References of "2012"
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See detailSynthèse de MWNT dans un réacteur continu incliné rotatif à lit mobile par procédé CCVD
Douven, Sigrid ULg; Pirard, Sophie ULg; Chan, Fang-Yue et al

Conference (2012, October)

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See detailPrincipes de droit pénal
Michiels, Olivier ULg; Jacques, Elodie ULg

Learning material (2012)

Le syllabus suit la table des matières suivantes : Titre Premier Principes 2 Chapitre premier : Définition du droit pénal 2 a) Définitions proposées 2 b) D’ordre public 3 c) Distinctions 3 Chapitre 2 ... [more ▼]

Le syllabus suit la table des matières suivantes : Titre Premier Principes 2 Chapitre premier : Définition du droit pénal 2 a) Définitions proposées 2 b) D’ordre public 3 c) Distinctions 3 Chapitre 2 : Principes généraux 4 Section 1 : Le caractère d’ordre public de la loi pénale 4 1.1 Il n’est pas permis de déroger au droit pénal par des convention particulières 4 1.2 Nul ne peut s’engager valablement à commettre une infraction 4 1.3 Nul ne peut consentir à être victime d’une infraction 5 Section 2 : le principe de légalité 5 2.1 L’intervention du pouvoir législatif 5 2.2 Nulla poena sine lege 5 2.3 Le caractère écrit du droit pénal 7 Section 3 : Le principe non bis in idem 7 3.1 Le principe 7 3.2 L’éclairage européen 8 Section 4 : L’autonomie du droit pénal 9 Section 5 : L’application de la loi pénale dans le temps 10 5.1 L’entrée en vigueur de la loi pénale 10 5.2 Les principes portés par l’article 2 du Code pénal 10 5.3 Les exceptions au principe de la non rétroactivité de la loi pénale 12 5.4 L’appréciation de la loi la plus douce 13 5.5 La position adoptée par la Cour constitutionnelle : une approche pragmatique de la sanction 14 Section 6 : L’application de la loi pénale dans l’espace 16 6.1 Le principe de la territorialité du droit belge 16 6.2 Les exceptions portées par les articles 6 à 14 du titre préliminaire du Code de procédure pénale 17 Section 7 : l’application de la loi pénale quant aux personnes 17 7.1 Principe 17 7.2 De quelques exceptions au principe 17 Section 8 : L’interprétation de la loi pénale 19 8.1 Le principe : l’interprétation stricte 19 8.2 Son corollaire : l’interdiction de l’interprétation par analogie 19 8.3 Les tempéraments aux principes 20 Section 9 : Le principe du contradictoire et le respect des droits de la défense 22 Chapitre 3 : Les sources du droit pénal 25 Section 1 : Les Conventions internationales 25 Section 2 : La Constitution belge 25 Section 3 : Les lois et les décrets 26 Section 4 : Les principes généraux du droit 27 Section 5 : Les arrêtés royaux et ministériels et les règlements provinciaux et communaux 27 Section 6 : la jurisprudence et la doctrine 28 Chapitre 4 : L’article 100 du Code pénal 29 Section 1 : Le principe 29 Section 2 : Les dérogations au principe 29 Titre 2 L’infraction 33 Chapitre premier : La division des infractions 33 Section 1 Classification tripartite des infractions 33 1.1 Le crime, le délit, la contravention 33 1.2 Conséquences de cette division 34 Section 2 L’infraction intentionnelle, l’infraction non intentionnelle et l’infraction réglementaire. 36 2.1 Des infractions intentionnelles et non intentionnelles 36 2.2 Des infractions réglementaires 36 Section 3 L’infraction instantanée et l’infraction continue. 36 3.1 Définitions 36 3.2 Conséquences 37 Section 4 L’infraction simple et l’infraction collective 37 4.1 Définitions 37 4.2 Conséquences 37 Section 5 L’infraction d’habitude 39 5.1 Définition 39 5.2 Conséquence 39 Section 6 L’infraction politique et le délit de presse 39 6.1 L’infraction politique 39 6.2 Le délit de presse 39 6.3 Conséquence principale 40 Chapitre 2 : Les éléments constitutifs de l’infraction 40 Section 1 : L’élément légal 40 Section 2 : L’élément matériel 40 2.1 Notion 40 2.2 Les formes de l’acte matériel 41 2.3 La tentative 42 2.3.1 La tentative punissable 42 a) Notions 42 b) Eléments constitutifs en droit belge 43 2.3.2 La tentative impossible 44 2.3.3 La répression de la tentative 45 a) De la tentative de crime, de délit et de contravention. 