References of "2011"
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See detailCompte-rendu de l'ouvrage de E. Saccone: Ritorni: la seconda lettura
de Seta, Ilaria ULg

in Oblio – Osservatorio Bibliografico della Letteratura Italiana Otto-novecentesca (2011), I(2-3),

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See detailTranssinusoidal portal vein embolization with ethylene vinyl alcool polymer ( onyx): a feasibility study in pigs
Smits Maarten; Vanlangenhove Peter; Sturm Emiel et al

in Cardiovascular & Interventional Radiology (2011)

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See detailBelgian Report
Kohl, Benoît ULg; Imbrechts, L.; Mattei, P. et al

in Dutch Construction contracts: views from abroad (2011)

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See detailLong-lasting effect of subliminal processes on cardiovascular responses and performance.
Capa, Rémi ULg; Cleeremans, Axel; Bustin, Gaëlle ULg et al

in International journal of psychophysiology : official journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology (2011), 81(1), 22-30

Students were exposed to a priming task in which subliminal representations of the goal of studying were directly paired (priming-positive group) or not (priming group) to positive words. A control group ... [more ▼]

Students were exposed to a priming task in which subliminal representations of the goal of studying were directly paired (priming-positive group) or not (priming group) to positive words. A control group without subliminal prime of the goal was added. Just after the priming task, students performed an easy or a difficult learning task based on their coursework. Participants in the priming-positive group performed better and had a stronger decrease of pulse transit time and pulse wave amplitude reactivity than participants of the two other groups, but only during the difficult condition. Results suggested that subliminal priming induces effortful behavior extending over twenty five minutes but only when the primes had been associated with visible positive words acting as a reward. These findings provide evidence that subliminal priming can have long-lasting effects on behaviors typical of daily life. [less ▲]

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See detailfMRI Artefact Rejection and Sleep Scoring Toolbox
Leclercq, Yves ULg; Schrouff, Jessica ULg; Noirhomme, Quentin ULg et al

in Computational Intelligence & Neuroscience (2011)

This paper proposes a toolbox for handling large EEG/ MEG data sets, rejecting the artefact linked to joint fMRI-EEG acquisitions and scoring data sets.

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See detailRetrieving semantic information from persons’ names.
Barsics, Catherine ULg

Poster (2011)

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See detailKarsts in silicated and non carbonated rocks
Willems, Luc ULg

Conference (2011)

Karsts in silicated and non carbonated rocks refer to morphologies similar to those found in limestones (caves, lapies, polje…) as being equally generated by predominantly dissolution processes. Their ... [more ▼]

Karsts in silicated and non carbonated rocks refer to morphologies similar to those found in limestones (caves, lapies, polje…) as being equally generated by predominantly dissolution processes. Their discovery in allegedly not very soluble rocks raises the question of existing water resources in lithologies which are rarely considered from this point of view. A rough inventory of this kind of karsts shows that they essentially develop in sandstones and quartzites. Other silicated lithologies such as granites or gneisses seem to contain only a few examples. Karsts in silicated and non carbonated rocks are found at all latitudes, though mainly in the warm and temperate climate zones of the world. Nevertheless, these conclusions may result from the lack of systematic prospecting in numerous regions of the world. Typically, most studied cavities are located in Paleozoic to Proterozoic rocks. Underground networks can stretch for several kilometers. Two types of cavities can be identified. The first one is characterized by cave entrances located in a cliff or in a raised hillside. These subhorizontal cavities end blind within the rock massif. No trace of fracturing authorizing mechanical erosion by flows, which would explain their genesis, was ever recorded. The second type of cavities is characterized by the presence of an underground stream which disappears in a siphon or in some impenetrable passages. In some cases, an important granular disintegration of the surrounding rock produces quantities of sand which seal large pre-existent voids. The latter were formed in different physico-chemical conditions than those present in the open air environment. An initial deep karstification is possible despite the surface environment. Secondary morphologies on the cave walls (alveoli, pillars of dissolution, passages with “key hole” section, ceiling bells …) enable us to partially reconstitute the genesis of these caves. It would start in a phreatic environment with the development of spots of dissolution along deep water circulations. Initially, independent cavities grow and interconnect to form embryonal karst networks. The incision of valleys and the weathering processes progressing from the surface can intersect these. Physical erosion then becomes more prominent than chemical erosion. The pre-existent forms, depending on their organization, can either be dismantled or contribute to the evolution of a complex karst network. A comprehensive study of karsts in silicated and non carbonated rocks is an opportunity to a better understanding of generally inaccessible deep karstification, including in the carbonated rocks. Moreover, the presence of these karsts and sometimes of underground rivers in regions hit by chronic droughts represents a potential of water resources disregarded today. [less ▲]

