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See detailLa protéine JNKBP1 agit comme un régulateur négatif de la signalisation de NOD2 en inhibant son processus d’oligomérisation
Lecat, Aurore ULg

Doctoral thesis (2012)

Le récepteur cytoplasmique NOD2 est l'un des membres les mieux caractérisés de la famille des NLRs. NOD2 est capable de détecter le muramyldipeptide (MDP), un composant de la paroi bactérienne, ce qui ... [more ▼]

Le récepteur cytoplasmique NOD2 est l'un des membres les mieux caractérisés de la famille des NLRs. NOD2 est capable de détecter le muramyldipeptide (MDP), un composant de la paroi bactérienne, ce qui induit les différentes cascades de signalisation conduisant à l'activation de NF-κB, des MAPKs et de l'autophagie. Ces voies contribuent à une réponse immunitaire innée et adaptative efficace. La perte de fonction des mutants NOD2 a été associée à une plus grande susceptibilité à la maladie de Crohn, ce qui souligne l'importance physiologique de la régulation de l'activité de NOD2. Nous avons effectué une étude par une approche protéomique pour rechercher de nouveaux régulateurs de NOD2. Nous avons généré un modèle cellulaire pour cette étude, les cellules HEK293GNV. Nous avons identifié plusieurs nouveaux partenaires de NOD2, dont la protéine JNKBP1 (c-Jun N-terminal kinase binding protein 1), une protéine scaffold caractérisée par un domaine WD40 en amino-terminal. Nous avons aussi débuté la caractérisation d’autres protéines appartenant aux complexes NOD2 purifiés comme ROCK2 (Rho activated kinase 2) et HDAC5 (Histone deacetylase 5). Au vu de nos premiers résultats, les protéines ROCKs sembleraient être des activateurs de la voie NOD2. Nous nous sommes principalement consacrés à l’étude de JNKBP1 qui a été identifiée, en 1999, comme un partenaire et un régulateur positif de JNK. Nous avons montré que JNKBP1 via son domaine WD40, se lie à NOD2 suite à l’activation par le MDP. Cette interaction atténuait l'activation de NF-κB dépendante de NOD2, la synthèse de l'IL-8 et l’activité antibactérienne de NOD2. JNKBP1 exerçait son effet répresseur en perturbant l’oligomérisation NOD2 et la phosphorylation de la tyrosine de RIP2 : deux étapes nécessaires à la signalisation en aval. En outre, nous avons montré que JNKBP1 et NOD2 étaient exprimées dans l'épithélium intestinal humain et dans les cellules immunitaires recrutées dans la lamina propria, ce qui suggère que JNKBP1 contribuerait au maintien de l'homéostasie intestinale dépendante de NOD2. [less ▲]

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See detailCharon's Size And Orbit From Double Stellar Occultations
Sicardy, Bruno; Braga-Ribas, F.; Widemann, T. et al

in AAS/Division for Planetary Sciences Meeting Abstracts (2012, October 01)

Stellar occultations of a same star by both Pluto and Charon (double events) yield instantaneous relative positions of the two bodies projected in the plane of the sky, at 10km-level accuracy. Assuming a ... [more ▼]

