detailLes éleveurs d'alpaca du Pérou
Hanzen, Christian ULg; Bay, Daniel ULg

Learning material (2012)

Ce film de 52 minutes réalisé par Daniel Bay sur un scénario de Christian Hanzen présente les divers aspects du projet d'amélioration de la fibre d'alpaca financé par la Coopération Universitaire au ... [more ▼]

Ce film de 52 minutes réalisé par Daniel Bay sur un scénario de Christian Hanzen présente les divers aspects du projet d'amélioration de la fibre d'alpaca financé par la Coopération Universitaire au développement dans le cadre d'une coopération institutionnelle entre les universités de Namur (FUNDPN) et de Louvain (UCL) et l'Université Sans Antonio Abad del Cusco. Cette amélioration implique la caractérisation phénotypique de la fibre d'alpaca mais également l'amélioration des biotechnologies de la reproduction du mâle et de la femelle alpaca. [less ▲]

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See detailBiogeography of the two major arbovirus mosquito vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera, Culicidae), in Madagascar.
Raharimalala, Fara Nantenaina ULg; Raveloson Ravaomanarivo, Lala Harivelo; Ravelonandro, Pierre et al

in Parasites & Vectors (2012), 5(55), 1-10

Background: In the past ten years, the Indian Ocean region has been the theatre of severe epidemics of chikungunya and dengue. These outbreaks coincided with a high increase in populations of Aedes ... [more ▼]

Background: In the past ten years, the Indian Ocean region has been the theatre of severe epidemics of chikungunya and dengue. These outbreaks coincided with a high increase in populations of Aedes albopictus that outcompete its sister taxon Aedes aegypti in most islands sampled. The objective of this work was to update the entomological survey of the two Aedes species in the island of Madagascar which has to face these arboviroses. Methods: The sampling of Aedes mosquitoes was conducted during two years, from October 2007 to October 2009, in fifteen localities from eight regions of contrasting climates. Captured adults were identified immediately whereas immature stages were bred until adult stage for determination. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using two mtDNA genes, COI and ND5 and trees were constructed by the maximum likelihood (ML) method with the gene time reversible (GTR) model. Experimental infections with the chikungunya virus strain 06.21 at a titer of 107.5 pfu/mL were performed to evaluate the vector competence of field-collected mosquitoes. Disseminated infection rates were measured fourteen days after infection by immunofluorescence assay performed on head squashes. Results: The species Aedes aegypti was detected in only six sites in native forests and natural reserves. In contrast, the species Aedes albopictus was found in 13 out of the 15 sites sampled. Breeding sites were mostly found inman-made environments such as discarded containers, used tires, abandoned buckets, coconuts, and bamboo cuts. Linear regression models showed that the abundance of Ae. albopictus was significantly influenced by the sampling region (F = 62.00, p < 2.2 × 10-16) and period (F = 36.22, p = 2.548 × 10-13), that are associated with ecological and climate variations. Phylogenetic analysis of the invasive Ae. albopictus distinguished haplotypes from South Asia and South America from those of Madagascar, but the markers used were not discriminant enough to discern Malagasy populations. The experimental oral infection method showed that six Ae. albopictus populations exhibited high dissemination infection rates for chikungunya virus ranging from 98 to 100%. Conclusion: In Madagascar, Ae. albopictus has extended its geographical distribution whereas, Ae. aegypti has become rare, contrasting with what was previously observed. Changes are predominantly driven by human activities and the rainfall regime that provide suitable breeding sites for the highly anthropophilic mosquito Ae. albopictus. Moreover, these populations were found to be highly susceptible to chikungunya virus. In the light of this study, Ae. albopictus may have been involved in the recent outbreaks of chikungunya and dengue epidemics in Madagascar, and consequently, control measures should be promoted to limit its current expansion. [less ▲]

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See detailRadical coupling of polymers formed by cobalt-mediated radical polymerization
Debuigne, Antoine ULg; Hurtgen, Marie ULg; Jérôme, Christine ULg et al

in Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof; Sumerlin, Brent; Tsarevsky, Nicolas V. (Eds.) Progress in controlled radical polymerization: mechanisms and techniques (2012)