45 b) De la tentative de participation 45 Section 3 : L’élément moral 45 3.1 Notion 45 3.1.1 L’imputabilité morale 46 3.1.2 Le mobile 47 3.2. Le dol 48 3.2.1 Les degrés du dol. 49 3.2.2 Les différentes formes du dol 50 a) Le dol déterminé ou indéterminé 50 b) Le dol direct et le dol éventuel 50 3.3 L’arrêt de la Cour de cassation du 22 octobre 2008 51 3.4 La faute 52 3.4.1 Notion 52 3.4.2 La théorie de l’identité entre la faute pénale et la faute civile 53 3.4.3 La théorie de la causalité 54 Un tempérament à la théorie de l’équivalence des conditions : Fraus omnia corrumpit 57 3.5 L’élément moral des infractions qualifiées de réglementaires ou de contraventionnelles 58 3.6 Synthèse 58 3.6.1 Pour les infractions du Code pénal 58 3.6.2 Pour les infractions prévues par les lois particulières 59 3.7 La doctrine du Professeur Legros – l’Ecole de l’ULB 59 Section 4 : Les causes de justification objectives 59 4.1 Notion 59 4.2 La légitime défense 60 4.2.1 Principe et champ d’application 60 4.2.2 Conditions 61 4.2.3 Présomptions de l’article 417 du Code pénal 63 4.3 L’ordre ou l’autorisation de la loi 64 4.4 L’ordre de l’autorité ou le commandement légal de l’autorité 64 4.5 L’état de nécessité 65 4.5.1 Définition 65 4.5.2 Conditions 66 4.6 Aspects procéduraux 68 Titre 3. Imputabilité 69 Chapitre 1 : L’auteur de l’infraction 69 Section 1 : L’imputabilité physique et l’imputabilité morale 69 1.1 Notion 69 1.2 Les modes d’imputation 70 1.3 La délégation 72 Section 2 : La responsabilité pénale des personnes morales 74 2.1 Introduction 74 2.2 Le champ d’application de la loi 76 2.2.1 Principe 77 2.2.2 Limites 77 2.3 Le régime de la responsabilité pénale de la personne morale 78 2.3.1 Les conditions de la responsabilité pénale de la personne morale 78 a) Les infractions intrinsèquement liées à la réalisation de l’objet de la personne morale 78 b) Les infractions intrinsèquement liées à la défense des intérêts de la personne morale 78 c) Les infractions commises pour le compte de la personne morale 78 2.3.2 L’élément moral 79 2.3.3 La responsabilité exclusive de la personne physique ou de la personne morale 80 2.3.4 Le cumul de responsabilité 82 2.4 Les peines applicables aux personnes morales 83 2.4.1. L’amende 83 2.4.2. Les peines spécifiques 84 2.4.3. La confiscation 85 2.4.4. Les autres peines accessoires 85 2.4.5. L’article 50bis du Code pénal 86 2.4.6. Les modalités de la peine 86 2.4.7. Le mandataire ad hoc 86 2.5 L’application de la loi dans le temps 87 Section 3 La participation 88 3.1 Notions générales 88 3.1.1 Base légale 88 3.1.2 Conditions 88 3.2 Les coauteurs 91 3.3 Les complices 92 3.4 De la répression de la participation 93 3.4.1 De la répression de la corréité 93 3.4.2 De la répression de la complicité 93 3.4.3 Remarques générales 94 Chapitre 2. Causes de justification subjectives 95 Section 1 : Notion 95 Section 2 : Les causes de non-imputabilité (sensu stricto) 96 2.1 La minorité 96 2.1.1 Cause de non-imputabilité 96 2.1.2 Mesures 97 2.2 La démence 102 2.2.1 Notion 102 2.2.2 Remarque préalable 102 2.2.3 Régime actuel 103 2.2.4 Bref aperçu du régime de la loi du 21 avril 2007 106 Section 3 : Les causes de non-culpabilité 107 3.1 La contrainte 107 3.1.1 Définition 107 3.1.2 Champ d’application 107 3.1.3 Conditions 107 3.2 L’ignorance et l’erreur invincibles 109 3.2.1 Notion 109 3.2.2 Erreur de fait et erreur de droit 109 3.2.3 Fondement et champ d’application 110 3.2.4 Conditions 111 Section 4 : conséquences 112 4.1 Causes de non imputabilité – causes de non culpabilité 112 4.2 Question relative à l’élément moral pour les causes de