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See detailTrou du Renard and ongoing work on the Aurignacian of the far North
Dinnis, Rob; Flas, Damien ULg

Conference (2011)

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See detailNuclear delivery of a therapeutic peptide by long circulating pH-sensitive liposomes: Benefits over classical vesicles.
Ducat, Emilie ULg; Deprez, Julie ULg; Gillet, Aline ULg et al

in International Journal of Pharmaceutics (2011)

The purpose of this study is to propose a suitable vector combining increased circulation lifetime and intracellular delivery capacities for a therapeutic peptide. Long circulating classical liposomes ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this study is to propose a suitable vector combining increased circulation lifetime and intracellular delivery capacities for a therapeutic peptide. Long circulating classical liposomes [SPC:CHOL:PEG-750-DSPE (47:47:6 molar% ratio)] or pH-sensitive stealth liposomes [DOPE:CHEMS:CHOL:PEG(750)-DSPE (43:21:30:6 molar% ratio)] were used to deliver a therapeutic peptide to its nuclear site of action. The benefit of using stealth pH-sensitive liposomes was investigated and formulations were compared to classical liposomes in terms of size, shape, charge, encapsulation efficiency, stability and, most importantly, in terms of cellular uptake. Confocal microscopy and flow cytometry were used to evaluate the intracellular fate of liposomes themselves and of their hydrophilic encapsulated material. Cellular uptake of peptide-loaded liposomes was also investigated in three cell lines: Hs578t human epithelial cells from breast carcinoma, MDA-MB-231 human breast carcinoma cells and WI-26 human diploid lung fibroblast cells. The difference between formulations in terms of peptide delivery from the endosome to the cytoplasm and even to the nucleus was investigated as a function of time. Characterization studies showed that both formulations possess acceptable size, shape and encapsulation efficiency but cellular uptake studies showed the important benefit of the pH-sensitive formulation over the classical one, in spite of liposome PEGylation. Indeed, stealth pH-sensitive liposomes were able to deliver hydrophilic materials strongly to the cytoplasm. Most importantly, when encapsulated in pH-sensitive stealth liposomes, the peptide was able to reach the nucleus of tumorigenic and non tumorigenic breast cancer cells. [less ▲]

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See detailTrend evolution and seasonal variation of tropospheric and stratospheric carbonyl sulfide (OCS) above Jungfraujoch
Lejeune, Bernard ULg; Mahieu, Emmanuel ULg; Duchatelet, Pierre ULg et al

in Geophysical Research Abstracts (2011), 13

Carbonyl sulfide (OCS) is the most abundant sulfur-containing trace gas in the atmosphere and accounts for a substantial portion of the sulfur in the stratospheric aerosol layer which influences the ... [more ▼]