Stellar occultations of a same star by both Pluto and Charon (double events) yield instantaneous relative positions of the two bodies projected in the plane of the sky, at 10km-level accuracy. Assuming a given pole orientation for Charon's orbit, double events provide the satellite plutocentric distance r at a given orbital longitude L (counted from the ascending node on J2000 mean equator), and finally, constraints on its orbit. A double event observed on 22 June 2008 provides r=19,564+/-14 km at L=153.483+/-0.071 deg. (Sicardy et al. 2011), while another double event observed on 4 June 2011 yields: r=19,586+/-15 km at L = 343.211+/-0.072 deg. (all error bars at 1-sigma level). These two positions are consistent with a circular orbit for Charon, with a semi-major axis of a=19,575+\-10 km. This can be compared to the circular orbit found by Buie et al. (2012), based on Hubble Space Telescope data, with a=19,573+/-2 km. The 4 June 2011 stellar occultation provides 3 chords across Charon, from which a radius of Rc= 602.4+/-1.6 km is derived. This value can be compared to that obtained from the 11 July 2005 occultation: Rc= 606.0+/-1.5 km (Person et al. 2006) and Rc= 603.6+/-1.4 km (Sicardy et al. 2006). A third double event, observed on 23 June 2011 is under ongoing analysis, and will be presented. Buie et al. (2012), AJ 144, 15-34 (2012) Person et al, AJ 132, 1575-1580 (2006) Sicardy et al., Nature 439, 52-54 (2006) Sicardy et al., AJ 141, 67-83 (2011) B.S. thanks ANR "Beyond Neptune II". L.A.Y. acknowledges support by NASA, New Horizons and National Geographic grants. We thank B. Barnard, M.J. Brucker, J. Daily, C. Erikson, W. Fukunaga, C. Harlinten, C. Livermore, C. Nance, J.R. Regester, L. Salas, P. Tamblyn, R. Westhoff for help in the observations. [less ▲]

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See detailEvidence for a partial epithelial-mesenchymal transition in rat auditory organ development
Johnen, Nicolas ULg; Francart, Marie-Emilie; Thelen, Nicolas ULg et al

Poster (2012, October 01)

An epithelial-mesenchymal transition is a biological process that allows a polarized epithelial cell to undergo multiple biochemical changes that enable it to assume a mesenchymal cell phenotype. During ... [more ▼]

An epithelial-mesenchymal transition is a biological process that allows a polarized epithelial cell to undergo multiple biochemical changes that enable it to assume a mesenchymal cell phenotype. During this process, epithelial cells loosen cell-cell adhesion, module their polarity and rearrange their cytoskeleton: intermediate filaments typically switch from cytokeratin to vimentin. They also enhance their motility capacity. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition plays key roles in the formation of the body plan and in the differentiation of multiple tissues and organs but it is also involved in tissue repair, tissue homeostasis, fibrosis, and carcinoma progression. Until now, epithelial-mesenchymal transition has been rarely mentioned in the inner ear organogenesis. In chick, epithelial-mesenchymal transition has been reported as a possible mechanism of semicircular canal morphogenesis. More recently, an in vitro study has also indicated that sensory epithelial cells from mouse utricle can undergo an epithelial-mesenchymal transition to become cells expressing features of prosensory cells. By contrast, epithelial-mesenchymal transition has never been observed during auditory organ morphogenesis. The auditory organ, the organ of Corti, is a highly specialized structure composed by specific cellular types. The sensory cells are characterized by stereocilia at their apex and are necessary for the sound perception. Theses cells are supported by supporting cells. Based on their morphology and physiology, at least four types of supporting cells can be identified in the organ of Corti: inner and outer pillar cells, phalangeal cell and Deiter’s cells. The inner pillar cells and outer pillar cells combine to form the tunnel of Corti, a fluid filled triangular space that separates the single row of inner hair cells from the first row of outer hair cells. The Nuel spaces are another interval in the organ of Corti that is situated between the outer pillar cells and the different rows of outer hair cells and Deiters cells. To determine whether an epithelial-mesenchymal transition may play a role in the morphogenesis of the auditory organ, we studied the spatial localization of several epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers, the cell-cell adhesion molecules and intermediate filament cytoskeletal proteins, in epithelium of the dorsal cochlea during development of the rat organ of Corti from 18th embryonic day until 25th postnatal day. We examined by confocal microscopy immunolabelings on cryosections of whole cochleae with antibodies anti-cytokeratins as well as with antibodies anti-vimentin, anti-E-cadherin and anti-beta-catenin.Our results showed a partial loss of E-cadherin and beta-catenin between supporting cells at P8 and P12, respectively, and a temporary appearance of vimentin in pillar cells and Deiters between P8 and P10. Our results show a local loss of adhesion between supporting cells of the OC from P8, an increase expression of cytokeratins in supporting cells around P10 and a temporary appearance of vimentin in supporting cells at P8-10. These observations suggest that a partial epithelial-mesenchymal transition might be involved in the remodeling of the Corti organ during the postnatal stages of development in rat. [less ▲]