non culpabilité 112 4.3 Conséquences civiles 113 Titre 4. La sanction 114 Chapitre 1 : Les peines applicables aux personnes physiques 114 Section 1 : La peine privative de liberté 114 Section 2 : La peine de travail 115 2.1 Notion 115 2.2 Durée de la peine de travail 116 2.3 La combinaison de la peine de travail avec une autre peine 117 2.4 Modalités d’exécution de la peine de travail 117 2.5 La place de la peine de travail dans la hiérarchie des peines 117 Section 3 : La peine d’amende 118 3.1 Notion 118 3.2 L’emprisonnement subsidiaire 119 Section 4 : La confiscation 119 4.1 Notion 119 4.2 Les choses confiscables 121 4.3 Les droits de la victime 123 Section 5 : Les peines privatives de certains droits 123 5.1 La destitution 123 5.2 L’interdiction de certains droits civils et politiques 124 Section 6 : La déclaration de culpabilité 125 6.1 Notion 125 6.2 La question de l’irrecevabilité des poursuites 126 Section 7 : Distinction entre peine et réparation civile du dommage 127 Chapitre 2 : Les circonstances qui influencent la peine 128 Section 1 Les circonstances absolutoires spéciales 128 1.1 Notion et caractères 128 1.2 La dénonciation 129 1.3 La soumission 130 1.4 L’obéissance hiérarchique à un ordre illégal 130 1.5 La parenté et l’alliance 131 1.5.1 Atteintes aux biens à l’intérieur d’une famille 131 1.5.2 Des articles 121 et 341 du Code pénal 131 1.6 L’article 5 alinéa 2 du Code pénal 132 1.7 L’article 47quinquies §2 du Code d’instruction criminelle 133 1.8 L’arrêt de la Cour de cassation du 6 janvier 1998. 133 Section 2 : Les causes d’excuse 135 2.1 Notion 135 2.2 La provocation 135 2.2.1 Principe 135 2.2.2 Conditions 136 2.2.3 Effets 136 2.3 La libération ou la restitution volontaire 137 2.3.1 La prise d’otage (article 347 bis § 3 du Code pénal) 137 2.3.2 L’enlèvement et le recel de mineur (article 430 du Code pénal) 137 2.4 Législations particulières (Illustration : l’article 6, al. 3 et 4 de la loi du 24 février 1921 sur les stupéfiants) 137 Section 3 : Les circonstances aggravantes 138 3.1 Notion 138 3.1.1 Notion générale 138 3.1.2 Des circonstances aggravantes réelles et personnelles 138 3.2 Effets 139 3.2.1 Sur la peine 139 3.2.2 L’effet des circonstances aggravantes sur les participants : la « jurisprudence Goktepe ». 139 Section 4 : Les circonstances atténuantes 141 4.1 Notion 141 4.2 Effets des circonstances atténuantes 141 4.3 La compétence d’attribution et le mécanisme de la correctionnalisation 142 4.3.1 La correctionnalisation opérée par les juridictions d’instruction 143 4.3.2 La correctionnalisation proposée par le ministère public 144 4.3.3 Les innovations apportées au mécanisme de la correctionnalisation par la loi du 8 juin 2008 145 4.3.4 Restriction aux principes : la citation directe par la partie préjudiciée du chef d’un crime 145 4.4 Les circonstances atténuantes de fond 146 4.4.1 Notion 146 4.4.2 Les crimes 146 4.4.3 Les délits 146 4.4.4. Les contraventions 147 Chapitre 3 : Le concours d’infractions 148 Section 1 : Notion générale 148 Section 2 : Le concours matériel d’infractions 148 2.1 Notion 148 2.2 Le concours entre plusieurs crimes 149 2.3 Le concours d’un crime avec un ou plusieurs délits ou contraventions 149 2.4 Le concours de délits 149 2.5 Le concours de crimes correctionnalisés 150 2.6 Le concours de délits et de contraventions 151 2.7 Le concours de contraventions 151 2.8 Règles du concours et confiscation spéciale 151 2.9 Les règles du concours et les circonstances atténuantes 152 Section 3 : Le concours idéal d’infractions 152 Section 4 : Le délit collectif 152 4.1 Notion 152 4.2 Les poursuites simultanées 153 4.3 Les poursuites successives 153 4.4 Délit collectif et peine de travail 154 Chapitre 4 : La récidive 155 Section 1 : Notion 155 Section 2 : Les conditions nécessaires de la récidive légale 156 2.1 Une condamnation antérieure coulée en force de chose jugée. 