Considerable progress has been recently made in cobalt-mediated radical polymerization (CMRP), a controlled radical polymerization system based on the temporary deactivation of the polymer chains by a ... [more ▼]

Considerable progress has been recently made in cobalt-mediated radical polymerization (CMRP), a controlled radical polymerization system based on the temporary deactivation of the polymer chains by a cobalt complex, like the improvement of the mechanistic understanding, the extension to a range of monomers and the preparation of novel architectures. However, the real breakthrough in this field concerns the development of efficient radical coupling methods for polymer precursors preformed by CMRP. This book chapter aims to describe the general principle and main characteristics of such radical coupling techniques involving dienes, nitrones, fullerenes or carbon nanotubes. Well-defined and complex architectures obtained by these techniques are provided in order to illustrate their potential for macromolecular engineering. [less ▲]

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See detailLa Carte des Sols de la Belgique, outil d'estimation de la pression urbanistique sur les sols
Legrain, Xavier ULg; Michel, Brieuc ULg; Bock, Laurent ULg et al

Conference (2012, March 20)

Ces dernières décennies, des pressions de tout ordre ont induit une forte expansion de l’urbanisation en Europe, à laquelle la Belgique n’échappe pas. L’imperméabilisation des sols a par ailleurs été ... [more ▼]

Ces dernières décennies, des pressions de tout ordre ont induit une forte expansion de l’urbanisation en Europe, à laquelle la Belgique n’échappe pas. L’imperméabilisation des sols a par ailleurs été identifiée comme une des principales menaces pesant sur eux. Au-delà du constat de l’évolution des surfaces artificialisées en Wallonie, l’objectif de cette étude est d’identifier les sols les plus soumis à ce phénomène. L’élaboration de la Carte Numérique des Sols de Wallonie (CNSW) – à partir d’un document historique, la Carte des Sols de la Belgique levée à grande échelle entre 1947 et 1991 – et de la Carte Numérique d’Occupation des Sols de Wallonie ouvre des perspectives intéressantes à ce sujet. Plus spécifiquement, l’utilisation de cartes d’aptitude des sols pour l’agriculture, dérivées de la CNSW, met en évidence l’impact de l’artificialisation sur la réserve en sols de meilleure potentialité agricole (figure 1). Cette dernière a diminué de 5 % à l’échelle de la Wallonie suite à l’artificialisation des sols ces 60 dernières années. La réalité est plus contrastée à l’échelle locale. La moitié des 262 communes wallonnes se situe en deçà, tandis que d’autres ont perdu (du point de vue agricole) jusqu’à 50 % de leurs meilleurs sols, par ailleurs initialement fortement présents sur leur territoire. Autre constat : si la moitié des communes subit une artificialisation uniforme de ses sols, 20 % d’entre elles voient leurs meilleurs sols préférentiellement artificialisés par rapport à ceux de potentialité agricole moindre.Une analyse spatiale fine à plus grande échelle (figure 2) ouvre la voie à la compréhension des phénomènes en jeu et in fine à l’élaboration de recommandations face à la concurrence inévitable entre deux fonctions essentielles des sols : la production agricole et le support des activités humaines. [less ▲]

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See detailConception architecturale et développement durable. Atelier LL55.
Reiter, Sigrid ULg; Marique, Anne-Françoise ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2012)

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See detailQuestions à Claude Romano
Dewalque, Arnaud ULg

Conference (2012, March 20)

Texte de mon intervention lors de la table-ronde autour de l'ouvrage de Claude Romano, "Au coeur de la raison, la phénoménologie" (Paris, Gallimard, 2010). Sont discutés le concept de "phénoménologie", l ... [more ▼]

Texte de mon intervention lors de la table-ronde autour de l'ouvrage de Claude Romano, "Au coeur de la raison, la phénoménologie" (Paris, Gallimard, 2010). Sont discutés le concept de "phénoménologie", l'opposition internalisme/externalisme et l'idée du caractère herméneutique de la phénoménologie. [less ▲]

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See detailElaboration d’un protocole in vitro de contournement des barrières d’incompatibilité génétique entre Phaseolus coccineus L. et P. vulgaris L.
Barikissou, Eugénie ULg

Doctoral thesis (2012)