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See detailThe nature of the high Galactic latitude O-star HD 93521: new results from X-ray and optical spectroscopy
Rauw, Grégor ULg; Morel, Thierry ULg; Palate, Matthieu ULg

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2012), 546

Context. Owing to its unusual location and its isolation, the nature of the high Galactic latitude O9.5 Vp object HD 93521 is still uncertain. <BR /> Aims: We have collected X-ray and optical observations ... [more ▼]

Context. Owing to its unusual location and its isolation, the nature of the high Galactic latitude O9.5 Vp object HD 93521 is still uncertain. <BR /> Aims: We have collected X-ray and optical observations to characterize the star and its surroundings. <BR /> Methods: X-ray images and spectra are analysed to search for traces of a recent star formation event around HD 93521 and to search for the signature of a possible compact companion. Optical echelle spectra are analysed with plane-parallel model atmosphere codes, assuming either a spherical star or a gravity darkened rotationally flattened star, to infer the effective temperature and surface gravity, and to derive the He, C, N and O abundances of HD 93521. <BR /> Results: The X-ray images reveal no traces of a population of young low-mass stars coeval with HD 93521. The X-ray spectrum of HD 93521 is consistent with a normal late O-type star although with subsolar metallicity. No trace of a compact companion is found in the X-ray data. In the optical spectrum, He and N are found to be overabundant, in line with the effect of rotational mixing in this very fast rotator, whilst C and O are subsolar. A critical comparison with the properties of subdwarf OB stars, indicates that, despite some apparent similarities, HD 93521 does not belong to this category. <BR /> Conclusions: Despite some ambiguities on the runaway status of the star, the most likely explanation is that HD 93521 is a Population I massive O-type star that was ejected from the Galactic plane either through dynamical interactions or a result of a supernova event in a binary system. Based on observations collected at the Observatoire de Haute Provence (France) and with XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA member states and the USA (NASA).Hα images are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/546/A77">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/546/A77</A> [less ▲]

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See detailISU team project: Space debris mitigation and removal
Adriaensen, Maarten; Rüdiger, Jehn; Gini, Andrea et al

in Proceedings of the 63rd International Astronautical Congress, IAC (2012, October 01)

The space debris problem has been studied for over 30 years. However, we are still far away from implementing an effective approach to solve the problem. A solution will require several aspects to be ... [more ▼]

The space debris problem has been studied for over 30 years. However, we are still far away from implementing an effective approach to solve the problem. A solution will require several aspects to be addressed: technological development, political and legal frameworks, financial and business aspects, and strategies of raising awareness in the general public and political decision makers. Most spacefaring nations appear to be adopting a 'wait-and-see' approach to the problem. All these aspects are investigated with a multidisciplinary approach. The paper addresses debris mitigation and removal from a technical perspective. Then, political, legal, economic and organisational aspects are described, as well as the awareness issue of the problem. Finally a set of recommendations is offered in the frame of a roadmap comprising short-term (2013-2016), mid-term (2016-2020) and long-term (2020-2053). The recommendations will show how to build-up the technological knowledge, and the economic and legal framework to enable, starting in 2020, a sustainable use of space thanks to the full adherence of mitigation guidelines and the active removal of 10 extra-large debris per year managed by a dedicated international organisation supported by adequate funding. This paper is based on the findings of the International Space University Space Studies Programme (ISU SSP) Team Project: Space Debris Mitigation and Removal. The findings are the result of the research of a team consisting of about 40 professionals and students active in the field of space at the ISU SSP. The Programme was organised by ISU in cooperation with Florida Institute of Technology and NASA Kennedy Space Center. [less ▲]

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See detailUsage, Usability, and Utility of 3D City models
Leduc, Thomas; Moreau, Guillaume; Billen, Roland ULg

Book published by edp Sciences (2012)

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See detailL’État et la gestion de la grippe A(H1N1)
Rossignol, Nicolas ULg; Thoreau, François ULg

in Revue Nouvelle (2012), 10

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See detailOptimization of POP analysis in small sample amounts.
L'Homme, Benjamin ULg; Focant, Jean-François ULg