156 2.2 Une rechute dans la délinquance qui se produit postérieurement à une condamnation prononcée par une juridiction belge en raison d’un crime, d’un délit ou d’une contravention 158 Section 3 : Questions particulières 159 3.1 La récidive et le concours matériel d’infractions 159 3.2 Récidive et circonstances atténuantes 159 3.3 L’application des règles du droit commun de la récidive peut-elle se justifier en cas d’infraction à une législation particulière contenant elle-même des dispositions spécifiques organisant la récidive? ( Récidive et législations particulières) 160 Section 4 : Les différentes hypothèses de récidive 160 4.1 Crime sur crime 160 4.2 Délit sur crime 161 4.3 Délit sur délit 161 4.4 Contravention sur contravention 163 Cette récidive présente un caractère facultatif et est prescriptible. Elle ne concerne pas les délits contraventionnalisés. 164 4.5 Crime sur délit 164 4.6 L’arrêt n° 193/2011 de la Cour constitutionnelle du 15 décembre 2011 165 Section 4 : la mise à la disposition du gouvernement 166 4.1 Notion 166 4.2 La mise à la disposition du gouvernement concerne les récidivistes, les délinquants d’habitude et les auteurs de certains délits sexuels 167 4.3 La mise à la disposition du gouvernement est-elle obligatoire ou facultative? 168 4.4 L’application de la mise à la disposition du gouvernement 169 4.5 Les recours durant l’exécution de la mise à la disposition du gouvernement 170 4.6 L’avenir : la loi du 26 avril 2007 relative à la mise à la disposition du tribunal de l’application des peines 171 Chapitre 5 : Les mesures de sûreté 173 Chapitre 6 : Les modalités de la peine 174 Section 1 : La suspension du prononcé de la condamnation 174 1.1 Notion 174 1.2 Conditions et modalités 174 1.3 Juridictions compétentes pour accorder la suspension du prononcé 175 1.4 Effets de la suspension du prononcé 175 1.5 Révocation 176 Section 2 : Le sursis à l’exécution des peines 177 2.1 Notion 177 2.2 Conditions et modalités 178 2.3 Juridictions compétentes 178 2.4 Effets 179 2.5 Révocation 179 Section 3 : La probation 180 3.1 Notion 180 3.2 Mesures 180 3.3 De la Commission de probation 181 Section 4 : La loi du 24 février 1921 concernant le trafic des substances vénéneuses, soporifiques, stupéfiantes, psychotropes, désinfectantes ou antiseptiques et des substances pouvant servir à la fabrication illicite de substances stupéfiantes et psychotropes. 182 Section 5 : Des modalités d’exécution de la peine : le tribunal d’application des peines et le statut juridique externe des détenus . 183 5.1 Introduction 183 5.2 Le Tribunal de l’application des peines 184 5.2.1 Bases légales 184 5.2.2 Siège 185 5.2.3 Composition 185 5.3 Statut externe des détenus 186 5.3.1 Modalités d’exécution de la peine relevant du ministre de la Justice 186 5.3.2 Modalités d’exécution de la peine relevant du juge et du tribunal de l’application des peines 188 Chapitre 7 : Les obstacles à l’exécution de la peine 190 Section 1 : Le décès 190 Section 2 : La prescription de la peine 190 2.1 Notion 190 2.2 Délais 191 2.3 Interruption de la prescription 191 2.4 Prescription des condamnations civiles 192 Section 3 : La grâce royale 192 3.1 Notion 192 3.2 Effets 192 Chapitre 8 : La disparition des condamnations 193 Section 1 : L’effacement automatique de la condamnation 193 1.1 Notion 193 1.2 Caractéristiques et effets de l’effacement 193 Section 2 : La réhabilitation 194 2.1 Notion 194 2.2 Les conditions requises pour l’obtention de la réhabilitation 194 2.3 Procédure 196 2.4 Les effets de la réhabilitation 196 Section 3 : L’amnistie 197 3.1 Notion 197 3.2 Effets 197 Section 4 : La révision 197 4.1 Notion 197 4.2 Les causes de révision 198 4.3 Procédure 199 Section 5 : L’hypothèse visée par l’article 442bis du Code d’instruction criminelle 199 5.1 Notion 199 5.2 Compétence 200 5.3 Conditions de fond 200 [less ▲]