Carbonyl sulfide (OCS) is the most abundant sulfur-containing trace gas in the atmosphere and accounts for a substantial portion of the sulfur in the stratospheric aerosol layer which influences the Earth’s radiation budget and stratospheric ozone chemistry. The major identified OCS sources are oceans and anthropogenic emissions, while atmospheric loss and uptake by vegetation and soils constitute the main OCS sinks. The uptake by vegetation strongly influences the distribution and seasonality of OCS throughout most of the Northern Hemisphere, just like for CO2. Montzka et al. (2007) pointed that atmospheric OCS measurements have the potential to constrain the biomass Gross Primary Production (GPP). Unfortunately, there remain large uncertainties on some components strengths of the atmospheric OCS budget. A recent work by Suntharalingam et al. (2008) showed that uptake by plants has been strongly underestimated in actual balanced budgets, suggesting that additional significant OCS sources have still to be identified. In order to improve our understanding of the different processes governing seasonal and inter-annual OCS variability, a new approach has been developed and optimized, using the SFIT-2 algorithm, to retrieve atmospheric abundance of OCS from high-resolution ground-based infrared solar spectra. Our observations are recorded on a regular basis with Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometers (FTIRs), under clear-sky conditions, at the NDACC site (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change, http://www.ndacc.org) of the International Scientific Station of the Jungfraujoch (Swiss Alps, 46.5°N, 8.0°E, 3580m asl). Information content analysis of the retrieved OCS products shows us that we are able to distinguish between tropospheric and stratospheric partial column contributions for this species. Thanks to our unique observational database, we have produced an updated OCS long-term trend from 1995 to 2010, representative for both the troposphere and stratosphere at northern mid-latitudes. In this contribution, we will present and critically discuss the recent OCS trend evolution, in particular the end of the slow decline of its abundance observed in 2002 and the maximum reached in 2008. In addition to the OCS inter-annual variations, we will analyze the OCS seasonal cycle during the 15 last years. We will also compare our results with simulations of seasonal OCS variations issued from a 3D global atmospheric chemical transport model (CTM), in order to try to quantify the individual contribution of the various processes playing a role in the Jungfraujoch OCS variability and influencing its atmospheric abundance. [less ▲]

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See detailModeling the mass and surface heat budgets in a coastal blue ice area of Adelie Land, Antarctica
Favier, Vincent; Agosta, Cécile ULg; Genthon, Christophe et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Earth Surface (2011), 116

Meteorological data recorded from 12 December 2008 to 30 June 2010 were analyzed to assess the surface energy balance (SEB) in a blue ice area of Cap Prudhomme, Adelie Land (66 degrees 41'S, 139 degrees ... [more ▼]

Meteorological data recorded from 12 December 2008 to 30 June 2010 were analyzed to assess the surface energy balance (SEB) in a blue ice area of Cap Prudhomme, Adelie Land (66 degrees 41'S, 139 degrees 55'E). The SEB was computed with a newly developed model forced by direct measurements and with a voluntarily limited number of parameters to better assess model sensitivity. Incoming short-wave radiation was corrected for the slope and orientation of the local terrain assuming direct and diffuse radiation components. Turbulent heat fluxes were assessed using the bulk aerodynamic approach. Heat conduction in the ice was computed by solving the thermal diffusion equation. Snow accumulation was modeled using ERA interim total precipitation and a one-dimensional erosion model. The surface heat budget and accumulation/erosion model accurately reproduced field observations. The occurrence of blue ice is linked with higher rates of erosion than in the surrounding snow covered areas, which may be caused by local flow divergence or snow not being redistributed from higher elevations. Melting occurs between December and February when incoming short-wave radiation is high. However, the SEB was closely linked to air temperature through the incoming long-wave radiation and the turbulent sensible heat flux. Several warm events caused by cyclones intruding into the continent led to significant warming of the ice and high melting rates. Intruding cyclones were also associated with high precipitation that led to significant accumulation. Except in blue ice areas, modeling suggests that expected higher precipitation in a warmer climate will result in more accumulation. [less ▲]