Conference (2012, October)

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See detailLes spécificités de la gestion d'une maison de luxe : vers une modélisation atemporelle de la performance
Riguelle, France ULg; Van Caillie, Didier ULg

in AIREPME (Ed.) Actes du CIFEPME 2012 (2012, October)

Le but ultime de la présente recherche est de modéliser la performance des maisons de luxe de manière transversale (nous décidons de ne pas privilégier l’approche marketing comme une grande partie de la ... [more ▼]

Le but ultime de la présente recherche est de modéliser la performance des maisons de luxe de manière transversale (nous décidons de ne pas privilégier l’approche marketing comme une grande partie de la littérature dédiée à la gestion des métiers du luxe) et atemporelle. Nous proposons d’organiser, au travers du Prime de la Performance (Neely, Adams et Kennerley, 2002), les FCS dont la mise en œuvre permet d’atteindre la performance globale. Cette recherche constitue donc un premier pas vers une modélisation de la performance de la maison de luxe. [less ▲]

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See detailCultiver d’autres expertises sur les sciences et les technologies
Thoreau, François ULg

in Revue Nouvelle (2012), 10

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See detailL’affaire du voile en Belgique : la vision médiatique de la femme arabo-musulmane réduite à son voile
Luceno Moreno, Marta ULg

Conference (2012, October)

Cela fait maintenant plus de 20 ans que l’affaire du voile a éclaté en Belgique pour la première fois, contaminée par le débat public ouvert en France après l’exclusion du lycée de Creil de trois jeunes ... [more ▼]

Cela fait maintenant plus de 20 ans que l’affaire du voile a éclaté en Belgique pour la première fois, contaminée par le débat public ouvert en France après l’exclusion du lycée de Creil de trois jeunes qui portaient le hijab. Comme en France, depuis 1989 la question du hijab apparaît et disparaît de la scène médiatique belge par intermittence. À la différence de la France, qui en 2004 se penche sur la question afin de trouver une solution juridique fermant définitivement la controverse, la question du hijab à l’école va rester perpétuellement dans le débat belge par manque de solutions politiques. Toutefois, si dans un premier temps la question du hijab se posait uniquement dans les écoles, à partir de 2004 le débat s'élargit et concerne peu à peu les administrations publiques, les salles de justice ou le Parlement, avant d’occuper la totalité de l’espace public avec la question de la burqa. [less ▲]

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See detailIntroduction générale : les organisations régionales dans les relations internationales
Santander, Sébastian ULg

in Santander, Sébastian (Ed.) Relations internationales et régionalisme. Entre dynamiques internes et projections mondiales (2012)

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See detailQTL mapping and candidate gene research for the phenolic content of fruits and juices prepared from a cider apple progeny
Verdu, Cindy ULg; Guyot, Sylvain; Childebrand, Nicolas et al

Poster (2012, October)

Polyphenols have favorable antioxidant potential on human health suggesting that their high content in apple is responsible for the beneficial effects of apple consumption. They are also related to the ... [more ▼]

Polyphenols have favorable antioxidant potential on human health suggesting that their high content in apple is responsible for the beneficial effects of apple consumption. They are also related to the quality of ciders as they predominantly account for astringency, bitterness, color and aroma. Five groups of phenolic compounds are described in the apple fruit: flavanols, hydroxycinnamic acids, dihydrochalcones, flavonols and anthocyanins. So far, only two studies have been published on the genetic basis of the phenolic content of dessert apples. As cider apples are commonly described to be much more concentrated in phenolic compounds than dessert varieties, the present study focuses on a cider apple progeny. 32 compounds belonging to the five groups were identified and quantified by HPLC-UV and UHPLC-UV-MS/MS in fruit extracts and juices. 53 QTL controlling phenolic compounds concentration were detected on nine linkage groups (LG) on the integrated linkage map, for all phenolic groups except anthocyanins. QTL clusters located on LG1, 12, 14, 15 and 17 were stable across the year or the studied material. QTL detected on LG1, 14 and 17 for quercitrin, p-coumaroylquinic acid, rutin and chlorogenic acid confirmed results of previous studies. However, no significant QTL was obtained on the LG16 where a major locus for flavanols was previously located. With the two previous studies, this study shows the diversity of genomic regions controlling traits of interest in apple. [less ▲]