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See detailRADIATION SHIELDING OF COMPOSITE SPACE ENCLOSURES
Atxaga, G.; Marcos, J.; Jurado, M. et al

Conference (2012, October)

Space electronic systems employ enclosures to shield sensitive components from space radiation. The purpose of shielding is to attenuate the energy and the flux of ionizing radiation as they pass through ... [more ▼]

Space electronic systems employ enclosures to shield sensitive components from space radiation. The purpose of shielding is to attenuate the energy and the flux of ionizing radiation as they pass through the shield material, such that the energy per unit mass (or dose) absorbed in silicon is sufficiently below the maximum dose ratings of electronic components. The received radiation amount varies significantly depending on several variables that include mission parameters (orbit, altitude, inclination and duration), spacecraft design (spacecraft wall thickness and panel-enclosure location). To achieve the optimum shielding with the minimum weight, all these variables have to be considered in the design. Energetic particles, mainly electrons and protons, can destroy or cause malfunctions in spacecraft electronics. The standard practice in space hardware is the use of aluminium as both a radiation shield and structural enclosure. Composite structures show potential for significant mass savings. However, conventional graphite epoxy composites are not as efficient shielding materials as aluminium because of their lower density, that is, for the same mass, composites provide 30 to 40% less radiation attenuation than aluminium. A solution is to embed high density (atomic weight) material into the laminate. This material, typically metallic material, can be dispersed in the composite or used as layers in the laminate (foils). The main objective of the “Radiation Shielding of Composite Space Enclosures” (SIDER) project is the development of the technologies and tools required to obtain lightweight, safe, robust and reliable composite structures. Two different strategies are being analysed as alternatives for radiation shielding: and he incorporation of a high density material foil. This paper will present and analyse the radiation shielding obtained by the incorporation of nanomaterials in composite structures. [less ▲]

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See detailL’État et la gestion de la grippe A(H1N1)
Rossignol, Nicolas ULg; Thoreau, François ULg

in Revue Nouvelle (2012), 10

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See detailEléments de droit des sociétés, 2009-2012
Caprasse, Olivier ULg; Aydogdu, Roman ULg

in Chroniques notariales (2012)

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See detailSaint Jean Baptiste in disco
Van den Bossche, Benoît ULg; Baert, Barbara; Vanhauwaert, Soetkin

in Liège Museum : Bulletin des Musées de la Ville de Liège (2012), hors série

Ce numéro hors série de "Liège Museum" a été publié à l'occasion du dépôt d'une oeuvre exceptionnelle de Jan van Steffeswert, au Musée Grand Curtius (Liège). Dans un premier chapitre, Barbara Baert et ... [more ▼]

Ce numéro hors série de "Liège Museum" a été publié à l'occasion du dépôt d'une oeuvre exceptionnelle de Jan van Steffeswert, au Musée Grand Curtius (Liège). Dans un premier chapitre, Barbara Baert et Soetkin Vanhauwaert traitent des plateaux de saint Jean Baptiste en général en tant que "phénomène médiéval". Dans un second chapitre, Benoît Van den Bossche se penche plus précisément sur l'oeuvre désormais conservée au musée. [less ▲]

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See detailCumulative Time in Band (cTIB): Glycemic Level, Variability and Patient Outcome All in 1
Penning, Sophie ULg; Signal, Matthew; Preiser, Jean-Charles et al

in Intensive Care Medicine (2012, October), 38 (Suppl 1)

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See detailConceptualizing, Measuring and Financing the Legacy Costs in an NDC Reform
Jousten, Alain ULg; Holzmann, Robert

in Journal of Pension Economics & Finance (2012), 11(4), 606-630

The paper provides a framework for the conceptualization, definition and measurement of the legacy costs that needs to be addressed in a reform that transforms an unfunded (or non‐financial) defined ... [more ▼]

The paper provides a framework for the conceptualization, definition and measurement of the legacy costs that needs to be addressed in a reform that transforms an unfunded (or non‐financial) defined benefit (NDB) scheme into an equally unfunded notional (or non‐financial) defined contribution (NDC) scheme. During a transition from NDB to NDC a financing gap typically arises due to accrued to date liabilities from the old system in excess of the NDC scheme’s sustainable flow of benefits. This gap ‐ or legacy cost ‐ needs to be estimated and financed. We illustrate different techniques to gauge the scope of the cost. The paper applies the proposed approach to a hypothetical NDC reform in China. [less ▲]

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See detailStudy of the Boettcher cells along their development: Junctions and expression of the urea-transporter B (UT-B)
Cloes, Marie ULg; Renson, Thomas; Johnen, Nicolas ULg et al

Poster (2012, September 30)

The Boettcher cells (BC) lie on the sensory epithelium of the cochlea. Their function has never been clearly defined. However it has been suggested that they may influence the ionic composition of the ... [more ▼]