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See detailLearning a motor skill: Effects of blocked versus random practice. A review
Merbah, Sarah ULg; Meulemans, Thierry ULg

in Psychologica Belgica (2011), 51

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See detailDefining multiplication for polynomials over a finite field.
Rigo, Michel ULg; Waxweiler, Laurent

E-print/Working paper (2011)

Let $P$ and $Q$ be two non-zero multiplicatively independent polynomials with coefficients in a finite field $\mathbb{F}$. Adapting a result of R.~Villemaire, we show that multiplication of polynomials is ... [more ▼]

Let $P$ and $Q$ be two non-zero multiplicatively independent polynomials with coefficients in a finite field $\mathbb{F}$. Adapting a result of R.~Villemaire, we show that multiplication of polynomials is a ternary relation $\{(A,B,C)\in\mathbb{F}[X]\mid A.B=C\}$ definable by a first-order formula in a suitable structure containing both functions $V_P$ and $V_Q$ where $V_A(B)$ is defined as the greatest power of $A$ dividing $B$. Such a result has to be considered in the context of a possible analogue of Cobham's theorem for sets of polynomials whose $P$-expansions are recognized by some finite automaton. [less ▲]

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See detailSensitivity of Structural Response to Wind Turbulence Characteristics
Denoël, Vincent ULg

in Marcuso, Russell J. (Ed.) Turbulence: Theory, Types and Simulation - Series: Physics Research and Technology (2011)

Civil engineering structures that are built in the atmospheric boundary layer have to be designed according to the gusty winds they are likely to withstand during their lifetime. Traditionally statistical ... [more ▼]

Civil engineering structures that are built in the atmospheric boundary layer have to be designed according to the gusty winds they are likely to withstand during their lifetime. Traditionally statistical characteristics of the wind turbulence -as standard deviation of and correlation between turbulence components, frequency content, etc. - are provided to structural engineers by meteorologists. The first dialogue between these two communities dates back to 1960's when they agreed on a list of necessary statistical characteristics of turbulence that need to be observed and measured to feed the structural models available at that time. In the framework of advanced wind loading models developed recently, it turns out that this basic list of statistical characteristics of turbulence is no longer sufficient. In this chapter, we point out some quantities that would need to be measured and others that are already measured but require a more precise estimation. This need is justified by analyzing the sensitivity, to these quantities, of the structural response to an advanced Wind loading model. After having introduced the need for advanced modeling of the wind loading, and eventually thus of the wind turbulence, a nonlinear non-Gaussian quasi-steady loading model is presented. Then the model is rigorously analyzed with cumbersome mathematics and statistics, with the permanent background aim at estimation of the influence of the turbulence properties. Final results are however presented in a concise way in order to pave the way for the future dialogue between engineers and meteorologists, and so build up the advanced design procedures that will presumably be used during the coming decades. [less ▲]

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See detailQuantification of Equid herpesvirus 5 DNA in clinical and necropsy specimens collected from a horse with equine multinodular pulmonary fibrosis
Marenzoni, M. L.; Passamonti, F.; Lepri, E. et al

in Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation (2011), 23

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See detailEntre ressentiment et ré-éducation. L'Armée belge d'Occupation et les Allemands, 1945-1952
Brüll, Christoph ULg

in Cahiers d'Histoire du Temps Présent = Bijdragen tot de Eigentijdse Geschiedenis (2011), 23

For six decades, between 1945 and 2005, Belgian officers and soldiers carried out part of their career or of their military service in Germany. Created as the Belgian Occupation Army, the name changed in ... [more ▼]