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See detailInvariances et ruptures dans le Mercosur
Santander, Sébastian ULg

in Santander, Sébastian (Ed.) Relations internationales et régionalisme. Entre dynamiques internes et projections mondiales (2012)

Cette contribution se penche sur le mode de gouvernance régionale mis en place au travers du Marché commun du sud (Mercosur). En vingt ans d’existence, ce dernier est parvenu à se doter d’une série de ... [more ▼]

Cette contribution se penche sur le mode de gouvernance régionale mis en place au travers du Marché commun du sud (Mercosur). En vingt ans d’existence, ce dernier est parvenu à se doter d’une série de stratégies et d’institutions communes. Il se démarque par sa nature multidimensionnelle et partant se veut une forme de laboratoire des modes de coopération dans des domaines aussi variés que l’économie, le commerce, l’enseignement ou le politique. Toutefois, l’intégration régionale est définie et contrôlée principalement par les États qui la composent et la défense des intérêts nationaux se fait souvent au détriment des engagements communautaires occasionnant d’âpres conflits intrarégionaux. Cette situation révèle les grandes difficultés des instances régionales à résoudre sereinement les différends entre États. Enfin, contrairement aux prédictions, le nationalisme économique et radicalisme politique de cette dernière décennie ne favorisent pas la consolidation de l’intégration et la cohésion régionale. [less ▲]

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See detailAllelic heterogeneity of Crooked Tail Syndrome: result of balancing selection?
Sartelet, Arnaud ULg; Klingbeil, Pamela; Franklin, Chris et al

in Animal Genetics (2012), 43(5), 604-607

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See detailMaths & Manips pour le primaire. Favoriser l'apprentissage des grandeurs par des manipulations
Guissard, Marie-France; Henry, Valérie ULg; Vansimpsen, Sylvie et al

Conference (2012, October)

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See detailMolecular analysis of the interfacial and membrane-interacting properties of D-xylose-based bolaforms
Nasir, Mehmet Nail ULg; Legrand, Vincent; Gatard, Sylvain et al

Poster (2012, October)

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See detailTHE POTENTIAL USE OF NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY FOR THE QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS
GALIŞ, Anca; Dale, Laura ULg; Boudry, Christelle ULg et al

in Scientific Works. C Series. Veterinary Medicine (2012), LVIII(3), 294-307

In a context of high productivity, eggs’ quality assessment is necessary for enhanced safety and quality assurance towards the consumers and feedback for producers. The quality assessment of eggs and egg ... [more ▼]

In a context of high productivity, eggs’ quality assessment is necessary for enhanced safety and quality assurance towards the consumers and feedback for producers. The quality assessment of eggs and egg products is performed using destructive and time-consuming methods, therefore the use of rapid tools becomes mandatory, especially in the case of a high production rate. Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is considered a very reliable and rapid technique with large use in food industry. At the farm level, NIR spectroscopy technique would be an interesting tool to determine the chemical and physical properties of eggs, eggshell and internal quality and, moreover, this information may help the layer farm manager when a problem occurs in the flock. Its application in the egg industry is aimed at the quality changes in eggs during storage and quality assessment of the egg products, through the compositional analysis. It is possible and in some cases successful the prediction and/or determination of different parameters such as: protein, total lipid and total solids content (for liquid egg products), polyunsaturated fatty acids (for freeze-dried egg yolk), moisture, fat and protein content (for spray-dried whole eggs). In addition, for the white colored shell eggs, the detection of blood and meat spots is also successful. Further studies with NIR and near infrared hyper spectral imaging system (NIR-HSI) are needed in this direction, as the results obtained until now are very promising for the development of a rapid tool for quality assessment of eggs and egg products. [less ▲]

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