The Boettcher cells (BC) lie on the sensory epithelium of the cochlea. Their function has never been clearly defined. However it has been suggested that they may influence the ionic composition of the fluids of the inner ear, which play a central role in the conduction of the sensory information. In this context the compartimentating function of the BC around and after the onset of hearing may influence the subsequent refining of hearing. We collected ultrastructural and immunohistological data during the final maturation stage of the sensory epithelium. In particular the cell junctions were investigated to clarify the compartimentating function of the BC at early stages. As a potential actor in the ion flow in the sensory epithelium, the urea transporter-B (UT-B) was also immunolocalised during the development of the BC. At the mature stage (P25) the BC are linked to the adjacent cells by numerous adherens and non-adherens junctions. They rest on a basilar membrane to which they are attached by hemidesmosomes. They typically exhibit large basolateral interdigitations. We found that, at the 8th postnatal day, the BC are separated from the neighbouring cells by wide spaces entered by scarce cytoplasmic extensions. These spaces are interrupted by areas of close contact, where adherens and non-adherens junctions may be found. Thus, although there seems to be fewer interdigitations at P8, gap junctions probably still allow easy cell-to-cell exchanges. Moreover non-adherens junctions can systematically be identified apically. Although it was impossible to differenciate tight and gap junctions without specific labeling, we postulate that these non-adherens junctions correspond to tight junctions and seal the apex of the BC. This feature is necessary to enable the control of the ion concentrations surrounding the sensory epithelium. We also found that UT-B, known for water and urea transport in red blood cells, is present in the membranes of the BC from P12 (the earliest stage tested) to P25. Thus UT-B may play a role in the regulation of the ionic concentrations of the inner ear fluids. [less ▲]

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See detailWhen should we measure Vitamin D in Clinical Practice
CAVALIER, Etienne ULg

Conference (2012, September 29)

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See detailCardiac surgery and acute kidney injury: retrospective study
LAGNY, Marc-Gilbert ULg; BLAFFART, Francine ULg; Defraigne, Jean-Olivier ULg et al

Conference (2012, September 29)

Background: In cardiac surgery, acute kidney injury (AKI) is a severe postoperative complication and associated with increased rates of mortality, morbidity, and length of stay in intensive care units ... [more ▼]

Background: In cardiac surgery, acute kidney injury (AKI) is a severe postoperative complication and associated with increased rates of mortality, morbidity, and length of stay in intensive care units (ICU). It occurs in 5% to 30% of patients depending on the definition used [1] [2] [3]. The aim of this study is to present an overview of AKI following cardiac surgery associated or not with cardiopulmonary bypass. Methods: This retrospective study includes patients treated by cardiac surgery from April 1st, 2008 to March 31th, 2009 in a single center. We selected patients who underwent on-pump coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG), off-pump CABG (OPCAB), aortic valve replacement, mitral valve repair or replacement and aortic valve replacement combined with CABG. Patients undergoing renal replacement therapy preoperatively were excluded. The RIFLE classification (Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss and End stage kidney disease) allowed to stratify the patients into the 3 grades of AKI severity. The stratification was based on the most pejorative element observed within 7 days after surgery: increased serum creatinine level or decreased urine output, or decreased glomerular filtration rate according to criteria of Bellomo [4]. Occurrence of AKI was studied by type of cardiac surgery as its impact on the length of stay in ICU and in the hospital. Proportions were compared by the Chi-square test and median values by the Kruskal-Wallis. Results were considered significant at p < 0.05. Results: Four hundred and thirty four patients were included: median (IQR) age 69.0(60.0-76.0) year, 30.2% females, 2.76% urgent/emergent cases. Fifty-eight patients (13.4%) underwent OPCAB, 182(41.9%) on-pump CABG, 104(24.0%) aortic valve replacement, 44(10.1%) mitral valve repair or replacement and 46(10.6%) aortic valve replacement combined with CABG. AKI occurred in 213(49.1%) patients: 79(37.1%) “Risk”, 108(50.7%) “Injury” and 26(12,2%) “Failure”. Occurrence of AKI after OPCAB was 21(9.86%), CABG 80(37.6%), aortic valve replacement 51(23.9%), mitral valve surgery 23(10.8%) and aortic valve replacement combined with CABG 38(17.8%). AKI occurrences differed significantly between the different groups of surgery (p<0.0001). Lengths of stay in ICU were significantly longer (p<0.0001) in AKI group compared with non AKI group: 3(2-4) days versus 2(2-3) days. No difference (p = 0.65) was observed between the two (AKI and NON-AKI) groups in hospital length of stay: 13(10-18) days versus 12(10-16) days. Conclusions: The incidence of AKI is very high in this population as compared to the literature. This may be due to the fact that the three elements of the RIFLE classification for all the population studied have been used: serum creatinine level, urine output and glomerular filtration rate. This study emphasizes the need for clear definition of AKI in order to compare adequately different studies. AKI after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass would be further studied in order to develop more appropriate preventive measures. [less ▲]