For six decades, between 1945 and 2005, Belgian officers and soldiers carried out part of their career or of their military service in Germany. Created as the Belgian Occupation Army, the name changed in the early 1950s to Belgian Forces in Germany, a symbolic name change that marked the beginning of an evolution during which the former enemy became a partner in the framework of NATO in 1955. The article focuses on the first years of this presence in Germany, when the memory of the Second World War and of the second occupation of Belgium by Germany was still fresh. It questions the representation of Germany and the Germans among the soldiers and the officers, but also among those who outlined Belgian military policies in Germany. It shows the “moral superiority complex” of many Belgians towards the defeated, but also towards the British ally who was suspected of being lenient towards the Germans and failed to understand their mentality. Furthermore, the relations between Belgians, British and Germans were conditioned by the Allied refusal to confer the political competences of the military government to the Belgians and by a unilateral British decision to extend the Belgian divisional area to Westphalia, two hundred kilometres east of the Rhine. The principal objective of the Belgian participation in the occupation, the guarantee of the Belgian interests with respect to the defeated Germany, then seemed impossible to reach. Two geographical areas are at the centre of the analysis : the border region, subject to claims of Belgian reparations, and the city of Cologne which the Belgian troops occupied at the expense of French aspirations on the Rhineland. The article also seeks to understand the very difficult introduction of a Belgian cultural propaganda, which illustrates the tense terrain of Belgian politicy towards Germany. If the government adopted a moderate position with regard to the reparations relatively early on, it maintained a hard line where the relations between Belgians and Germans were concerned, fearing a public opinion little disposed to accept a rapprochement. However, the reality on the ground often defied this attitude. [less ▲]

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See detailTool use and Hafting in the Western European Middle Palaeolithic
Rots, Veerle ULg

in Toussaint, Michel; Di Modica, Kévin; Pirson, Stéphane (Eds.) Le Paléolithique Moyen en Belgique. Mélanges Marguerite Ulrix-Closset, Bulletin de la Société Royale Belge d’Etudes Géologiques et Archéologiques. Les Chercheurs de la Wallonie (2011)

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See detailNovel HDAC/DNMT Twin Inhibitors Interfere with Angiogenesis
Shiva Shankar, Thammadihalli Veerasangaiah ULg; Sulka, Béatrice ULg; Blacher, Silvia ULg et al

Poster (2011)

DNA methylation and histone deacetylation are two key epigenetic modifications that play central role in regulation of gene expression. Several studies have shown that histone deacetylases (HDAC) and DNA ... [more ▼]

DNA methylation and histone deacetylation are two key epigenetic modifications that play central role in regulation of gene expression. Several studies have shown that histone deacetylases (HDAC) and DNA methyltransferases (DNMT) inhibitors are potent anti-angiogenic compounds. Though combination of HDAC and DNMT inhibitors are now being examined in clinical trials of hematological malignancies, little work has been done to understand the effect of this combination on physiological and tumoral angiogenesis. We have designed and tested a family of twin drugs with intrinsic HDAC and DNMT inhibitory activities in relevant models of angiogenesis in vitro (Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells – HUVEC and aortic ring) and in vivo (chick chorioallantoic membrane and Zebrafish). We have identified a lead compound having quantifiable anti-angiogenic effect without cytotoxicity affecting global histone acetylation and DNA methylation levels. In order to elucidate its anti-angiogenic mechanism, we characterized gene expression pattern simultaneously with the methylation profile of HUVEC cells treated with the lead compound and reference epigenetic modulators. This approach based on parallel microarray analyses permitted us to underscore a list of genes exclusively affected by the lead compound but not by other HDAC or DNMT inhibitors. These genes were then analyzed using the Ingenuity Pathway software revealing potential involvement of a subset of genes in angiogenesis. Our present aim is to validate the expression levels of a series of genes with respect to epigenetic mechanisms (histone modifications and DNA methylation). Finally, the biological relevance of the target genes will be explored by RNA silencing. Hence, we are using these novel epigenetic modulators as a tool to understand the regulatory mechanism of angiogenesis and to develop effective approaches to treat cancer. [less ▲]

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See detailQ fever IN JApaN: an update REVIEW
Porter, Sarah ULg; Czaplicki, G.; Mainil, Jacques ULg et al

in Veterinary Microbiology (2011), 149

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