References of "2011"
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See detailAntibiotic resistance: lessons from the soil
Rigali, Sébastien ULg

Scientific conference (2011)

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See detailAction des cultures protectrices : cas des germes lactiques sur la flore alimentaire indésirable.
Privat, Kouakou; Thonart, Philippe ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2011), 15(2), 339-348

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See detailSpatial aggregation of tropical trees at multiple spatial scales
Réjou-Méchain, Maxime; Flores, Olivier; Bourland, Nils ULg et al

in Journal of Ecology (2011), 99

1. In tropical forests, species distribution patterns may be strongly context-dependent owing to local stochasticity of recruitment and⁄ or to the specific history and environment of each site. Recent ... [more ▼]

1. In tropical forests, species distribution patterns may be strongly context-dependent owing to local stochasticity of recruitment and⁄ or to the specific history and environment of each site. Recent studies have reported, however, that the degree of spatial aggregation of tropical tree species is partly determined by some species traits irrespectively of site conditions, at least at a very local scale (<200 m). 2. Here, we used standardized large-scale forest inventories of five Central African tropical forests (9670 0.5-ha plots spread over 5550 km2) to quantify the spatial aggregation of 106 tropical tree species at larger spatial scales. For this purpose, we developed a new statistic to quantify the respective contributions of different spatial scales to the aggregation patterns, and we tested whether patterns were consistent across sites. We finally asked whether species characteristics related to dispersal ability, to response to disturbances and to biogeographical range could significantly explain aggregation patterns. 3. Although aggregation patterns varied substantially among sites within each species, they displayed inter-site consistencies (21–24%of the total variance explained by species identity) at the local scale (0.2–1 km) and at the mesoscale (1–10 km) but not at the landscape scale (>10 km). At the two former scales, upper taxonomical levels (family and⁄or order) significantly explained variation in the degree of species aggregation, while at the landscape scale, aggregation was entirely contingent on the site considered. Few species characteristics, except dispersal syndromes and wood density, were able to significantly explain aggregation patterns. 4. Synthesis. One of our most striking results is the high context dependence of species aggregation patterns, whatever the spatial scale considered. However, we showed that species distribution patterns can be predicted, to an extent, at spatial scales much larger than previously investigated in this context. Such patterns may be explained by traits displaying phylogenetic conservatism [less ▲]

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See detailRhoGDI alpha-dependent balance between RhoA and RhoC is a key regulator of cancer cell tumorigenesis
Ho, Thi Thanh Giang ULg; Stultiens, Audrey; Dubail, Johanne ULg et al

in Molecular Biology of the Cell (2011), 22(17), 3263-75

RhoGTPases are key signaling molecules regulating main cellular functions such as migration, proliferation, survival, and gene expression through interactions with various effectors. Within the RhoA ... [more ▼]

RhoGTPases are key signaling molecules regulating main cellular functions such as migration, proliferation, survival, and gene expression through interactions with various effectors. Within the RhoA-related subclass, RhoA and RhoC contribute to several steps of tumor growth, and the regulation of their expression affects cancer progression. Our aim is to investigate their respective contributions to the acquisition of an invasive phenotype by using models of reduced or forced expression. The silencing of RhoC, but not of RhoA, increased the expression of genes encoding tumor suppressors, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-activated gene 1 (NAG-1), and decreased migration and the anchorage-independent growth in vitro. In vivo, RhoC small interfering RNA (siRhoC) impaired tumor growth. Of interest, the simultaneous knockdown of RhoC and NAG-1 repressed most of the siRhoC-related effects, demonstrating the central role of NAG-1. In addition of being induced by RhoC silencing, NAG-1 was also largely up-regulated in cells overexpressing RhoA. The silencing of RhoGDP dissociation inhibitor alpha (RhoGDIalpha) and the overexpression of a RhoA mutant unable to bind RhoGDIalpha suggested that the effect of RhoC silencing is indirect and results from the up-regulation of the RhoA level through competition for RhoGDIalpha. This study demonstrates the dynamic balance inside the RhoGTPase network and illustrates its biological relevance in cancer progression. [less ▲]

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See detailNZEB Definitions: current market status and certification in Belgium
Mlecnik; Attia, Shady ULg

Report (2011)

The recast of the European Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) requires the uptake of a definition of so called ‘nearly zero energy’ buildings (nZEB). Belgium was first to set a definition for a ... [more ▼]

The recast of the European Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) requires the uptake of a definition of so called ‘nearly zero energy’ buildings (nZEB). Belgium was first to set a definition for a ‘net zero energy house’ (NZEB) in 2009. Every year the definition is revised for consistency with shortcomings and emerging issues. The Belgian definition raised many questions regarding (1) the net balance, (2) the application and calculation method (3) the indoor air quality and comfort, (4) energy use included in the balance, (5) the type of buildings, (6) the accepted renewable energy supply options, (7) the quality assurance and monitoring and (8) energy storage and the connection to the energy infrastructure. Therefore, the paper presents a review on the current Belgian definition and its market status in comparison with the international context. The aim of the paper is to review current definition discussions and pave the way to a more consistent definition. [less ▲]