L’amélioration du haricot commun Phaseolus vulgaris L. par hybridations interspécifiques avec P. coccineus L. nécessite l’utilisation de ce dernier comme parent femelle (♀). Mais ce croisement aboutit ... [more ▼]

L’amélioration du haricot commun Phaseolus vulgaris L. par hybridations interspécifiques avec P. coccineus L. nécessite l’utilisation de ce dernier comme parent femelle (♀). Mais ce croisement aboutit souvent à des avortements et ce, dès le stade globulaire. L’embryoculture permet d’obtenir, dans certains cas, des hybrides interspécifiques via la culture d’embryons isolés aux stades cordiforme âgé ou cotylédonaire, mais pas au stade globulaire. A ce dernier stade de développement, il a été possible d’obtenir des plantes chez le génotype NI 637 de P. vulgaris, via le protocole de culture de gousses. Mais l’absence de formation de racines chez les embryons germés, qui devraient évoluer en plantules, a limité le taux de réussite à un pourcentage de 3% de plantules en croissance. L’objectif de notre travail est d’améliorer ce taux afin de parvenir à sauver efficacement les embryons hybrides P. coccineus (♀) x P. vulgaris. Nous avons tout d’abord étudié les conditions de régénération in vitro des embryons obtenus par autofécondations, pour les appliquer ensuite aux embryons hybrides interspécifiques. Différents essais ont été réalisés sur base du protocole de culture de gousses. Ce protocole consiste à réaliser la culture de jeunes gousses successivement sur trois milieux à osmolarité décroissante et nommés : P00 (à 580 mosm), P01 (à 450 mosm) et P01 (à 350 mosm). Après une semaine de culture les embryons sont isolés des gousses puis transférés successivement sur les milieux G1 de maturation et germination, G6 de déshydratation, G7g d’induction de racines et G7c de développement en plantules. L’évaluation de ce protocole de culture de gousses chez trois génotypes : NI 637, NI 622 et X 484 de P. vulgaris et un génotype NI 16 de P. coccineus, nous a permis de confirmer les difficultés d’enracinement des embryons germés, comme rapportées auparavant chez NI 637. Toutefois, le retrait de la BAP (0,1 µM) du milieu G1 et la culture, au-dessus du milieu des embryons isolés, ont permis d’obtenir un taux de germination de 91%, c’est-à-dire un taux deux fois plus élevé par rapport au résultats rapportés antérieurement chez NI 637. La culture préalable des embryons en milieu G1 liquide a favorisé, après leur transfert successif sur les milieux gélosés G6, G7g et G7c, l’enracinement et le développement en plantules, en réduisant le brunissement du milieu et la formation de cals. Cela nous a permis d’obtenir un taux de 10% de plantules en croissance, taux trois fois plus élevé par rapport à celui rapporté auparavant en milieu gélosé. Toutes les plantules obtenues, par culture préalable en milieu liquide, ont développé des plantes adultes après un mois d’acclimatation. La culture des embryons en milieu gélosé et l’ajout du charbon actif dans les deux milieux G7g et G7c ont également permis de réduire le brunissement et la formation de cals. Cela a donné un taux de plantules en croissance de 60%, c’est-à-dire un taux 20 fois plus élevé par rapport à celui rapporté auparavant sans charbon actif. Le microbouturage de nœuds cotylédonaires, combiné au protocole de culture de gousses, a permis de régénérer des plantules chez tous les génotypes testés, avec un taux de régénération plus élevé chez NI 16 de P. coccineus (90%) par rapport à P. vulgaris (50%). Cela représente un taux de régénération trois fois plus élevé par rapport au résultat rapporté auparavant avec la culture de gousses seule chez le génotype NI 637 de P. vulgaris. La culture in vitro des embryons en cours d’avortement et isolés de l’ovule au stade cordiforme jeune, combinée au microbouturage de nœuds cotylédonaires, nous a permis d’obtenir, pour la première fois, une plantule hybride P. coccineus (NI 16) x P. vulgaris (NI 637). Notre protocole, qui combine le protocole de culture de gousses et le microbouturage de nœuds cotylédonaires, pourrait être une alternative intéressante pour le sauvetage d’embryons qui avortent au stade globulaire. [less ▲]

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