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See detailHjelmslev's notion of "Participation"
Cigana, Lorenzo ULg

Conference (2012, September 29)

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See detailTransplantation et don d'organes en Belgique
DETRY, Olivier ULg

Conference (2012, September 29)

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See detailAbout the diagnosis of acute transfusion-related reaction during cardiopulmonary bypass
ERPICUM, Marie ULg; BLAFFART, Francine ULg; DEFRAIGNE, Jean ULg et al

Conference (2012, September 29)

Many advances have been realized in the field of blood safety during the last decade: donors’ selection, leukoreduction of packed red blood cells and platelet concentrates, genomic screening of blood ... [more ▼]

Many advances have been realized in the field of blood safety during the last decade: donors’ selection, leukoreduction of packed red blood cells and platelet concentrates, genomic screening of blood-borne diseases, viral and bacterial inactivation process,... However, transfusion of blood components remains unsafe. Therefore, detecting and reporting transfusion-related complications are still essential means for both the patients’ management and the public health approach, since these measures help to adjust preventive measures to be applied in a haemovigilance purpose. Most acute transfusion-related complications occur within minutes or hours after transfusion and require urgent medical care; delayed transfusion reactions may also develop days, even months later, implying a longer follow-up. Transfusion of red blood cells is not infrequent during cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Symptoms of acute transfusion-related reactions include hypotension, diffuse bleeding, hemoglobinuria and oliguria. These symptoms are identical to those that can be observed during a complicated cardiopulmonary bypass. Consequently, identification of acute transfusion-related reactions in this particular situation is quite difficult and probably leads to an under-reporting of their occurrence. In this paper, we explore how to track acute transfusion-related reactions during cardiopulmonary bypass. Any suspicion of such reactions must leads to investigations, in order to confirm the diagnosis. Their detection would allow to better focus their specific treatment and further their notification in a global blood safety policy. [less ▲]

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See detailPostoperative bleeding and autotransfusion
ERPICUM, Marie ULg; BLAFFART, Francine ULg; DEFRAIGNE, Jean ULg et al

Poster (2012, September 29)

Introduction: Bleeding in the postoperative period of cardiac surgery is not infrequent. Mediastinal bleeding is usually collected in a chest drainage system and discarded. Nevertheless, this blood could ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Bleeding in the postoperative period of cardiac surgery is not infrequent. Mediastinal bleeding is usually collected in a chest drainage system and discarded. Nevertheless, this blood could potentially be managed with a cell salvage device during the first six postoperative hours. This practice is generally performed only in case of a surgical re-exploration for massive bleeding and may contribute to decreased allogeneic transfusion. But in case of postoperative coagulopathy requiring medical treatment, re-exploration is usually postponed and consequently, collected blood is discarded. Therefore, chest drainage systems combined with a cell salvage option could optimize the management of blood losses and transfusions in the postoperative period, regardless of any surgical re-exploration. The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of such a system during the postoperative period of cardiac surgery, in patient at high risk of bleeding. Method : During a 6 months period, the CardioPAT® (Haemonetics) device was used in all cardiac surgery patients at high risk of postoperative bleeding. The following data were prospectively collected: hemoglobin level, bleeding volume, volume of autologous washed red blood cell transfused by the CardioPAT® (WRBC), volume of allogeneic red blood cell (RBC), fresh frozen plasma (FFP) or platelets (PT) transfused and surgical re-exploration. Results : The CardioPAT® was used in 16 patients during the target period. Mean postoperative bleeding volume was 338±337mL after 1 hour and 820±727mL after 6 hours. The cell salvage option was used in 9 (56%) cases and mean WRBC transfused volume was 153±212mL. One patient required surgical re-exploration. All patients transfused by WRBC received previously an allogeneic transfusion (RBC, FFP and/or PT). The hemoglobin level of blood collected in the CardioPAT® device impacted on the delay and the blood volume required for WRBC availability; lower was the hemoglobin level, larger was the volume of blood required to obtain a concentrate of WRBC. Consequently, patients with a very low hemoglobin level were anyway transfused with RBC. Conclusion : The CardioPAT® device can reduce allogeneic blood transfusion after cardiac surgery in patients at high risk of bleeding. It gives time to treat coagulopathy, leading to a decrease of surgical re-exploration. However, a device with a larger reservoir and with a flexible processing speed would be more accurate in case of major haemorrhage. Systematic utilisation of this device at the time of FFP and/or PT transfusion is a safe but expensive strategy. It seems more accurate to use this device in a permissive bleeding strategy, waiting for the spontaneous coagulation recovery of the patient, in the first postoperative hours. [less ▲]