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See detailExplaining Returns on Venture Capital-Backed Companies: Evidence from Belgium
Alperovych, Yan ULg; Hübner, Georges ULg

in Research in International Business and Finance (2011), 25(3), 277-295

Using a unique database of 990 VC-backed Belgian firms, we study whether compatibility between corporate and environmental characteristics matters. We address two questions: (i) Does the interplay of ... [more ▼]

Using a unique database of 990 VC-backed Belgian firms, we study whether compatibility between corporate and environmental characteristics matters. We address two questions: (i) Does the interplay of company, industry, and product factors affect the expected returns of the VC-backed firms? (ii) Does the joint compatibility between these factors results in a non-linear increase in performance? Panel data analysis shows a significant influence of factor compatibility on returns. Quantile regression analysis indicates a non-linear relationship between the return and its determinants. Conjoint analysis identifies certain combinations of factors, which collapse into classifiable patterns described in the strategic management literature. [less ▲]

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See detailEnjeux autour de la survie de l'Assemblée de l'Union de l'Europe occidentale : tensions, rivalités et contournements
Dumoulin, André ULg

in Wintgens, Sophie; Grégory, Piet (Eds.) La puissance : débat autour des jeux et des enjeux du pouvoir (2011)

Examen des rivalités et des résistances de l'Assemblée de l'UEO face à la décision de dénoncer le traité de Bruxelles modifié

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See detailRésumé C.E., n° 209.061, du 22 novembre 2010, Hottelet et crsts.
Delnoy, Michel ULg

in Aménagement - Environnement (2011), 2

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See detailModélisation par changement d’échelle de l’endommagement et des évolutions de perméabilité dans l’argilite
Levasseur, Séverine ULg; Collin, Frédéric ULg; Charlier, Robert ULg et al

in 20ème Congrès Français de Mécanique (2011)

Le creusement d’excavations souterraines dans une roche est à l’origine de la formation d’une zone endommagée, où des microfissures se développent et perturbent fortement les propriétés de transport du ... [more ▼]

Le creusement d’excavations souterraines dans une roche est à l’origine de la formation d’une zone endommagée, où des microfissures se développent et perturbent fortement les propriétés de transport du matériau. L’objectif de cette étude est de représenter ces phénomènes hydromécaniques par une approche micromécanique d’endommagement, couplée aux évolutions de perméabilité, en présence de contraintes initiales, puis d’en discuter les avantages et les inconvénients sur la base d’une simulation du creusement d’un tunnel dans l’argile à Opalinus relatif à l’expérience SELFRAC. [less ▲]

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See detailSuper-heated Steam Drying: an Innovation of Clean Coal Technology for Lignite
Li, Sheng; Jiang, Bing; Shi, Yongchun et al

Conference (2011)

A comprehensive overview of the status of lignite pre-drying technology is given in this study. The practical problems of high energy consumption, high investment and poor safety exist in the lignite ... [more ▼]

A comprehensive overview of the status of lignite pre-drying technology is given in this study. The practical problems of high energy consumption, high investment and poor safety exist in the lignite drying using the traditional thermal drying, for the reason that the super-heated steam drying technology for lignite is put forward. The mechanism experiment research and pilot-scale test research of the super-heated steam drying technology for lignite were carried out, and the results show that the drying efficiency of the super-heated steam is better than the hot air at given conditions, the lignite drying can be accomplished stably and continuously and the drying product can meet the requirement of the industrial application of the lignite fired power plant. A more innovative approach as a new lignite Super-heated steam low-rank Coal Upgrading (SCU) is proposed by Energy Conservation Research Center of Shandong Academy of Sciences. The technical advancement in terms of energy-saving and safety among the applied technologies are compared and analyzed, and the results show this technology has the advantages of low energy consumption, high safety and energy saving. To sum up, the exploitation of the super-heated steam drying technology for lignite fired power plant can promote the development of the energy and power industry, and the technology has wide application prospect. [less ▲]

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See detailLong-lasting effect of subliminal processes on cardiovascular responses and performance.
Capa, Rémi ULg; Cleeremans, Axel; Bustin, Gaëlle ULg et al

in International journal of psychophysiology : official journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology (2011), 81(1), 22-30

Students were exposed to a priming task in which subliminal representations of the goal of studying were directly paired (priming-positive group) or not (priming group) to positive words. A control group ... [more ▼]