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See detailMultimodality blood conservation strategy in cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass : the CHU of Liège experience
ERPICUM, Marie ULg; BLAFFART, Francine ULg; DEFRAIGNE, Jean ULg et al

Poster (2012, September 29)

Introduction: The aim of this study is to analyze the transfusion rates of cardiac surgery patients in a single centre following an in-house strategy of blood conservation. Methods: The data of all adult ... [more ▼]

Introduction: The aim of this study is to analyze the transfusion rates of cardiac surgery patients in a single centre following an in-house strategy of blood conservation. Methods: The data of all adult patients undergoing normothermic cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) over a 1 year period were retrospectively collected (n=491). Management protocols were described. The transfusion rates of allogeneic blood components were recorded: red blood cells (RBC), fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and platelets (PT), as well as the number of units transfused. The timing of transfusion was categorized: during CPB (peroperative period), within the first 48 postoperative hours after wean out CPB (early postoperative period) and during the hospitalisation from surgery until discharge (hospitalisation). The hematocrit values were recorded during CPB, 10 minutes after wean out CPB, after the first 48 postoperative hours and at discharge from hospital. Results: Two hundred and forty-eight patients (50%) received an allogeneic blood component transfusion during hospitalisation. One hundred and twenty-one patients (25%) received RBC during the operative period; the median of units transfused was 2(1-2).The lowest hematocrit value during CPB was 21(19-24) % in median. A cell salvage device was used in each case: the median volume of washed red blood cells transfused was 678(512-891) mL. The median hematocrit value after CPB was 23(21-25) %. One hundred and sixty-five patients (34%) were transfused in the early postoperative period: 27% received RBC, 18% received FFP and 18% received PT. The median of units transfused was 2(1-3) for RBC, 4(2-6) for FFP and 1(1-2) for PT. The median hematocrit value after 48 hours was 32(29-34) % and 32(30-35) % at discharge. Conclusion: The transfusion rates observed in this series are relatively high compared with the literature. Improvements will be made in our practice and protocols management in order to decrease the need of transfusion. This detailed audit of the transfusion practices in our cardiac surgery centre would be helpful to value the effectiveness of further improvements. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis of stratospheric NO2 trends above Jungfraujoch using ground-based UV-visible, FTIR, and satellite nadir observations
Hendrick, F; Mahieu, Emmanuel ULg; Bodeker, G E et al

in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (2012), 12

The trend in stratospheric NO2 column at the NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change) station of Jungfraujoch (46.5°N, 8.0°E) is assessed using ground-based FTIR and zenith ... [more ▼]

The trend in stratospheric NO2 column at the NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change) station of Jungfraujoch (46.5°N, 8.0°E) is assessed using ground-based FTIR and zenith-scattered visible sunlight SAOZ measurements over the period 1990 to 2009 as well as a composite satellite nadir data set constructed from ERS-2/GOME, ENVISAT/SCIAMACHY, and METOP-A/GOME-2 observations over the 1996–2009 period. To calculate the trends, a linear least squares regression model including explanatory variables for a linear trend, the mean annual cycle, the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), solar activity, and stratospheric aerosol loading is used. For the 1990–2009 period, statistically indistinguishable trends of -3.7±1.1%/decade and -3.6±0.9%/decade are derived for the SAOZ and FTIR NO2 column time series, respectively. SAOZ, FTIR, and satellite nadir data sets show a similar decrease over the 1996–2009 period, with trends of -2.4±1.1%/decade, -4.3±1.4%/decade, and -3.6±2.2%/decade, respectively. The fact that these declines are opposite in sign to the globally observed +2.5%/decade trend in N2O, suggests that factors other than N2O are driving the evolution of stratospheric NO2 at northern mid-latitudes. Possible causes of the decrease in stratospheric NO2 columns have been investigated. The most likely cause is a change in the NO2/NO partitioning in favor of NO, due to a possible stratospheric cooling and a decrease in stratospheric chlorine content, the latter being further confirmed by the negative trend in the ClONO2 column derived from FTIR observations at Jungfraujoch. Decreasing ClO concentrations slows the NO+ ClO -> NO2 + Cl reaction and a stratospheric cooling slows the NO+O3 -> NO2 +O2 reaction, leaving more NOx in the form of NO. The slightly positive trends in ozone estimated from ground- and satellitebased data sets are also consistent with the decrease of NO2 through the NO2 +O3 -> NO3 +O2 reaction. Finally, we cannot rule out the possibility that a strengthening of the Dobson-Brewer circulation, which reduces the time available for N2O photolysis in the stratosphere, could also contribute to the observed decline in stratospheric NO2 above Jungfraujoch. [less ▲]

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