Students were exposed to a priming task in which subliminal representations of the goal of studying were directly paired (priming-positive group) or not (priming group) to positive words. A control group without subliminal prime of the goal was added. Just after the priming task, students performed an easy or a difficult learning task based on their coursework. Participants in the priming-positive group performed better and had a stronger decrease of pulse transit time and pulse wave amplitude reactivity than participants of the two other groups, but only during the difficult condition. Results suggested that subliminal priming induces effortful behavior extending over twenty five minutes but only when the primes had been associated with visible positive words acting as a reward. These findings provide evidence that subliminal priming can have long-lasting effects on behaviors typical of daily life. [less ▲]

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See detailAn intermediate in the evolution of superfast sonic muscles.
Mok, H.; Parmentier, Eric ULg; Chiu, H. et al

in Frontiers in Zoology (2011), 8

Background Intermediate forms in the evolution of new adaptations such as transitions from water to land and the evolution of flight are often poorly understood. Similarly, the evolution of superfast ... [more ▼]

Background Intermediate forms in the evolution of new adaptations such as transitions from water to land and the evolution of flight are often poorly understood. Similarly, the evolution of superfast sonic muscles in fishes, often considered the fastest muscles in vertebrates, has been a mystery because slow bladder movement does not generate sound. Slow muscles that stretch the swimbladder and then produce sound during recoil have recently been discovered in ophidiiform fishes. Here we describe the disturbance call (produced when fish are held) and sonic mechanism in an unrelated perciform pearl perch (Glaucosomatidae) that represents an intermediate condition in the evolution of super-fast sonic muscles. Results The pearl perch disturbance call is a two-part sound produced by a fast sonic muscle that rapidly stretches the bladder and an antagonistic tendon-smooth muscle combination (part 1) causing the tendon and bladder to snap back (part 2) generating a higher-frequency and greater-amplitude pulse. The smooth muscle is confirmed by electron microscopy and protein analysis. To our knowledge smooth muscle attachment to a tendon is unknown in animals. Conclusion The pearl perch, an advanced perciform teleost unrelated to ophidiiform fishes, uses a slow type mechanism to produce the major portion of the sound pulse during recoil, but the swimbladder is stretched by a fast muscle. Similarities between the two unrelated lineages, suggest independent and convergent evolution of sonic muscles and indicate intermediate forms in the evolution of superfast muscles. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards min max generalization in reinforcement learning
Fonteneau, Raphaël ULg; Murphy, Susan; Wehenkel, Louis ULg et al

in Filipe, Joaquim; Fred, Ana; Sharp, Bernadette (Eds.) Agents and Artificial Intelligence: International Conference, ICAART 2010, Valencia, Spain, January 2010, Revised Selected Papers (2011)

In this paper, we introduce a min max approach for addressing the generalization problem in Reinforcement Learning. The min max approach works by determining a sequence of actions that maximizes the worst ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we introduce a min max approach for addressing the generalization problem in Reinforcement Learning. The min max approach works by determining a sequence of actions that maximizes the worst return that could possibly be obtained considering any dynamics and reward function compatible with the sample of trajectories and some prior knowledge on the environment. We consider the particular case of deterministic Lipschitz continuous environments over continuous state spaces, nite action spaces, and a nite optimization horizon. We discuss the non-triviality of computing an exact solution of the min max problem even after reformulating it so as to avoid search in function spaces. For addressing this problem, we propose to replace, inside this min max problem, the search for the worst environment given a sequence of actions by an expression that lower bounds the worst return that can be obtained for a given sequence of actions. This lower bound has a tightness that depends on the sample sparsity. From there, we propose an algorithm of polynomial complexity that returns a sequence of actions leading to the maximization of this lower bound. We give a condition on the sample sparsity ensuring that, for a given initial state, the proposed algorithm produces an optimal sequence of actions in open-loop. Our experiments show that this algorithm can lead to more cautious policies than algorithms combining dynamic programming with function approximators. [less ▲]

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See detailPowdered lipid nano and microparticles : production and applications
Berton, Amandine; Piel, Géraldine ULg; Evrard, Brigitte ULg

in Recent Patents on Drug Delivery & Formulation (2011), 5(3), 188-200

This review details articles and recent patents in an emerging topic called powdered form of nano- and microparticles. Solid lipid particles were developed in the early 1990s and since, they have been ... [more ▼]

This review details articles and recent patents in an emerging topic called powdered form of nano- and microparticles. Solid lipid particles were developed in the early 1990s and since, they have been considered as promising drug delivery systems, especially in providing a sustained release profile of the encapsulated drug. This kind of drug delivery system has several advantages, due to its physiological composition. It is generally well tolerated by the human body and are relatively stable during storage in comparison with other carriers like liposomes. The description of these powdered lipid particles, their different production processes and their applications are the focus of the article. [less ▲]

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See detailBelgian Report
Kohl, Benoît ULg; Imbrechts, L.; Mattei, P. et al

in Dutch Construction contracts: views from abroad (2011)